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Full text of "Niger flora; or, An enumeration of the plants of western tropical Africa, collected by the late Dr. Theodore Vogel, botanist to the voyage of the expedition sent by Her Britannic Majesty to the river Niger in 1841, under the command of Capt. H. D. Trotter, R.N., &c.; including Spicilegia gorgonea, by P. B. Webb, esq., and Flora nigritiana, by Dr. J. D. Hooker ... and George Bentham, esq. with a sketch of the life of Dr. Vogel. Ed. by Sir W. J. Hooker ... With two views, a map, and fifty plates."

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NIGER FLORA. 



Sit WL. 3. looker. 

ICONES PLANTARUM. 

Xcfo Scries. 

Vols. I— IV. Containing each lOO Plates, with Kx|>launtlous 

Svo. Cloth. London. 1842—47. Each £1 8*. 



THE LONDON JOURNAL OP BOTANY 

Vols. I --VI. With 21 Plates each. 

8t?o. Boards. London, 1842 — 47. 

Reduced to JCI. per Vol. 



Pt0t£S00t Scfjleitun. 

THE PLANT; 

A BIOGRAPHY. 

IN A SERIES OT POPULAR LECTURES ON BOTANY. 

EDITED AND TRANSLATED 

BY A. HENFREY, F.L.S. 

Wait!) JFifce Colours plates, anU Efjfrtcen S&ooluutg. 

Svo. London, 1848. 15*. 












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' 






NIGER FLORA; 



/- 



OR, 



AN ENUMERATION OF THE PLANTS 



OF WESTERN TROPICAL AFRICA, 



COLLECTED BY THE LATE 

DR. THEODORE VOGEL, 

BOTANIST TO THE VOYAGE OF THE EXPEDITION SENT BY HER BRITANNIC MAJESTY TO THE 

RIVER NIGER IN 1841, 

UNDER THE COMMAND OF 

CAPT. H. D. TROTTER, R.N., &c. 



INCLUDING 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA, 

By P. B. WEBB, ESQ., 

AND 

FLORA NIGRITIANA, 

By DR. J. D. HOOKER, R.N., F.R.S., and GEORGE BENTHAM, ESQ 



WITH 



A SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF DR. VOGEL 



EDITED BY 



SIR W. J. HOOKER, K.H., D.C.L., F.RA. & L.S 

VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE EJNNJtAH SOCIETY, AND DIRECTOR OF THE ROYAL GARDENS OF KEW. 



mify Ztoo Uufos, a fiffep, an* jRftg plates. 



LONDON: 
HIPPOLYTE BAILLIERE, PUBLISHER, 

219, REGENT STREET, 

PARIS: J. B. BAILLIERE, 13, RUE DE l'eCOLE DE MEDECINE 



MADRID : BAILLY BAILLIERE, CALLE DEL PRINCIPE. 

1849. 



LONDON: 

Printed by Schulze and Co.. 13, Poland St., 






TO 



CAPTAIN HENRY DUNDAS TROTTER, R.N. 



&c, &c, &c. 



Commander of the Expedition sent by Her Britannic 
Majesty, Queen Victoria, to the River Niger, with the view 
of obtaining information respecting the adjacent countries, and 
of forming treaties with the native Chiefs against the Slave 
Trade, as well as of promoting Agriculture and Commerce ; 
under whose auspices most of the Collections described in the 
following pages were formed ; — this work is dedicated, 



With sentiments of the highest regard and respect, 



By his faithful friend and servant, 



The Editor 



Royal Gardens, Kew, 
Nov. 1, 1849. 



PREFACE. 



The majority of the Plants described in the following pages 
were entrusted to the Editor, for the purpose of publication, 
by the African Civilization Society, which, as is well known, 
was formed in London in 1839, through the instrumentality 
of the late Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton. That enlightened and 
philanthropic statesman, deeply impressed by the aggravated 
horrors of the Slave Trade, was extremely anxious to try, what 



own 



iniquitous traffic by the encouragement of lawful trade and the 
advancement of Africa itself to a condition in which she would 
no longer find it her interest to furnish the slavers with supplies 
for their market. 

Many persons of influence and sound judgment, uniting 
with Sir Fowell in his views, and Government having taken 
up the subject cordially, the " Niger Expedition" was dis- 
patched, under the command of Capt. H. D. Trotter, in 1841. 

Dr. Theodore Vogel, a German gentleman of high scientific 
attainments, was selected as chief Botanist to the Expedition, 
and with him was associated Mr. An sell, strongly recommended 
by the Horticultural Society of London. 

Very great and unusual pains were taken to render the 
service less dangerous to the health of those engaged in it, 
than had been the case with former attempts to explore intra- 
tropical Africa. Indeed, every precaution that could be thought 
of — every guard against the climate — were, as was believed, 
employed ; — yet, it cannot be denied, there was a failure, and 



Vlll PREFACE. 

it would truly appear from this, and from former voyages of a 
similar character, that the European constitution is incapable 
of withstanding the effect of that deadly atmosphere. 

But while we deplore the loss of so many brave officers and 
men, engaged, voluntarily, in this most sacred cause, it would 
be unjust to shut our eyes to much good that has hereby been 
accomplished. It has proved to the natives the real intentions 
of the English, and convinced them of our sincerity in esta- 
blishing mutual, and beneficial, and a wholesome commerce, 
and that we have no sinister ends of our own to answer. Of 
this, too, they were the more convinced, when they saw their 
friends, who had been rescued from captivity, returning with 
the Expedition. It further showed, that the only hope of 
enlightening the sons of Africa is by native agency : and it is 
with no - small pride that the Editor of this Work, in the 
capacity of Director of the Royal Gardens of Kew, is at this 
moment giving in charge a considerable collection of useful 
Tropical plants for introduction into Africa, to two native 
Missionaries (recently ordained by the Bishop of London), 
than whom he knows not any well educated Europeans more 
competent to estimate the value of such importations, or likely 
to feel more interest in their successful cultivation and use. 

Among those who fell victims to the climate of Niger, was 
Dr. Vogel. Happily for science, he was not among the most 
early to be attacked by fever. He formed his collections with 
uncommon energy, while even a slight portion of health and 
strength remained to him ; and the number of species amassed 
by him, in a short space of time, and under the most disad- 
vantageous circumstances, reflects great credit upon his memory; 
but the condition of the specimens shows, that the climate is as 
unsuited to the preservation of plants, without greater advan- 
tages than a small and crowded steamer can afford, as it is to 
the human constitution.— Mr. Ansell, though he fortunately 
survived the effects of the climate, was yet too ill, from a very 
early period of the voyage, to make any extensive or well- 
preserved collections. These facts must plead the apology for 
the imperfect nature of many of the descriptions. The work, 



PREFACE. i x 

however, the Editor is sure, will be hailed by every friend of 
Botany, and by every one interested in the vegetable produc- 
tions of Western Tropical Africa, as a Prodromus of a Flora of 
that region; — something upon which a more perfect super- 
structure will be hereafter built : and he begs the particular 
attention of Travellers in the Niger territories, and coasts 
adjacent, to the subjoined "Desiderata" in the principal branches 
of botanical science. 

In the present brief, general preface it only remains for the 
Editor to express his grateful acknowledgements to the dis- 
tinguished Botanists who have aided in bringing out this 
volume. Dr. J, D. Hooker had volunteered to describe the 
whole of the plants, but unexpectedly, when considerably 
advanced in the work, an opportunity offering of exploring 
regions of a widely different character from those of the present 
Flora, and which was embraced by him, the assistance of others 
was rendered essentially necessary. Mr. P. B. Webb, already 
so familiar with the vegetation of the Canary Isles, and the 
opposite coasts of Africa, generously undertook to describe 
all the Cape de Verd Islands Plants, Dr. Miquel the Fid, 
Mr. Miers the Menispermete, and last, but not least in point 
of extent of service, it devolved upon our inestimable friend, 
Mr. Bentham, to publish the majority of the plants of the 
continent of Tropical Western Africa. 



Editor. 



Royal Gardens, Kew, 
Nov. 1, 1849. 



DESIDERATA 



FROM 



BOTANICAL COLLECTORS IN WESTERN TROPICAL AFRICA 



A first glance at the Flora Nigritiana will show how very 
imperfect our acquaintance yet remains, not only with the luxu- 
riant wild vegetation of West Tropical Africa, including the 
herbs or trees which furnish many of its most valuable pro- 
ducts, but even with many of the plants in general cultivation 
there. This circumstance may in a great measure be ascribed 
to the want of any of those permanent botanical establishments 
which have afforded us so much useful information on the 
vegetation of the East and West Indies, and have been the 
means of effecting so many valuable exchanges of plants res- 
pectively cultivated in the two hemispheres. Tropical Africa 
has never even had a resident botanist, and all our knowledge 
on the subject has been derived from travellers who have either 
perished there before their mission has been completed, or 
have hastened home to avoid the effects of the deadly climate. 
Much is therefore now to be done by a collector who will 
carefully note down any authentic particulars he can learn, 
and any observations that occur to him, relating to the plants 
of which he preserves specimens. 

Such information will always be the more valuable the 
more cautiously it is collected, avoiding as much as possible 
mere hearsay information, and noting down in all cases the 
sources whence it is derived. It is also important that the 
memoranda should be on labels attached to the dried specimens, 
to avoid the numerous mistakes arising from the mismatching 
memoranda and their specimens by the time they reach the hands 



XU DESIDERATA. 

of the working botanist at home. So in regard to the specimens 
themselves, an isolated leaf, a separate flower, or even a fruit 
are insufficient alone to determine the species. A perfect dried 
specimen includes foliage, flower, and fruit, with notes on size, 
colour, and other points which it cannot indicate ; a flowering 
branch with foliage is generally sufficient to identify a well 
known species, but the description of a new one is always 
imperfect, and often wholly inefficient without the fruit. Where 
that is too bulky or too succulent to be laid in with the flower- 
ing and leaf specimens dried flat, and if preserved in spirits, or 
dried without pressure, portions of the foliage should be inva- 
riably attached to it as the sole means of future identification 
with the corresponding flowering specimen. 

In a purely botanical and systematic point of view, any 
plants not enumerated in the following Flora, and more espe- 
cially those mentioned as imperfectly known would be the most 
valuable. Palms, and other large Monocotyledons, bulbous-rooted 
and smooth thick-leaved plants of the same class, aquatic plants 
in general, whether floating or immersed, and cryptogamic 
productions have hitherto been but seldom collected. So it is 
also with Artocarpeae and other large-fruited trees, Cucurbitaceae, 
and all plants which require a little extra care in drying, and a 
little extra ingenuity in gathering, such specimens as may supply 
the requisite information. 

To the geographical Botanist, Western Tropical Africa is of 
peculiar interest, as being (next to the Arctic Regions), the 
point where the greatest number of species or forms belonging 
to the Eastern and Western hemispheres are found to meet. 
It may be consequently expected to furnish many valuable data 
respecting the migration of species, either naturally or by 
human aid, and the circumstances which determine the regions 
of analogous forms among endemic species. 

The most important information we have on this subject is 
summed up in Brown's justly celebrated Appendix to Tuckey's 
Congo. The facts since collected tend still farther to confirm 
the supposition that the greater number of cultivated plants 
have come to the Negroes of Western xVfrica from the East, 



D 



• • » 



DESIDERATA. Xlll 



including even some of American origin, which like the Maize 
and the Arachis, were so early cultivated in Asia as to give rise 
to doubts whether they were not known there before the dis- 
covery of the New Continent. Among those now cultivated in 
America as well as Africa, and not known, or of recent intro- 
duction into Asia, the majority (as for example, some species 
of Panicum, Amomitm, &c.) have been carried over to America 
from Africa; and few only {Manihot?, Indigofera Anil, some 
species of Dioscorea, &c.) appear to have been introduced from 
America into Africa, or are among the naturally indigenous 
species to both countries. Additional facts tending to elucidate 
these points are much wanted. 

The weeds of cultivation, and other plants which accompany 
man in his migrations, are mostly, like the cultivated plants, of 
Eastern origin, although many are likewise now common in 
cultivated parts of Tropical America. The principal points to 
be attended to in respect to this class, are, how far they become 
really naturalized by maintaining themselves and spreading 
beyond the crops with which they were originally introduced. 

The cosmopolite indigenous species are, within the tropics, 
chiefly aquatic or marshy, or belonging to the glumaceous or 
cryptogamic orders. The laws which are supposed to regulate 
their diffusion, being deduced from the number of recorded 
stations, the collector should never neglect them on the ground 
of their being common elsewhere. The preserving specimens 
of widely spread species is the more important, as it is often 
difficult for the most experienced botanist to be certain of the 
identity of plants observed at different periods, without an actual 
comparison of specimens, and it is only by a careful observation 
of variations of form occasioned by diversity of soil and climate 
that any satisfactory judgment can be formed of the systematic 
limits of species and races. 

The indigenous species common to West Tropical Africa and 
Tropical America, appear to be chiefly found near the sea, or at 
any rate do not penetrate beyond the first hills ; few, indeed, of 
t lie really maritime species arc Asiatic or East African, with the 
exception of such as are diffused over all Tropical sea coasts. 



XIV DESIDERATA. 

in the nterior of the country, Eastern and Asiatic species 
become much more numerous as the American ones disappear. 
In regard to all these travelled species, we are in want of trust- 
worthy data as to the stations they occupy, how far from the 
sea, from the habitations of man, or from the regions of cultiva- 
tion, their scarcity or abundance, the limits of the tracts they 
occupy, and other circumstances tending to elucidate their mode 
of transmission. 

The endemic plants of West Tropical Africa are of the 
greatest interest, as supplying data for speculations on the laws 
regulating the geographical dissemination of analogous forms. 
Senegal and other drier northern parts of our region, not only 
have many identical species, but still more of analogous ones to 
those which prevail through Nubia and Arabia, eastward to 
the hot, dry plains and table-lands of India. In the moist, 
close regions about the mouths and branches of the Niger and 
the island of Fernando Po, some curious analogies may be 
observed with corresponding forms in Madagascar, Ceylon, 
and the Malayan Archipelago. With these Asiatic forms are 
mixed, in various parts of the region, African representatives of 
American genera, which appear to find here their extreme 
Eastern limits. European and S™*!, 



African 



well as spec.es, are more completely excluded from this than 
from any other Tropical region. For all data from which any 
general conclusions nndcr th ls head can be formed, we must 

colLtors UP ° D thC ge0gra P hical notes su PPlied by local 

The practical, economical and commercial botany of West 

Sul ofT " ? kn0WD ' Perha P S ' than "V °*« b-nch. 
Products of the greatest value have been exported durin- a long 

rt « - £tfl i-MS? o^ S"° m The 
learned researches of D, Pereira have not yet for want of the 
requisite data, solved the doubts as to wW „ 
of Amomum furnish the W -a I ° T ^ SpeCieS 

Guinea Grains SiJil a' u , *** D ° W im P 0rted aS 

trains. Similar doubts hang over the species or 



DESIDERATA. XV 

varieties of Habzelia, whose seeds were also known as Guinea 
Grains or Ethiopian Pepper, and of Cubeba, supplying, accord- 
ing to Thonning, the Ashantee Pepper. To such points we 
would particularly direct the attention of the resident Natu- 
ralist, and in their case more than in any other, we look for 
personal information. The reports of the natives, as received 
through Europeans, are scarcely ever to be trusted, and it 
happens but too frequently that even the local commercial 
men who deal in them, either through ignorance or from 
mistaken views of interest, mislead scientific men in their 
replies to such inquiries. 

Our best general information on this as on all other import- 
ant points of the Botany of West Tropical Africa, is contained 
in Brown's already quoted "Appendix/' A few additional 
notes on edible fruits of Sierra Leone are contained in a paper 
by Afzelius, in " Sierra Leone Report, 1794," and another of 
the late Mr. Sabine, in the fifth volume of the " Transactions 
of the Horticultural Society of London ;" and many valuable 
memoranda are dispersed through Schumacher and Thonning's 
description of Isert and Thonning' s Guinea plants, in the fourth 
volume of the u Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences 
of Copenhagen." This account, divided between two parts of 
those Transactions, has also been separately published under the 
title of " Beskrivelse af Guineiske Planter" and has been 
always quoted in the following Flora, with the paging of this 
separate edition, the only one that we are in possession of. 
Dr. Vogel's collection, though full of memoranda on botanical 
points, which have materially assisted in the determination and 
description of the specimens, contains but little information on 
points of economical and practical botany. He was, indeed, for 
too short a time in the country to enable him to collect authentic 
data, and he well knew that mere hearsay reports from ignorant 
natives were of little or no value. The extent and comparative 
excellence of his collection show that neither zeal nor ability 
were wanting, so long as his health was spared, in rendering it 
as botanically serviceable as possible. 

G. B. 



SHrectiotus fat placing tfjc plates. 



The View of Clarence Harbour, Fernando Po. — To Face the 

Title Page. 
The Plate (Tab. I.) Representing Two Views upon the Niger. — 

To Face Page 54 of the " Journal of the Voyage." 
The Map. — To be placed at the End of the " Journal of the 

Voyage." Page 72. 

The Botanical Plates I — L, to be annexed at the end of thf. 

Volume. 



MEMOIR OF THE LIFE 



OF 



DR. J. R. T. V G E L.* 



Amongst the numerous sacrifices consequent on the 
unfortunate expedition to the Niger, science is not without her 
peculiar loss. Whatever reliance may be placed on wealth 
and a careful choice of means, it must be admitted that little 
has been accomplished by the numerous and deeply calculated 
plans for obtaining a more perfect knowledge of the interior 
of Africa. Amongst many other individuals, one of the 
naturalists of the expedition, to whose memory the following 
pages are dedicated, has succumbed to the destructive 
influence of the climate. If, however, according to the 
expression of a philosopher, it be the province of eloquence 
to commemorate illustrious minds, whose labours, owing 
to an unfortunate concurrence of circumstances, have not 
been productive of commensurate effects, and so, to com- 
pensatef for the want of incident, a more skilful pen than 
mine is requisite. I must be contented to show what the 
world and what science have lost, by the simple relation 
of a few circumstances, and by extracts from the last official 
records of the deceased. 

Julius Rudolph Theodor Vogel, or as he frequently called 
himself by an abridgement of his baptismal name, Theodor 
Vogel, was born at Berlin, on the 30th of July, 1812. 
While yet a boy, he showed a decided inclination for the 

* Translated from the German of Dr. L. C. Treviranus, in the Linnaa, 
vol. x, by the Rev. M. J. Berkeley. — Ed. 
j. y f F. Hemsterhuis, CEuvres philosophiques, I. 268. 



2 MEMOIR OF THE LIFE 

study of history, geography, and the productions of nature. 
No book was read by him with greater delight than Robinson 
Crusoe. He knew it almost by heart ; and in all probability its 
perusal awakened in him that eagerness to visit countries yet 
unexplored by science, which was hereafter destined never to 
leave him. He received his first scientific education at the 
Friedrich-Wilhelms-Gymnasium at Berlin, of which Spilleke 
was then the director, from which establishment he was 
dismissed with the testimonial No. I. The Gymnasium, 
however, afforded no opportunity of acquiring botanical 
knowledge ; but, under the guidance of Ruthe, upper master 
of the Gewerbschule, he commenced studying and collecting 
plants. With him he went as a pupil weekly to botanize 
in summer, and if he had leisure for a day or two, it was 
devoted to more distant excursions. At the beginning of 
the summer term, 1832, Vogel was a student at the Univer- 
sity of Berlin, where he attended the philosophic and 
humanity lectures, but more especially those of Natural 
History. On the 5th of August, 1837, he was made Doctor 
of Philosophy : the subject of his inaugural thesis, which has 
also been published separately, being a Synopsis of the 
genus Cassia. The year after, he qualified himself as Private 
Tutor at the Berlin University in the botanical department, 
and in the first half of 1839, exchanged his situation for 
a similar one at the University of Bonn, aided by a 
government allowance, in consequence of which he was 
obliged, at the same time, after the death of Professor F. 
Nees von Esenbeck, to perform the duties of his office. 
During the latter part of his academical course, and after 
its completion, Vogel turned his attention principally to 
descriptive botany; for which the collections at Berlin, 
especially of Brazilian plants, furnished rich materials. 

His talents were peculiarly applied to Leguminous plants. 
As early as the year 1837, four treatises by him appeared in 
the eleventh volume of the lAnnva ; « Be Swartzeis observa- 
tions, Dalbergiearum Genera Brasiliensia" « De C<esal- 
ptneis Brazil**," and « Synopsis generis Cassia pars altera." 



OF DR. J. R. T. VOGEL. 3 

In these, several new genera are proposed, numerous new 
species are briefly but characteristically described, and many 
already known have received important corrections. In the 
year 1838, in conjunction with Dr. Schleiden, he published 
some greater and lesser treatises, which, for the most part, 
have reference to the same family, in the 19th volume of 
the Acta Acad. Nat. Curiosorum, entitled " Contributions to 
the history of the development of the parts of the flower in the 
LeguminoscBi and on the Albumen, especially of Leguminosce" 
both accompanied by numerous illustrations; and in the 
46th of PoggendorPs Annalen der Chemie und Physick, on 
"Amyloid, a new vegetable substance." At the same time 
appeared, in the 12th volume of the IAnnaa, a continuation of 
his labours on the leguminous plants of South America, 
in an Essay on Brazilian Hedysarem. In the year 1839, 
also, he continued his task with his wonted perseverance, 
and in the 13th volume of Linncea, we find two treatises 
connected with it, viz. : on Brazilian Viciece, and observations 
on American Bauhinice. In 1840, he received, for investiga- 
tion, the Leguminosce collected by the late Prof. Meyen in 
his journey through Brazil, Peru and China, and the results 
of this labour appear in an Essay in the supplement to the 19th 
volume of the Acta Acad. Nat. Curios. The 15th volume of 
Linncea contains three of his treatises ; viz. Remarks on the 
existence of Amy lum in Cryptogamous plants ; Additions and 
corrections to the Synopsis of the Genus Cassia; and 
Remarks on some species of the genera Thymus and Ori- 
ganum. There is also in Buchner's " Repertorium fur die 
Pharmacie, 1840/' a Review of the species of the genus 
Origanum and a Description of Thymus coriaceus. Mr. Mar- 
quardt found this undescribed species of Thymus in many 
apothecaries' shops and collections of Materia Medica, 
amongst stores of Origanum Creticum. 

As Vogel's position in Bonn rendered a perfect know- 
ledge of the plants in its neighbourhood requisite, pre- 
parations were commenced for a Flora of Bonn ; to which lie 
devoted much time, and for which he undertook many 

B 2 



4 MEMOIR OF THE LIFE 



excursions. In August, 1830, he made acquaintance with a 
member of the African Civilization Society, which had arisen 
in London under the patronage of Prince Albert, with the 
view of extending civilization amongst the natives of Western 
Africa and putting an end to the slave trade, who chanced 
then to be at Bonn. The British Government fitted out 
three steamers,* destined to run into the Niger, or Quorra, 
at its entrance into the Bight of Benin, on the western coast 
of Central Africa, to penetrate by this vast navigable river, 
into the interior of this little-known country, to make treaties 
with the inhabitants, and to establish an emporium at some 
suitable place. A Botanist was needed, to ascertain the 
vegetable productions of the country and the capabilities of 
the soil ; and Dr. Vogel was found willing to hold this office, 
hoping by these means to satisfy his eager desire to explore 
a rich and almost unknown vegetation. He undertook, there- 
fore, in September and October of the same year, a journey 
to England, to make a personal acquaintance with the com- 
mittee of the society: returned for a few weeks to Germany, 
to arrange definitively his affairs, and finally left Bonn on the 
2nd of December, 1840, to enter upon his journey, having 
obtained from the proper authorities a two years' leave of 
absence. 

The departure of the expedition, which, according to the 
first plan, was to be in the end of January, 1841, was 
deferred from various circumstances and impediments to the 
third week in May ; when, finally, the ships left Plymouth 
harbour and Europe, Dr. Vogel embarking in the Wilber- 
force. During his four months' residence in England, Vogel 
prepared himself in every possible way for his new destina- 

tl0n Ii Tfcr£ *£* PartS f ° r March and J ^Y of a Journal 
entitled The Friend of Africa » he published an « Essay on 

the Botany of Western Central Africa;" in which the hitherto 

written treatises on the vegetable productions of this part 

of the world were reviewed. From Madeira he addressed 

• The Albert, the Wilberforce, and Soudan. 



OF DR. J. R. T. VOGEL. 5 

letters to his relations and friends in Europe ; but they never 
reached their destination. From Sierra Leone he wrote on 
the 30th of June, as follows : 

" We sailed from Madeira by Teneriffe to St. Vincent, 
one of the Cape de Verd Islands, and from thence came here. 
At Teneriffe we remained a day; but I was able to take only 
a cursory glance, since I was unwell on the passage from 
Madeira thither, and did not venture to leave the ship. We 
remained a fortnight off St. Vincent : the island is small, but 
has an excellent harbour, and was therefore the rendezvous 
of the ships belonging to the expedition. Anything more 
comfortless than the view of this island, I never beheld : 
one might believe that after the formation of the world, a 
quantity of useless surplus stones was cast into the sea; and 
that thus the Island of St. Vincent arose. There is nothing 
but hills and mountains (some of them 2500 feet high) ; with 
small valleys, which in the broader parts are very sandy, 
without a plant deserving the name of tree : while the 
vallies themselves produce scarcely a species; for in my first 
excursion, I found in four hours only two species, of which 
one, a lavander, was completely dried up. What had been 
wanting here, namely moisture, was in a few days but too 
abundant. On the part of the coast where we are at present, 
the rainy season has begun ; that is, the first portion of it, 
which announces itself by single thunder-storms with violent 
wind (tornados.) Sometimes on the passage my cabin got 
very wet, and what was worse, my plants. Since we have been 
at Sierra Leone, the weather is generally clear by day ; but 
towards evening there comes heavy rain or a thunder-storm, 
and last night we had one, such as I never witnessed before. 
"On entering the river at Free Town, the shore, on 
which the town stands, is bordered at a short distance by 
a range of hills, exhibiting a very pretty appearance with 
their gentle swelling summits and insolated lofty trees. A 
rich vegetation stretches from the shore upwards, which 
captivates the eye by its soft bright green, such as is only 
seen in the tropics, and gives the whole an incomparably 



6 MEMOIR OF THE LIFE 

charming character. I rushed eagerly into these woods ; and 
much regret that the short time of our stay did not permit 
me to do more ; for we were obliged to proceed. The object 
of the colony here is to teach the Africans active habits and 
to christianize them : there are, I think, above 40,000 in the 
colony, and many of their villages are built close to the 
town ; so that, for miles, there is no cultivation. Since we 
left St. Vincent, the temperature has been nearly the same. 
The thermometer there was generally 81° Fahr. in my cabin: 
here it is about 84°, and sometimes in the middle of the day 
reaches .86°. This heat is not greater than with us in 
summer; but the slighter refrigeration of the atmosphere 
by night, and the power of the sun, make it seem often more 
intense than it is. An awning is spread over the deck, 
under which, when there is a breeze, it is always cool. I 
am very comfortable on board, except when my collections 
are lying about. When I return laden with plants, I have 
no where to prepare them; and when they are dry, the 
damp insinuates itself to such a degree, that I am compelled 
to redry them. This is very troublesome ; and on board a 
ship, especially a man of war, there is no especial place for 
preparing or preserving plants. I am quite a nuisance to 
my messmates when I unpack; and so is the servant 
who announces breakfast, lunch, &c. ; for the table must be 
cleared and I must be off. Then I try to work on deck ; but 
there the wind and rain attack me ; so that I have to contend 
with all the elements. I am here quite amongst the negroes, 
for there are few white persons in the town; and during my 
excursions I frequently do not see one during the whole 
day. I cannot, however, say that this seems altogether 
s range o me : on our voyage outward, we had many 
black sailors ln our ship , and their number has gradually 
increased m the course of our progress * gnauauy 

to ST ^Pt 00 ^ ° aStle r ° ads > where th « ships belonging 
as fo lows «n arrfVed ° n thC 24th ° f Ju *> Vl write! 

been rati r , h ^ ^ Siwa Leone * ther has 
been rather tedums. We set out from that port with but 



OF DR. J. R. T. VOGEL. 7 

little fuel, and were therefore necessitated twice after we left 
Monrovia (Liberia), viz. at Grand Bassa and Cape Palmas, 
to cause wood to be felled, to enable us to proceed. Our 
voyage has been constantly along the coast ; so that we have 
had ample opportunity for observing the remarkable nation 
of the Kroo : a people who dwell scattered along the coast, 
and often undertake long coasting voyages in small canoes. 
These canoes are built almost exactly in the same way as 
the little skiffs which at Berlin are called Seelen-verkaufer ; 
but made of a single piece only. The natives sit in them 
generally naked : they use broad oars and a very small 
rudder ; and do not trouble themselves when the craft upsets ; 
for they have commonly nothing to lose, and if they carry 
garments with them, they are soon dried. They have mostly 
a piece of cloth, bound round the head, which, when they 
come on board, they place round the loins, and think them- 
selves full dressed with great ivory rings round the ankles, 
and belts or chains round the foot or arm. We had many 
of their young people on board, for they are tolerably docile, 
and are therefore hired by the coasters, to perform such hard 
labours as are considered prejudicial to Europeans. When 
they have earned so much money by their voyage, as will 
enable them to buy one or more wives, they return home, 
establish the women, and leave them for a new expedition, 
until they get eight or ten more wives, who must support 
them; for all field-labour, &c, is performed by females. 
Including these Kroos and other negroes, who are employed 
in various ways about the ship, we are now considerably 
more than one hundred men strong : frequently, therefore, 
when I have been for a time at that part of the vessel which 
they occupy and where alone smoking is allowed, and return 
to the quarter-deck where only the officers are, I feel quite 
relieved from the bustle. It is now the rainy season and 
we have had in Monrovia and Grand Bassa a week of 
continued rain ; during which the sky has been for many 
successive days as dark as it can be with us in autumn only. 
Besides, the African brooks, when they are swollen with 



8 MEMOIR OF THE LIFE 

rain, assume the privilege of making their way down the 
footpaths y and I was therefore obliged for hours to wade up 
to the knees in water. I was indeed, in general, whether at sea 
or on land, as wet as it was possible to be. One advantage 
accrued from the rain, it kept the decks w r ater-tight ; whereas 
before, I was regularly soaked by the water when they were 
washed at five o'clock in the morning ; and frequently part of 
my collection got damaged. At Cape Palmas we arrived at a 
spot where an intermission of the rainy season takes place, 
and from thence to this place we have enjoyed delight- 
ful weather. The passage, however, was longer than we 
expected; so that water ran very short; and one day we were 
absolutely placed on half-allowance : otherwise we should 



:arcely guess that we were in a foreign zone. As regards 
meat and drink, we have several times a week salted beef or 
pork, and in general, other kinds of meat preserved in her- 
metically sealed cases. Hares, poultry, &c, prepared in 
this way, often appear at table. These ship- stores are 
preferred to the fresh provisions which are presented to us 
on landing. My situation on board is very tolerable. The 
captain gives me all the liberty possible; and I hope, 
when we have once arrived at the proper field of action, to 
meet w r ith every encouragement from him. My health has 
been very good ; and although there cannot but be some 
irksome hours to men shut up in a ship, I have yet, on the 
whole, felt happy and contented, and only look forward 
with impatience to the time when my own peculiar service 
will begin." 

The next letter from Vogel was written from Accra, on the 
4th of August. 

? We remain here but a few days, so that I can acquire 
only a very superficial view of the vegetation of the coast. 
Real forests lie at some distance in the interior, that is, about 
thirty English miles :— too long an excursion, even were it 
not desired that nobody should sleep on shore, for fear of 
fever. Yet I have been twelve or fourteen miles into the 
interior, in the district of Aquafim, to inspect a Danish 



OF DR. J. R. T. VOGEL. 9 

settlement. There was a geologist with me, and we were 
received by the Danish Governor with the greatest civility. 
Such a journey on foot being considered too difficult for an 
European, large flat baskets, used here instead of sedan- 
chairs, were placed at our disposal, and four negroes to carry 
each basket. There were, besides, a number of negroes, to 
take charge of our luggage ; so tliat our caravan amounted 
to seventeen persons, besides ourselves. At the coffee-plan- 
tation there is a house arranged with European accom- 
modations, where we were surrounded with all the luxury of 
the civilized world, and had for dinner French asparagus. 
The spot was lovely, pleasantly varied with hill and dale, 
mostly covered with savannahs ; where the grass is taller and 
stronger than in our own meadows, and between the tufts grew 
little bushes, instead of flowers. I think that I saw Blighia 
sapida in cultivation, and remarked that Schumacher men- 
tions it under a name different from that by which it is known 
to the natives. The negroes who accompanied us on this 
excursion were slaves; for the Danes still have slaves, but 
they seem well off, and were merry and cheerful beings. 
On the whole, I found in the short period of my acquaintance 
with them, no difference in their behaviour or dealing from 
the free negroes at Cape Coast Castle; except that the 
latter are shameless in demanding money for drink. At 
Cape Coast, it is absolutely necessary to keep an immo- 
derate number of servants ; and on an excursion from thence, 
our train of attendants consisted of thirty-six persons. There 
is no difficulty in this, for the blacks go as servants merely 
for food and clothing, which in this climate costs little: 
or they are sent when boys by their fathers to an Eu- 
ropean, that they may in this way learn something. The 
houses of Europeans here are very large, roomy, and well 
built, raised high above the ground to make them airy, 
and furnished with open verandahs for the same purpose. 
Europeans, however, do not in general remain long, since 
the climate on the coast is not suitable to their constitution. 
The few who are here seem to lead a miserable life: the 



10 MEMOIR OF THE LIFE 

society is very limited and monotonous, and their wishes are 
confined principally to making money ; in which many fail. At 
Cape Coast, the small white shells which we use for orna- 
menting horses' bridles are given in exchange as coin ; they 
are called cowries : a thousand of them are worth about a 
guelder, in the interior they are worth more : we have with 
us whole sacks of them. Gold-dust also appears at first a 
very curious medium of exchange ; it is used especially in 
Cape Coast and Accra, where it is washed from the sand of 
the river banks which flows through the town. Every one of 
the market people carries a small pair of gold-scales : with 
which he weighs out for a silver-groschen, or perhaps for a 
sechser, its worth of gold-dust: they then take these very 
small grains with them, wrapped up in a piece of rag. All 
these market people are natives, and sell palm-oil, cocoa-nuts, 
different kinds of fruit, fish, home-woven cotton, &c. The 
clothing of the men consists simply of a napkin round the 
loins ; or in addition, a long piece of cloth passed under one 
arm and over the other. They remove it from the shoulder 
when they meet a white man, and lay bare the heart by way 
of salutation. The women have these garments, and others 
in addition. The cloth round their loins is larger, and furnished 
behind with a monstrous bustle : the bigger this is, the more 
respectable is the woman, and the larger her family : in many 
it projects like a saddle. Little children are perfectly naked. 
So soon, however, as a young girl assumes a piece of cloth by 
way of clothing, it is furnished with a bustle, which with time 
is made gradually larger. 

« Although I have at present had no opportunity of admir- 
ing the full splendour of tropical vegetation ; yet many objects 
have fallen in my way which induced me to examine and to 
gather them. I regret very much that I have so many diffi- 
culties to overcome, in reference to my collections, from the 
scanty room on shipboard, and the humidity of the weather. 
If not attended to daily, everything is covered with mould ; 
and even the paper in the chests becomes quite damp. Per- 
haps, after much pains, I am so fortunate as to get my 



OF DR. J. R. T. VOGEL. 11 

plants dry, with the help of the sun and steam-engine ; but I 
have still to look to them again, and often find cause enough 
for repeating the process. Notwithstanding all this trouble, 
the specimens are bad, they fall to pieces and mould con- 
tinually ; and I must sit down under the sorry consolation, 
that I have effected with all my zeal as much as circumstances 
would allow." 

On the 9th of August, the little fleet, after it had directed 
its course from Accra straight across the Bight of Benin, 
reached that mouth of the Niger which is called Nun, and 
Vogel writes from thence on the day of arrival, as follows : 

" Last night, without any remarkable wind, there was so 
strong a rocking of the ship, that I scarcely slept a wink. I 
was up late for the first time, namely, after eight o'clock, and 
was not present at the morning prayers ; which a German 
Missionary, from Sierra Leone, the Rev. Frederick Schon, 
performs from half past seven to eight. Breakfast comes 
between eight and nine : to-day we had ham and yams, and 
as usual, coffee without milk. The atmosphere was so thick 
that we could often not see half a mile, though when there 
was for a moment a clear sky, we descried the mouth of a 
river, which we took for the Nun; therefore we anchored 
about six miles from the shore. The rain came down 
in torrents, and the whole of the gun-room was flooded. 
I betook myself to my cabin, from the window of which 
I let down the shutter to enable me to see; but the 
cabin and bedding were soon so soaked from the entrance 
of the rain, that I was obliged to fly to the deck in my 
mackintosh. The awning is not waterproof, and the water 
stood in many places two inches deep ; nevertheless, I tried 
to wile away the time there till dinner. This takes place 
between two and three, and, thanks to preserved meats, yams, 
pastry, & c ., is very comfortable. Afterwards, the carpenter 
was in requisition to make my cabin water-tight. The 
window- shutter was closed and the bed dried, as well as 
circumstances permitted. The stove was again placed in 
the gun-room; so that we had the pleasant warmth of 



a 



12 MEMOIR OF THE LIFE 

87° Fahr. There was enough to occupy me till tea in putting 
my cabin to rights. At six o'clock we have tea, without 
milk, and sea-biscuit. At half-past seven, evening prayers. 
The rain having somewhat abated, my companion and I 
sought for a tolerably dry place, where wrapped, in my 
cloak, I might smoke a cigar; and then I took a seat in 
the gun-room, where I am writing this letter. The violent 
rolling of the ship, however, still continues ; and its effect 
is evidenced in my more than ordinarily bad writing. 

" August 12. — We lie at anchor in the open sea, two or 
three miles off Cape Nun : a stately fleet, consisting of the 
three steamers, with a large transport and a small one, 
which will accompany us up the river. There is much to 
be done: the last stores are to be taken out of the transport, 
which leaves us here, and the ships supplied as much as 
possible with coal, that we may proceed up the Niger without 
delay, to its confluence with the Tschadda. 

Sunday, August 15, p.m. — At last we have run into the 
Nun, after having endured, while at anchor, the most frightful 
swell, and at the same time scarcity of water. The expedition, 
in fact, commences to-day ; after long delay, we are at length 
arrived at the place where our observations are to begin. The 
vegetation, when viewed from the ship, appears extremely 
luxuriant, and there is something like a forest. We shall 
probably remain some days in this place. I only hope that 
the rain will permit me to make good use of the time/' 

At length, on the 11th of September, the expedition reached 
the confluence of the Niger and Tschadda, and on the 18th 
of September, Vogel thus writes : 

" We arrived a week since at this place, which I conceived 
I might consider as an occasional place of rest. We reck- 
oned on a six days' course hither, with no delay at the mouth 
of the Nun : instead of this, from our first arrival at the Nun 
(on the 10th of August), to our coming here, a month 
has elapsed. At Aboh and Iddah some days were spent; till 
the desired contracts against the slave trade were concluded 
with the Kings. This stay was, however, little to my purpose, 



OF DR. J. R. T. VOGEL. 13 

for circumstances hardly allowed me at either place to go on 
shore ; and at the latter I was unwell, though not extremely 



so. 



At Iddah, the country which was before low and flat, 
begins to be elevated and rises in mountains 2000 feet high, 
which, with occasional interruptions, extend to this place, 
where they are confined to the right bank of the river. 
Here and there, spots occur, which remind one of the Rhine: 
the bed of the river is, however, too broad (generally above 
half a mile) to be picturesque, and is often broken and 
enlarged by various islands. The mountains are bare, 
without any signs of human industry : once only I saw a 
village on the top of a hill, which appeared very pretty. 
Mount Patteh, in whose neighbourhood we lie, is a quadran- 
gular mountain on the right bank, rising precipitously on all 
sides about 1200 feet high, with many patches of forest, and 
thickly clothed everywhere with plants. At its foot grow 
many slender Oil-Palms ; so that the whole picture, painted 
with the fresh green which the rainy season has produced, 
is very lovely. As I sit under the awning on the 
quarter-deck, and look towards that spot, I cannot help 
being pleased with the view, beholding in the solitary 
Baobabs, and the Oil-Palms, though familiar to me now for 
weeks, forms which still interest me from their novelty. 

cc We have bought a piece of land on the right bank, 
extending from Mount Patteh to Beaufort Island, and at this 
moment are preparing a habitation for the person who is to 
have the charge of the station at the foot of the mountain. 
The land is decidedly of bad quality, and a better situa- 
tion will be sought for : the other bank is far more suitable, 
but it has been rejected as too low ; indeed, it is now under 
water. It is impossible for me, at present, to say any thing 
of the nature of the vegetation. We certainly have not 
here the usual exuberance of the tropics; perhaps, since I 
have been on the river, I have collected three hundred 
species. No single family gives a peculiar character to the 
vegetation, but this depends on a mixture of many families. 



14 MEMOIR OF THE LIFE 



Yet it is possible I may be deceived ; for scarcely any trees 
at present are in blossom, many have only fruit, and others 
are without any characteristic organ. The Baobabs are abun- 
dant, most of them have the habit of old thick oaks, only 
they are perhaps proportionally lower, but I have met 
with none which has answered the expectation raised by 
Adanson and Golberry. Among Palms, the Oil Palm alone 
is frequent along the river and in marshy places : the Fern 
Palm occurs here and there ; and the Cocoa extends as far as 
Iddah. I believe that I saw through the telescope a Tree 
Fern. Parasitical Orchidea grow occasionally, though not 
commonly, lower down the river ; here I have not met with 
one. A leafless Euphorbia, forming monstrously thick bushes, 
grows on Mount Patteh. Lianes are abundant; but their 
tree-like stems affect little the character of the landscape ; 
they form, with the mother-stem, a thick vegetable mass. 
The most interesting are the towering and climbing herba- 
ceous plants, which, especially along the shore, invest the 
shrubs and trees to a great height, often presenting real vege- 
table walls, adorned with the sparkling blossoms of Convol- 
vuli, Cucurbit acete, and Asclepiadea. There is no fruit here 
adapted to European palates: the best is the Hog-Plum, 
which is worse than our Sloes, and its name indicates its 
quality. On the coasts grow good Pine-apples, Bananas, 
&c, but they are introduced : the latter alone are cultivated 
here, though rarely. Horses are very scarce and not larger 
than asses ; and the oxen resemble sheep. Butter and milk are 
rarely or never procurable ; the eggs which are brought are all 
set upon ; we have nothing but old hens for poultry. Bearing 

these matters in mind, I cannot help exclaiming with 
Ovid: 



' Heu terra felici non adeunda viro. 



The 



^ - — 

extremely well ; they have never shewn the slightest sign of 
enmity, on the contrary, they are rather too confiding. 
They are not of that deep black hue which is observable in 



OF DR. J. R. T. VOGEL. 15 

other Africans, and in this neighbourhood they have often 
very good features. They understand spinning and 
making cloth : they know how to work in iron, to manu- 
facture knives, sabres, nails, &c. : they cultivate also the 
fields with some degree of skill. It is sad, however, to 
think, that they have possessed the same aptness for these 
arts, probably from an almost inconceivable time, without 
making any improvement: they lack that spiritual energy 
which renders every acquisition a step to further advance- 
ment. We have a daily market on the shore; whither the 
inhabitants of a neighbouring village resort in great numbers, 
to sell or barter what they possess. Small looking-glasses, 
framed in paper, meet with very ready purchasers; and I 
shall never forget the joy which beamed in the eyes of 
many, when they first beheld their own faces in a mirror. The 
women, especially, cannot be satisfied with gazing on them- 
selves, smeared with the powder of a red wood and their 
short hair standing upright in little tufts, so that they 
appear more like horned devils than human beings. In 
general, however, they prefer what is useful to trifles, pro- 
vided the latter be not too dazzling and enticing; as, for 
instance, a bright red cap edged with gold. 

"We brought with us a quantity of articles of female 
dress, often ornamented absurdly enough, as gauze handker- 
chiefs, sashes, &c. ; which they accept as presents with suffi- 
cient indifference; whereas they are very eager after large 
pocket handkerchiefs, which they wear round the loins. The 
men are all armed with bows and arrows. They value their 
arrows very highly, which are strongly poisoned: one of 
them, however, lately sold me all his implements of war, 
viz., arrows, quiver and bow, a short wooden arm-plate, a 
knife and an iron ring, for 2000 cowries, about a dollar and a 
half, which is however not above half the original price. All 
these things are made convenient for use, and strong, but 
generally without much art. The way they string their bow, 
which is about four feet long, is clever. In the right hand they 
hold a knife, with a hollow handle, through which they pass 



16 MEMOIR OF THE LIFE 

four fingers and the middle of the hand : on the thumb they 
have an iron ring, and draw between this and the handle the 
bowstring; so that they cannot injure the hand. Besides, 
they are ready, as soon as the arrow is discharged, to use 
the knife. There is a peculiar custom in the whole of 
Africa, called u dash." Before a person deals with a stranger, 
a present is given, called in African-English, "dash." As 
the Africans expect that strangers or Europeans give far 
more than they receive, this system is a sort of indirect im- 
post, and unpleasant to those who are not prepared for it; 
and I have seen many a silk handkerchief given away in this 
manner for nothing. The cotton ones, which I had bought, 
have done me good service in this way. 

" The weather has been very pleasant for travelling. The 
rainy season, which we have had in perfection, bestows at pre- 
sent only an occasional shower : I expect therefore that the 
river, now at its height, will soon begin to fall. The heat in the 
afternoon is generally up to 83° Fahr., seldom so high as 
87° or 90°. At night it sinks to 76° or 74°, which feels very 
cold after the heat of the day. But the sun has peculiar 
influence here, especially when it bursts forth gradually after 
a gush of rain : it is then so burning, that I am glad to use 
an umbrella and a straw hat. 

« The country we have so slowly examined is pronounced 
unhealthy. It is no wonder then that the African fever, or 
rather fevers, kept in check during the journey itself by the 
excitement, has broken out most terribly ; so that the ships 
are so many lazarettos. At present we have had few deaths ; 
but what may take place, it is impossible to sav ; for no 
sickness is more deceptive, or undergoes quicker changes, 
than this fever. Before the evil proclaimed itself so loudly, 
the plan was as follows : One ship, the Wilberforce, was to 
go up the Tschadda-this is still to be done. The two other 
ships were to ascend the Niger, as far as Bussah or higher. 
it they could not proceed further, two great boats were to 
be manned, and, if possible, to reach Timbuctoo. Now, 
however, a plan is arranged for sending the smallest vessel, 



OF DR. J. R. T. VOGEL. 17 

the Soudan, down the river, to convey the sick to Fernando 
Po. I think we shall be back here from the Tschadda in 
from four to six weeks ; and since the rainy season will then 
be over, and I hope the alluvium on the shore so broad as to 
enable us to dwell there with comfort, I trust to be in 
fixed quarters and able to make wider excursions. Since 
being unwell a few days at Iddah, I have felt healthy and 
strong. The climate is, however, very injurious to an 
European constitution ; and Sierra Leone also is considered 
unhealthy : I have, however, found myself quite well after 
strong exercise. I ascended Mount Patteh, which is about 
1200 feet high, about six o'clock in the morning, without 
much fatigue : I was perfectly well ; I botanized, returned at 
two, took my luncheon and rested. But the whole afternoon 
I found myself so extremely exhausted and incapable of doing 
the least thing, as I never was before : with this consolation, 
however, that I did not experience the slightest feeling of 
illness. Every one of us, who is not sick, is plagued with 
itching on the skin, and eruptions : this affliction, together 
with the mosquitos, which, however, at present have not 
been numerous, do not let us sleep at night. In short, it is 
a wretched existence for a European." 

The unhappy fate of the Expedition is too well known. 
Vogel writes on this subject from Clarence Cove, in the island 
of Fernando Po, on the 22nd of October ; « We were desirous 
of proceeding farther, to begin a real voyage of discovery ; 
when the tropical fever, which we had long feared, but at 
last considered as left behind, broke out with such a degree 
of virulence, that in a short time almost all the Europeans 
were seized, and most of them suffered severely. On the 
same evening on which I wrote my last letter (18th of Sep- 
tember), I fell ill of the fever, which assumed a serious 
aspect. The sea air being considered the best remedy against 
the malady, we went all together down the river to this place. 
First, the Soudan with the sick ; then our ship, the Wilber- 
force ; and lastly, the Albert, after it had proceeded up the 
Niger for some days, was finally compelled to return, and to 

c 



18 MEMOIR OF THE LIFE 

bring all the Europeans with her. It is now the intention of 
the conductor of the Expedition to sail to Ascension, which 
is considered peculiarly healthy, there to await the perfect 
recovery of the sick, and in March, when a better climate 
for a European constitution is expected, again to ascend 
the Niger. I heard that I might be allowed to spend the 
interval at this place. They brought me on shore in a very 
high fever, and I have been now almost three weeks here. 
The fever, which on my way was almost always upon me, has 
left me for the last week and a half; and I am now, as I 
believe, out of all danger. But my strength returns very 
slowly, and I shall scarcely be able for these six weeks to 
resume my botanical investigations. At present I cannot 
walk, but stumble over my own feet. One of the ships, the 
Wilberforce, is gone to Ascension : the Albert, which arrived 
later, is here, and will wait for the recovery of her sick." 

" Of the Island of Fernando Po itself I can say little : I 
have not yet been in a condition to look round me. Yet it 
seems rich in plants, and I hope especially that the examina- 
tion of the mountains may prove productive ; for they are 
mainly covered with thick woods ; and the highest point is 
above 10,000 feet high. The accommodations are but limited 
and poor. All the houses are merely made of boards, 
knocked together, and are raised on strong posts, which are 
obliged to be frequently renewed to keep off the vermin, and 
to facilitate the current of air. They are constructed, princi- 
pally, with a view to airiness : the windows, that is the 
shutters, do not close : the roof is seldom water-tight, and in 
the walls and floor are great holes, so that during a heavy rain, 
such as prevailed yesterday, our chamber is almost flooded; 
and it is merely the holes in the floor which, allowing the 
water to escape, give some relief. The German Mineralo- 
gist belonging to the Expedition, who is somewhat more 
advanced than myself towards recovery, will remain here; 
and we have clubbed together for our housekeeping ; but 
even this is expensive. Anything in the shape of a kitchen is 
out of the question. To the open space under the house, which 



OF DR. J. R. T. VOGEL. 19 

is beaten hard like a barn-floor, the cook brings every day 
his iron grate, and prepares, with a monstrous consumption 
of wood, in four or five iron pots, every thing that can be 
procured for food. There is, however, no great choice. We 
have fowls, and beef when ships come, but only then, and 
occasionally fish. Yams never fail, and they are excellent ; 
so that I prefer them by far to our potatoes. What a pity 
that there is no possibility of introducing this plant at 
home! We can have them every day; indeed the poorer 
people live almost entirely upon yams. Add to this, rice, 
which however is not cultivated here; and it is almost all 
that the country can afford to set a poor invalid on his legs 
again ; and it is little enough ! If any thing else be wanted, 
it must be procured from Europe. For our domestic affairs, 
we are obliged to have two servants, of whom one is cook. 
Each receives daily a shilling ; so that the two cost above 
three pounds sterling a month, and we have to keep them 
too. Both together do not accomplish in a day half so much 
as one European would. Meanwhile, my life passes in eating, 
drinking and sleeping ; for I am fit for nothing else, and am 
unfit even for that. The Expedition will go up the Niger 
again in March, and it is hoped will be in a condition to 
remain there till autumn ; if so, we shall return at the end of 
next year to Europe. Should I regain my strength by the 
commencement of the dry season, and be able to devote so 
many months to this island, I expect to reap such a harvest 
as will content me for some time." 

VogeFs last letter is from the same place, dated the 22nd 
of November, and is as follows : " Since I wrote last, there 
has been no great alteration. My recovery is tardy, but pro- 
gressive ; or, rather, I have been well for some time ; only 
my strength returns very slowly. Yet I am able to under- 
take moderate excursions : longer ones I must defer ; till the 
occasional rains cease entirely. I am most desirous of going 
to the mountains and to lead there for some time a really 
natural existence ; for here there is a wretched mixture of 
artificial and natural. For these last five weeks, we have 

c 2 



20 MEMOIR OF THE LIFE 

had every thing in our domestic arrangements to superintend 
ourselves ; otherwise we must have engaged more servants, 
and that is not only expensive, but we have quite enough to 
do to manage the two we have. An African servant will not 
listen to orders, but will do every thing out of his own head ; 
and if his taste does not agree with his master's, the master 
he thinks must comply with his. If I say to the cook, 
" this must not be dressed so," he answers quietly, " That is 
how I like it ;" and if my servant, contrary to my directions, 
goes out for the whole evening, he says coolly, " When you 
have got your meal, you have nothing more to do with me. 
It is often difficult to procure any thing for dinner : we have 
had no meat for two days, and there was none to be got for 
money. The same is often the case with bread, and if one 
has not a stock of ship biscuit, there is great difficulty about 
it. The light afforded by a palm-oil lamp is worse than that 
of the lamps which, in Germany, are allowed to servants, and 
this is very bad when we have any work to do in the evening. 
What I chiefly dislike is the host of ants, beetles, moths, &c, 
which swarm every where : they are very destructive to my 
collections ; and I wage constant war with them. Resides 
the wasps, flies of all sorts, lizards, salamanders and rats pay 
us constant visits ; so that a Zoologist ought to rejoice in 
having so good an opportunity to make their acquaintance. " 
While Vogel was busied in this manner with plans and 
preparations for future exertions, which bade fair to be pro- 
ductive, and this perhaps too early for his strength, the seeds 
of the last fatal malady were developed. In December, that 
is, at the time when the rain ceases to pour down in torrents, 
cold and damp weather prevailed in the island, which is 
highly prejudicial to Europeans. 

In consequence, on the 4th of December, Vogel was seized 
with a dysentery which confined him to bed, and daily ex- 
hausted his strength. Dr. Thomson, surgeon of the Soudan, 
Dr. Mc William, of the Albert, and other physicians, paid 
him the greatest attention ; and Herr Roscher, the companion 
of his journey, his fellow-lodger and friend, never left the 



OF DR. J. R. T. VOGEL. 21 

bed-side of the patient, who bore all the sufferings conse- 
quent on his complaint with the strength of mind peculiar to 
him, and without ever losing heart. In spite of all, on the 
thirteenth day of his illness he expired, and without pain, 
about mid-day, on the 17th of December. His death 
was calm and peaceful. He had spoken daily of the ex- 
pected wanderings amongst the mountains, and even a few 
minutes before his death he asked his friend if he had got 
every thing ready for their excursion. His mortal remains 
were committed to the earth the same evening by the side 
of Captain Bird Allen, who departed before him. The ship's 
company carried the coffin, which was attended by the 
commander, Captain Fishbourne, Dr. Mc William, Captain 
Beecroft, Dr. King, Mr. Scott and his wife, and many of his 
fellow voyagers, by all of whom he was esteemed on account 
of his benevolent and noble disposition, and his really Chris- 
tian virtues. His little property, according to contract, came 
into the possession of the African Civilization Society; and 
it is to be hoped that his collections and journals, the 
precious relics of an activity, which was extinguished at the 
moment when a wider and more worthy field of action 
presented itself, will not be lost to science. 

Vogel was by nature large and well-formed : his constitu- 
tion, with the exception of a slight weakness in the chest and 
a tendency to rheumatism, was excellent : his countenance 
serious but benevolent, and exciting confidence. Active, 
without immoderate energy, he rested not till the work he 
had undertaken was accomplished. As a man, he was a 
fearer of God, of strict integrity, high-minded, indulgent 
towards faults ; warm in speech, though with a constant ob- 
servance of propriety. Towards his friends, he was always 
true and devoted ; towards his colleagues, upright, disinte- 
rested and conciliatory. As a teacher, during the short time 
he was so employed, he excited approbation and love, and 
much was to be expected from him had he lived longer. 
What he would have done as a writer, is incontestibly shewn 
by his publications. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGEE.* 



Wednesday, May 12. — After seven o'clock, p.m., we quitted 
Devonport. Knowing that I should be attacked with sea- 
sickness, and not be able to attend with accuracy to many 
matters, I determined to confine my attention during the 
voyage to the subject of temperature, and more espe- 
cially to that of the sea, which I therefore ascertained 
at noon, and noted in my meteorological journal. The 
w r eather being favourable, I suffered less, although never 
quite free from sea-sickness, than I had expected, and became 
anxious to extend my observations to the temperature of the 
air, and to the barometer. Our instrument had not been 
rectified, and being without a thermometer to mark the 
temperature of the quicksilver, was rather useless : in our 
days, such imperfect observations are of little value. Nor 
could I find on the whole deck a place for my thermometer, 
without exposing it to many dangers ; and the contrivance 
proposed by me for that purpose, and approved of by the 
Captain, is not yet finished. 

This evening I paid particular attention to the phospho- 
rescence of the sea. In this latitude it is not seen except in 
the wake of the ship. Only the waves nearest the vessel 

* Translated from the original German Journal of Dr. Vogel, in 
the possession of the African Civilization Society, by the kindness of 
F. Scheer, Esq., of Kew Green.— Ed. 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 23 

were illuminated, and in fact, it appeared to me, that it was 
solely the case with those actually in contact with it. If so, the 
phosphorescence would seem, here at least, to be the result 
of mere mechanical friction. It did not appear to be much 
influenced by the moisture or dryness of the atmosphere, for 
being very strong on Saturday evening, when the psychro- 
meter showed a difference of 1.1° (56.1° against 55°). No 
animals or plants were picked up. At a distance I descried 
some dolphins, others saw Alga and Nautili; and some tired 
swallows settled on the ship. 

Friday, May 21. — We reached Madeira in the morning. 
The Flora of this island has become of late better known, 
through Mr, Lowe, who has described many new species. I 
intended to devote the few days of our stay to the study of 
the indigenous plants ; but the uncertainty of our departure 
did not allow of distant excursions, and obliged me to limit 
myself to the vicinity of Funchal. I took immediately a 
walk along the south-eastern coast, with Mr. Lowe, who 
kindly pointed out the habitat of many indigenous species, 
amongst which were chiefly Mathiola Maderensis, Siderowylon 
Marmulana, etc. On Saturday, 22nd, I was early on horse- 
back, towards the Ribeira Frio ; where, according to Mr. 
Lowe, the choicest native plants are to be found. The road 
crossed Mount Church ; whose barren precipices are at first 
covered with Spartium scoparium, higher up with shrubs of 
Laurus and Erica, and then especially with the magnificent 
Vaccinium Maderense. On the summit it was dreadfully 
cold, with fog, sometimes like rain. The valley was filled 
with mist, clearing occasionally, just enough to see the 
Laurus trees that hung down from the surrounding steeps. 
This Laurus, several interesting Ferns, and a few other plants, 
were, owing to the bad weather, the unexpectedly small produce 
of this trip. On the succeeding Sunday, I chiefly visited the 
gardens about the town. The singularly favourable situation 
of Funchal, enjoying in consequence of the protection af- 
forded by the surrounding mountains against cold winds, an 
invariably moderate temperature, has been frequently dwelt 



24 JOURNAL OF THE 

upon. I had plenty of opportunity to perceive this; for 
during my stay, the weather was there constantly fine and 
warm, with, at the utmost, a gentle shower; but once 
beyond the mountains, I experienced the most furious winds, 
and the valleys were filled with thick mists, loaded with as 
much moisture as heavy rains. It were interesting to ascer- 
tain the duration and intensity of these mists, which are 
remarkably dense, and must be highly beneficial to a barren 
island and fertilizing to its valleys. Later in the season, the 
weather is said to be clear and settled in the interior also. 
The valley of Funchal receives several rivulets, and has not 
at this time any deficiency of water. Chestnut-trees abound 
in the valleys, and the lower declivities are frequently covered 
with patches of Pines. To the gardens at Funchal the pre- 
vailing state of the atmosphere is highly genial, and they 
command splendid prospects towards the town and bay. One 
really may fancy oneself in the East when walking, and still 
more when riding between these gardens, which are enclosed 
with stone walls, over which it is easy to behold the nu- 
merous hedges of roses full of bloom. The singular spectacle 
of the union of Bananas and Pine- apples with our European 
fruit-trees, has been frequently noticed, and is particularly 
attractive to any new comer. Horticulture, from what I 
could see, was chiefly practised for profit's sake : though in 
several gardens there were some choice plants, which struck, 
on account of their finer growth, the European traveller, who 
had hitherto only seen them in the greenhouse or stove. Large 
Dractenas were rare : whether this tree still occurs in an un- 
cultivated state, I know not : no one collects the Gum-Dragon, 
except as a curiosity. Dr. Renton showed me some fine 
Coffee-trees, covered with fruit, of which the quality is said 
to be good. He regretted, that instead of Festuca Donax, the 
Bamboo was not more generally grown, as it succeeds so 
well ; and I agree with him. 

On Monday and Tuesday I made excursions in the valley 
called the Corral; and to the great water-fall, which yielded me, 
besides the common plants of Madeira, a few rare ones, viz.: 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 25 

Ranunculus grandifolius, Sempervivum sp., Sinapidendron 
frutescens, Lowe, Bystropogon punctatus, Herit., Bupleurum 
salicifolium, Sol., Physalis pubescens, &c. According to my 
limited experience, the Flora of Madeira is of a thoroughly 
South-European character ; only a very few plants, chiefly 
Draccena, pointing out an extra-European mixture. I do not 
speak of the neighbourhood of Funchal : a botanical garden 
there, established with proper judgment, would lead to 
brilliant results. A novice in travelling revels in the southern 
forms here first offered to his view. 

Of two individual plants I will only here observe, that the 
indigenous Parietaria is that known in Germany as P. diffusa. 
Of Cassia I only saw Cassia bicapsularis, L., the true species, 
flowering, but not in fruit, daring my stay. Cassia ruscifolia, 
which is indigenous, according to Jacquin, in Madeira, Mr, 
Lowe assures me, certainly does not grow in the island ; and 
that Cassia occidentalis exists only in a single garden. The 
history of these species remains therefore still obscure. 

Tuesday, May 25. — Left Madeira in the evening. I had 
exposed myself too much during my last excursion to the 
waterfall, to the soaking rain, burning sun, and wet, in wading 
through brooks. The guide had committed an error; for 
these people engage to conduct you any where, whether they 
know the place or not. I was, consequently, several days 
unable to move ; and when we arrived, on Friday the 28th of 
May, in the port of Santa Cruz, I could do no more than 
cast a few glimpses on the island. The next day I resumed my 
observations on the temperature of the sea ; but my illness, 
which was an entire interruption of the digestive powers, 
continued till we reached Cape de Verd Islands. 

Thursday, June 3, we were off St. Vincent. We had 
mistaken the small adjoining Sta. Lucia for the former, and 
approached it so closely, that we could examine the nature 
of its shores, which gave only a prospect of wildness and 
sterility. Sailing along the high cliffs of the western coast of 
St. Vincent, I looked anxiously for some traces of vegetation, 
but only distinguished, far off, a few shrubs, and it was dark 



26 JOURNAL OF THE 

ere we anchored at Porto Grande. I hastened the next 

morning early on deck, impatient to survey, for the first 

time, an entirely tropical vegetation. The back of the bay is 

flat and sandy, with a few cottages on the north-east side : 

beyond the shore rise hills overtopped in the distance by 

mountains. I could clearly descry two main valleys, reaching 

far inland, and exhibiting the same white sand as the beach. 

Every place was burnt up and bare of vegetation, except a 

few shrubs in one of the valleys, whither I directed my first 

walk, and found these were Tamarix Senegalensis, a shrub 

mostly 6 to 7 feet high, but sometimes a small tree, being 

the only plant, I might almost say the only object, which 

in these valleys affords any shadow. After a search of four 

hours, climbing several hills and crossing as many valleys, 

I only met with two plants, the same Tamarix, and a low 

shrub-like Labiata, (Lavandula form osa ?) almost dried up, 

with few leaves and some blossoms just opening. I found 

subsequently, that this plant spreads over the whole island. 

The Great Desert, whose horrors are so eloquently described 

by travellers, cannot exhibit a more desolate aspect than 

this part of St. Vincent. Yet the soil ought to be fertile, for 

it is a conglomerate of large and small bits of basalt, in 

a loamy and chalky soil, closely covered in many places with 

dried grass, forming natural hay and furnishing scanty 

fodder to cattle and goats, when they have not the Tamarix 

to nibble at. This soil only wants water, and we may guess, 

from these remnants of its vegetation, how fertile it must 

be, when supplied during the brief rainy season with some 

moisture* To the above-mentioned plants of the plain, (if 1 

may so express myself, where there is only hill and dale), I 

could add subsequently very few more. A small Euphorbia, 

perhaps .prostrata or serpyllifolia, but appearing new to me, 

a few littoral plants, especially Zygophyllum album or dm* 

plex; and on the shore, Cassia obovata, just then in blossom 

ofltistl^ ^ ^^ thG WCt SeaSOn Iasts from the beginning 

tit Z i fl Ct ° ber ' PrCtty regUkrly ; but SOraetimeS very 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 27 

and fruit, and extending about 600 feet (German ?) up the 
mountains. This scanty harvest induced me to explore the 
higher regions for more botanical treasures ; but even there 
1 found frequently the same barrenness. The mountain 
chain, which borders the western side of the chief valley, 
rising frequently to 1500 feet, only afforded me a dozen 
species on its northern declivity. Two spots however were 
more productive, viz : the highest ridge and the next highest, 
situated rather more towards the middle of the island. The 
former is undoubtedly the richest, and hence goes by the 
name of " Monte Verte." It is a basaltic rock, topping a 
gradually ascending table-land, according to my barometrical 
admeasurement, as high as 2500 feet. It is the only moun- 
tain in the island, having its summit always enveloped in 
clouds ; consequently there are, on its upper half, many well 
watered spots, whilst every thing else is burnt by drought. 

Of the difference between the lower and mountain vege- 
tation I can hardly speak ; but it seemed clear that many 
plants, flourishing on the mountain, did also grow in the 
lower country, though now dried up. With the Tamarix of 
the plain, grows a shrubby Euphorbia (I believe the only 
frutescent Euphorbia of the island) commonly 2 or 3 feet 
high ; but sometimes a small tree, with twenty or thirty 
leaves amongst the blossoms at the ends of its branches, it 
is characteristic of the mountains and gives an agreeable 
verdure to the clefts, abounding in the upper valleys and 
reaching to the very top of Monte Verte. It appears to be 
the same found by Brunner at St. Jago, and mentioned as 
Euph. genistoides ? I think it is an undescribed species. A 
spreading, creeping, branching, completely leafless Ascle- 
piadea, occurred frequently, at 500 feet, on small flats, or 
pendent from rocks, sometimes with white flowers at the 
tips of the branches. A handsome Statice, a Campanula 
(related to dulcis) a Labiata with red flowers and coriaceous 
leaves, {Lavandula?), a Sida, which I am inclined to think 
new, with a Linaria, Borago Africana, Echium, Tribvhis 
terrestris, Achyranthes aspera, Lotus sp., half a dozen Com- 



28 



JOURNAL OF THE 



posita, a shrubby Urtica, a flowerless Sempervivum, and a 
few Graminea and Cyperacea, formed in this region a 
pleasant spectacle ; such as one would hardly have expected 
on an apparently desert island. The general aspect of vege- 
tation was very European, enhanced by Samolus Valerandi, 
Nasturtium officinale, and Plantago minor ? To these situations 
were some cultivated plants ; but they looked, at least just 
now, very poorly : Beans (especially Lablab) Maize, Cucum- 
bers, a few Bananas, Cotton, Ricinus, and Batatas, seemed 
to be the chief, but hardly in sufficient quantity for 
the six or seven hundred inhabitants. The Bananas, fur- 
nished to us, were said to come from St. Antonio. There 
were also a few Sycamore figs, and Jatropha Curcas; there are 
said to be some Guavas and Papayas. A creeping Convol- 
vulus is much grown, and in reply to my repeated inquiries, 
I was always assured that it was used as thatch. 

In Cryptogamia this island is proportionally still poorer. 
Four Ferns, all at above 400 feet, a few Conferva, perhaps 
three or four Mosses, on the top of Monte Verte, all without 
fructification, and Alga on the sea coast very sparingly. 
Of insects, I found chiefly flies and grasshoppers; fevr 
beetles. On the whole I have collected here about eighty 
or ninety Phanerogamia in flower. 

Wednesday, June 6.-Towards the evening we quitted this, 
certainly most sterile island, after a stay of thirteen days. 
I had been most anxious to visit the adjacent island, which 
from all accounts appeared more interesting ; but this wish 
could not be indulged, the uncertainty of our departure 
rendering such an excursion hazardous. However, the 
W ilberforce had now to go there, (to Terrafal Bay) for water. 
We anchored off St. Antonio on the same evening, without 
exactly recognising the spot where we were. In the morning 
we descried the green shore, proving to be the valley which 
was to furnish the water. There is a plantation intersected 
by a dear brook full in the upper part, but caught in ponds 
near the coast, for the purpose of irrigating the grounds ; and 
as the d,stance is considerable, the ground very drv, and the 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 29 

conduits ill contrived, much valuable water is lost. It 
would be better to conduct the water in the exact direction 
of the chief valley, which would shorten its way to the 
coast considerably. The map of Vidal, however excellent, 
is not quite correct as regards this valley. Our short stay 
did not allow me to visit the whole valley. Close to the 
shore were many plants of Asclepias gigantea, whose shining 
coriaceous leaves attracted notice, even from on board ship. 
The plantation consists chiefly of some Sugar-cane, Cotton, 
Papaya, Citrons, Limes, Guavas, Ricinus, Curcas, and Figs. 
Higher up the valley Bananas are chiefly grown, with Cassia 
occidentalis, Cocoa and Capsicum. Amongst the plants on 
the sandy shore, there were frequently Argemone Mexicana, 
Heliotropium, a Sonchus, several Grasses, &c. The other 
indigenous plants correspond mostly with those of St. Vin- 
cent, but grow more luxuriantly. The same Sida was 
common : the usual Euphorbia (prostrata ?), Cassia obovata, 
Tribulus terrestris, the leafless Asclepiadea of St. Vincent, 
Borago Africana and Tamarix Senegalensis were also found 
here : in the part of the plantation nearest the shore grows 
an Indigofera (near Ind. Anil) a new species of Phaca, [Phaca 
micrantha) ; and a Plumbago, which if it be P. scandens, 
mentioned as belonging to St. Jago, must be indigenous on 
these islands. The brook in the main valley was full of 
Bamboo, which looked very pretty, especially where inter- 
twined with Convolvolus near a small cascade. Along the 
stream there I also noticed an Epilobium, Plantago, Cyperus 
and Samolus Valerandi. Orchil is chiefly exported from this 
island. 

Friday, June 18. — Left St. Antonio at noon. Unfavourable 
winds and the rolling of the sea made me sick for several 
days; and I found it not a little disagreeable to be every 
morning soaked with water, dripping into my cabin ; when 
the deck was washed overhead. The first days, especially, it 
poured through in absolute streams, and swamped every thing. 
Of course, my plants suffered not a little, and many things 
were so spoiled, that I was absolutely forced to throw them 



30 JOURNAL OF THE 

overboard. If I were a surgeon in the Royal Navy, I would 
make most humble supplication that more care should be 
devoted to the construction of ship's decks, and recommend 
their being water-tight, which surely cannot be difficult; and 
if I were not attended to, I would add, like a second Cato 
Censorius, to every report a " ceterum censeo," that the decks 
be rendered water-tight. It must be surely extremely 
injurious to health to lie in wet beds.* On my recovery, 
(Tuesday 22) I recommenced my observations on the tempe- 
rature of the sea, and was surprised to find it in this latitude 
still so high. It, however, soon decreased, and towards the 
coast became very irregular. With regard to the observa- 
tion of Tuesday, June 22, at half past three, p.m., of 86° T, 
I will here especially observe, that every care had been 
taken to avoid any chance of error. 

Saturday, June 26. — We anchored towards evening at 
Free Town, Sierra Leone, which presents a very charming 
appearance. From the Cape of Sierra Leone to the town, 
gentle undulations, bordered by a mountain chain, on which 
one may distinguish isolated trees, run close to the shore of 
the river ; while the intermediate space, and even far up the 
ascent, is covered with the most luxuriant vegetation, bril- 
liantly shining in the full tropical freshness of the rainy 
season, which has just set in. Between the shrubs, many 
negro villages, full of closely set cottages with pointed roofs, 
are sprinkled up to the town, and beyond it along the river. 
The town itself has a very pleasing appearance: though laid 
out id regular streets, the houses stand as yet singly amongst 
trees and shrubs. Probably the aspect of the country may 
not always be so agreeable : we are now at the end of the 
tornadoes, when the land has been considerably invigorated 
by rams : a few months earlier it probably looked very dif- 
ferent. Some turns of the mountain-road afford indeed 
most splendid prospects. The vegetation of Sierra Leone 
nas been so often described, that my observations, limited 

war 2fi£S h ^ WCU kn ° Wn ' d ° eS DOt 0Ccur orally » men-of- 
war, and seldom except in man-of-war steamer 8 .-(H. D. Trotter). 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 31 

as they were by our short stay, can hardly be worth notice. 
What may perhaps not be generally known, is the fact, that 
Orchidacea occur here frequently : at Mr. Whitfield's I saw 
a collection of more than thirty species, which he means to 
take to Europe in a living state. The edible fruits, so inte- 
resting through Sabine's publication of Brown's Remarks 
in Don's Collection, were not just now to be met with, and it 
requires, in fact, more local knowledge than can be acquired 
in a few days, to get them together. I inquired a great deal 
after the somewhat mystical Cream-fruit of Afzelius. The 
name was unknown ; and several persons, even Mr. Whit- 
field, guessed from my description, that it must be a fruit 
they called Bird-lime ; of which the said gentleman gave me 
a dried, nearly ripe specimen. It is not eaten readily by any 
body. - Although there are here discrepancies, I must after 
all believe, that we have yet to learn whether Cream-fruit, 
Bird-lime and Don's sweet Pishanin are, or are not, iden- 
tical. The Oil Palm (Elais Guineensis) is the only one 
occurring often near Free-Town. It is monoecious ; the 
male flower growing above the female. It produces fruit 
(perhaps not always) when only 7 feet high ; and before the 
lowest ribs have decayed. I also saw a Leguminosa, belong- 
ing, as far as I could judge from the fruit, to the genus 
Afzetia, but if so, it would form a separate division. Though 
a rich flora, it was not, either near the town or in the 
mountains, by any means so luxuriant as the descriptions had 
led me to expect. The soil is a close clay, impregnated with 
iron, and cannot therefore be fertile. It having been soon 
ascertained that the land near the town could not yield so 
much as had been expected, the attention of the earlier 
emigrants was already directed towards other parts of the 
vicinity; I know not with what success. It is singular, 
that this thickly peopled colony should not produce any 
thing fit for exportation: the trade in teak or camwood 
seems only a waste of the rich endowments of nature. This 
surely is a matter worth consideration. The Africans, col- 
lected here in such multitudes, furnish abundant and cheap 



32 JOURNAL OF THE 

labourers, and yet there is no cultivation on an enlarged 
scale. Much diligence is used to convert and educate the 
"liberated Africans;" but without any beneficial influence 
on the neighbouring tribes. This is not very satisfactory, 
and shows that if it was intended to extend civilization to 
these parts, great faults must have been committed ; and also 
proves that the Africans are not inclined to follow a good 
example. The liberated Africans, on their arrival at Sierra 
Leone, are apprenticed with a planter till their twentieth 
year; after that, a piece of land is apportioned to them, from 
which they raise a scanty maintenance. On the whole, their 
villages appeared to me, as far as I saw them, clean and 
cheerful (of course cum grano sails). But the total want of 
hospitality, for we often found it impossible to get anything 
to eat, was painful. 

During the few days that we spent here, the weather was 
mostly fine : the sky generally bright, with a hot sun, though 
sometimes clouded : towards evening tornadoes occurred, 
bringing frequently several hours' rain. After having abun- 
dantly enjoyed the noise of African tongues and the offen- 
sive exhalations of their persons, especially on Thursday, 
when the Kroomen and negroes were engaged, we left Free 
Town on Friday, July 2, about noon. Taking the " Soudan" 
in tow, we made but slow progress, and only got to Mon- 
rovia,* on Monday, July 5, and cast anchor in the bay. 
The few hours which I devoted to a walk towards the head 
of Cape Mesurado, taught me, that the vegetation is very 
similar to that of Sierra Leone. Sarcocephalus esculentus 
grew abundantly ; and the fruit called pomegranate by Don, 
occurred sparingly. A Poivrea, with beautiful red flowers, 
seems new. Cassia occidentalism Borreria Kohautiana, and 
an herbaceous Phyllanthus grew in abundance. Around the 
dwellings Coffee-trees had been planted, but left to grow 
too freely; Limes, Figs, Curcas, Guavas, Ananas, Anona 
muricaia and also Cytisus Cajan and Arrowroot were 

• Monrovia is the capital of the American colony of Liberia.— (H. D. 
Trotter) . 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 33 

cultivated; Bananas and Oil Palms occurred of course. 
The plantations were no doubt extensive, but during my 
short stay, I could not see more than those of Cotton and 
Sugar. Anona muricata is much eaten, both here and at 
Sierra Leone, under the name of Soursop ; and I was assured 
that it is considered the finest fruit of all ; but I could not 
taste it without disgust : altogether I cannot join in the 
praise of African fruit. The land was not very rich. On 
the shore there is the same iron clay as at Sierra Leone, and 
somewhat higher up to the Cape it also prevails (according 
to Rosher), only finer-grained and firm. In several places 
water (rain?) has percolated, and caused it to assume singular 
shapes, almost models of mountain ridges. 

Monrovia Town has a pleasing appearance, many of the 
houses are large. Few white people are seen. The coloured 
population, with hardly any of whom I had intercourse, ap- 
peared inquisitive, obtrusive, and fond of idleness : no traces 
of hospitality, but an eagerness to make money, and a desire 
to affect importance. The connection* between Liberia and 
the United States I could not make out very clearly. There 
is but one flag flying in Monrovia, that of the United 
States, viz: on the house of the Governor; professedly 
because he is the American Consul. The school-house is a 
large hall, hung with maps of Africa and America; there 
were also near the raised desk some philosophical instru- 
ments, used by the missionary, who had some prepared heads 
of animals, as he told me, to exhibit during his lectures. The 
boys and girls are taught in the same room ; but as I was 
there only during the free hours, I could not witness the 
method of instruction practised. It is singular, that instead, 
as we hear, of Liberia being on good terms with the 
natives, it is always at war with them. The last war ended 

* The settlement of Liberia is under the control of a Society, in the 
United States : the Superintendent being appointed by the Society and 
not by the United States' government. By the laws of the United States, 
the Federal Union cannot possess colonies beyond the seas. — (H. D. 
Trotter.) 

D 



34 JOURNAL OF THE 



about six months ago. The inhabitants allege the destruc- 
tion of the slave factories as the cause. 

The rainy season had now fairly set in, and my cabin being 
so damp that I could not dry either plants or paper, to form 
a collection became impossible, and I carried away but a few 
single specimens. 

Near Monrovia, is a Kroo town ; whence fishermen, in their 
small canoes and with angling lines, came paddling about our 
ship. Except a slight covering on the head, they were quite 
naked : in warm weather, this was probably the fittest 
attire for them. 

Towards the evening of Tuesday, July 6th, we left Mon- 
rovia, and until Thursday evening, were in tow of the Albert. 
We then proceeded, by ourselves, to Grand Bassa, where we 
anchored on Friday morning, for the purpose of taking in 
fuel. We stayed several days; not one of which passed 
without rain, sometimes most violent throughout the entire 
day. This, and other circumstances, limited my researches to 
the immediate vicinity of the shore ; where, however, I found 
more plants than I was able to preserve. I made a collection 
of about a hundred specimens, at the risk of losing every- 
thing by the wet. Many plants, especially the Monocotyle- 
done, were not yet in flower; and I regretted this most 
especially in the case of the numerous parasitical Orchidete. 
The shore is flat and sandy ; and the sand has drifted so far 
inland, that I never got beyond it. There were no forests, 
only bushes, intermingled with isolated high trees ; which I 
could not determine, for they were all without blossom or 
fruit. The African Bombax appeared amongst them, and 
the same Spondias as at Sierra Leone, forming a con- 
siderable tree ; respecting which I feel doubtful whether it be 
identical with S. Myrobalanus. The pride of this coast is the 
Elais, often growing in clumps of twelve or more, exhibiting 
under different circumstances a different habit, and giving a 
considerable variety of aspect to the country. This Palm is 
of generally moderate height, and constitutes with various 
Fici, the chief masses of wood. The underwood consists of 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 35 

close-growing shrubby Rubiacea, with shining leaves, inter- 
mingled with Gloriosa superba, Cissi, Leguminosce, Banisterice, 
as creepers, leaving hardly room for Melastoma and other 
low plants that peep through with their fine blossoms. It is 
a very interesting sight, that of a tew Oil Palms growing in 
a clump ; the ribs of the lower leaves still adhering to the 
stems, which are clothed with a fresh verdure of parasitical 
Ferns and Orchidacece ; whilst other parasites, such as Ferns, 
Pothos, Anonce, Commelince, small Rubiacea and Leguminosce, 
choose the airy shelter of the foliage for their habitation. 
Of single plants one might specify Sarcocephalus, which 
occurs frequently, the same Phyllanthus as in Liberia, 
Schmidelia Africana, a genus of Apocynem, apparently new 
and near Taberncemontana, remarkable for its double fruit as 
large as a child's head, the seeds nestling in the almost woody 
pulp, wild Sugar-cane, not in blossom, Conocarpus erectus, 
var. /3. a small shrub, a probably new C assy t ha, Scavola 
(really different from S. Lobelia ?), Indigoferce sp. Cannes sp. 
Cassia occidentalis (cult d .), Borreria Kohautiana, &c. The 
ktylosanthes forms a close iun^le, with its erect and much 
branched stem, about \\ foot high, along the sandy shore. 
A few open spaces amongst the shrubby woods were covered, 
as if cultivated, with Cyperacece ; amongst which a species of 
Eriocaulon is frequent. A few more watered spots showed 
Grasses, with a beautiful Orchidea 2 or 3 feet high. Near the 
village, I found Euphorbia drupifera, Schum. An excursion to 
the river enabled me to examine the Mangrove woods, where 
a Rhizophora (different from R. Mangle ?), but not yet in 
n pe fruit, formed the bulk of the woods : amongst it an 
A vicennia, judging by the leaves, different from that at Sierra 
Leone (nitida ?), was frequent ; and the shrubby Conocarpus 
racemosus (is it not identical with an American species?), which 
so far as I know, has not yet been enumerated amongst African 
plants, but inhabits similar situations at Sierra Leone. Inter- 
mixed with these, Drepanocarpus lunatus rendered my pro- 
gress very difficult. Pandanus Candelabrum, without leaves, 

occurs here for the first time, in swamps. An Anona (a tree 

d 2 



36 JOURNAL OF THE 

10 to 12 feet high), in fruit, and apparently very similar to 
chrysocarpa, Lepr., if not the same, was not uncommon in 
these swamps. Leguminous trees seem rare, and do not 
attain a large size : there are no Mimosa or Casalpinice. Of 
cultivated plants, the Sweet Cassada is most valued and 
grown; also Rice, various sorts of Capsicum, Papaw and 
plantains, and Holcus here and there, with Ananas in large 
quantities amongst the shruhs. 

Our anchorage was between a town belonging to Liberia, 
called Idine (according to the pronunciation), and the River 
Keun, but nearer the latter. The jungle begins with the 
flat shore; and the native villages, consisting of a few huts, 
are situated amongst it. The Kroomen live near the shore : 
the natives are of another race. The cottages of the former 
which I visited, were neat and clean, built of mats, square, 
with pointed roofs ; and generally a raised floor, \\ feet above 
the ground, composed of plaited palm-ribs. The Kroomen 
themselves appeared rather intelligent ; and they pleased me 
by their straightforward and modest behaviour, touching 
none of my things without permission, which might have 
served as a good example to the people of Liberia. 

Wednesday, July 14— We left in the afternoon, and 
anchored on Friday, July 16th, about ten o'clock, a.m., off 
Cape Palmas, to take in a fresh supply of fuel. The Cape is 
formed by a narrow projection into the sea ; on the foremost 
part of wh.ch, the houses of the American colony have been 
budt. The dwellings of the fishermen are situated on the 
part nearest the main land. Their huts are very different 
from those of the Kroomen of Grand Bassa, being without 
raised floors, and having much more pointed roofs. The 
buddings of the American colony are straggling, and they 
extend, I was told, about four miles into the interior. 
There are none but people of colour at the Cape; the only 
whites, if I understood rightly, being a few missionaries, who 
devote all their attention to the natives. At this colonv, the 
sod is very bad : the rock, frequently protruding through it, 
consists of hornblende (micaceous slate). The soil is a very 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 37 

hard iron-clay, in small clumps, originating, according to 

Rosher^s statement, in the debris of decomposed granite veins 

traversing the rock ; but to me it appears that the rock itself 

has much to do with the formation. Further up the stream, 

the land is said to be good. North of Cape Palmas, the river, 

according to the statement of the Governor, is navigable for 

seven miles with canoes, and empties itself into the sea, 

through several mouths. From a distance, the Cape has an 

agreeable aspect : the isthmus is well clothed with vegetation, 

and beyond it the beautiful forms of the Oil and Fan-palms 
are seen. 

My excursions were limited to the isthmus and nearest 
parts. On the isthmus grows Phoenix spinosa, Th., a low 
shrub : beyond the river it is said to produce flowers and 
fruit. A few Cocoas* had been planted, some years back, and 
were still small, as were the trees of Anona muricata. The 
plants chiefly cultivated seemed to be Cassava, Sweet-potato, 
Bananas, Plantains, Indian com, and Rice ; while Cassia occi- 
dentalis was seen in every cultivated spot : the same Spondias 
as before grows also here : Coffee had been introduced from 
Monrovia : here and there the indigenous species of Cotton had 
been raised : Arachis hypogcea {Africana ?) I found planted in 
one place. In the native Flora, which, however, I have 
hardly seen, Rubiacea, Convolvulacea, Leguminosce were 
chiefly conspicuous. The same Anona (near chrysocarpa) 
as in Grand Bassa grew here: Pandanus Candelabrum on. dry 
ground; several sorts of Figs, amongst which is the small 
fruited kind of Grand Bassa : Jatropha Curcas was frequently 
employed for fences. Amongst the underwood I found a 
small shrubby tree, related to Belvisia {Napoleona), and 
probably a distinct genus nearly approaching it, it bore bios- 

* The inhabitants believe, that whoever plants a Cocoa-palm will die, 
before it produces fruit (i. e. in about seven years) . The Chief of the 
fishermen yielded at last to the entreaties of the American Governor, and 
Put some Cocoa-nuts on the ground : he then drove cattle over the spot, 
that he might not incur the consequences of planting and covering them 
with earth ! 



k 6 v *" vu,^v W u 6 , 



38 JOURNAL OF THE 

som and fruit ; the latter convinced me that I had seen the 
same, and a species but little differing from it, at Grand 
Bassa. 

Sunday, July 18. — We left Cape Palmas about 2 p.m., and 
were off Cape Coast Castle on the evening of Saturday, the 
24th. On Sunday, Captain Trotter issued a circular, prohibit- 
ing any one belonging to the expedition from remaining all 
night on shore : the unhealthy season here having begun. The 
Gold Coast was of the greatest importance to me, the plants 
described by Schumacher forming a sort of standard for the 
African Flora ; but I deemed it best to be careful, and to 
decline all friendly invitations to stay on land ; although this 
would have been of infinite advantage in collecting:, and in 
fact was almost indispensable. 

The vicinity of the town exhibits no great fertility : granite 
and gneiss, often naked, extending to the coast. A few miles 
inland, a fine black loam prevails, apparently very favourable 
for cultivation ; and further inland still, the soil is said to be 
extremely fertile, consisting probably of vegetable mould. 
On account of the heavy surf, it is impossible to land, other- 
wise than in canoes ; and in this and every case where you 
are obliged to depend on negroes, punctuality is out of the 
question ; and much time was always lost. A trip to the Model 
Farm, five miles inland, now under the superintendence of 
Mr. Wilson, promised to make this place very interesting. 
The major part of this plantation lies on the declivity of a 
hill, consisting of indifferent soil, (decomposed granite) ; whilst 
before and beyond it, the land is excellent. They call this 
plantation « Napoleon.- The dwelling-house is on the top 
of the hill, and commands a very interesting prospect. The 
plantations consist chiefly of Coffee-trees, only a few years 
old : some, covered with fruit, were, according to Mr. Wilson, 
of only seven months growth, which seems truly wonderful, for 
in the West Indies, Coffee bears no fruit even in the best soils 
under eighteen months. Besides Coffee, Bananas, Plantains, 
Arrow-root, Yams, Limes, Lemons, Oranges and Indian corn 
were much cultivated. In the grounds of the natives, Indian 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. % 39 



corn, Bananas, Plantains and Yams, were conspicuous, but 
no Holcus (!) From the Indian corn they prepare a very 
sour bread, which with Bananas, constitutes their chief food. 
Palm- soup, a native dish, when made of boiled Palm-nuts 
only, is very well flavoured. They pick the nuts off those 
young stems of the Elais Guineensis which have not yet lost 
any of the leaves, and consider these as superior to the fruit 
of older plants, and cut them also down, to collect palm- wine. 
Besides this Palm, there is the Cocoa; which frequently 
assumes a singular aspect from the multitude of birds' 
nests appended to the mid-rib of the leaves, and which 
might be taken at a distance for fruit, and had formerly 
puzzled me in drawings. The birds hang their nests in this 
position to protect them against the cats ! The Fan-palm 
grows too at Cape Coast Castle, but apparently is less 
frequent. To judge by parts of the stems which I met 
with, Calamus must occur further in the interior. 

Another excursion was about six or seven miles inland, to 
Orange Town and Quowprath. Here the soil was fertile, 
with good vegetable mould and extensive plantations of Indian 
corn; Bromelias skirting the former plantations. The best 
habitations of the natives resemble those of the Ashantees, 
and have a square court in the middle, its four sides 
surrounded by buildings. 

It is almost impossible to travel in European clothes ; espe- 
cially during this season, when the water collected in the 
roads reaches often up to the middle. Besides, great exer- 
tion or exposure to the sun is dangerous, and occasionally 
fatal to new comers. The residents go out in small carriages, 
drawn by four negroes, or travelling-chairs carried by two. The 
former can only be used on tolerably good roads, and the latter 
have also their inconveniences. For instance, I was myself 
upset in the middle of a puddle ; because my bearers slipped ; 
but I happily fell on an adjacent dry grass-plot. It is a great 
inconvenience for persons who, like me, travel ex professo, 
that at such places as Cape Coast Castle, it is impossible to 
hire the necessary vehicles, but you must be dependant on 



40 JOURNAL OF THE 

■ 

the kindness of others. I had the good fortune to find, in 
Mr. Henry Smith, a man who anticipated all my wants with 
the utmost affability, assisting me, in fact, in every possible 
manner. 

There is much less of botanical interest near the town than 

I had expected, the number of plants increasing materially 

with the distance from it. The present season, immediately 

subsequent to the rains, is not very favourable : the rain had 

nearly ceased on the coast, and only a few showers fell now 

and then ; but a few miles inland, much rain prevails about 

this time ; and on my trip to Quowprath, about six miles, I 

got thoroughly soaked. I saw many plants without flowers 

or fruit; but not one that was Monocotyledonous, though 

many are said to occur with splendid flowers. The difference 

of the vegetation from what we had last visited, was very 

striking. Here Leguminosa* were predominant, and Rubiacea 

less so ; Mimosa*, with their characteristic foliage, which I had 

hitherto seen but rarely, became conspicuous. The country 

is varied with hill and dale, and covered with shrubs 6 or 7 

feet high, intermingled with single lofty trees^ particularly 

Bombax, in leaf, but without blossom or fruit, which the 

inhabitants call Iron-wood, 

I found another single tree of considerable height, with 
flowers and fruit: it seems to be a new genus related to 
Crescentia. The fruit is filled with solid firm pulp, 2 feet 
long, 1| foot broad hanging downwards, as also does the 
flower, by a long pedicel. About the town, and in its vici- 
nity, grows a half- shrubby Cassia, similar to occidental, but 
with a round divided fruit which might be taken for that of 
C. Sophora. The true Cassia occidentals occurs likewise. 
Poinciana pukherrima, just coming in flower, prettily lined 
the roadsides ; and in the jungle grows a yellow Composita 
(I only saw two Composite in flower) which often adorned 
great parts of the way, and seems diffused over the whole 
coast. Sarcocephalm was seen in blossom and fruit. The 
new genus of Apocynece, with large fruit, did not occur. A 
beautiful avenue of Hibiscus populneusi)) planted at the west 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 41 

end of the town, forms one of the marked features of Cape 
Coast Castle. As we were about to proceed to Accra, I 
thought it important to avail myself of the opportunity and 
to visit, if possible, the Danish settlements, founded in the 
interior by Isert, and to obtain information respecting them, 
which had not been received at all of late. The Wilberforce 
was not ready for sea ; but the Albert left on Friday, the 
30th July; and Captain Trotter allowed me to make the 
passage in this vessel, thus saving much of my time. We 
anchored on Saturday afternoon, at British Accra ; but it was 
late before I got on shore ; for the surf would not let us land 
without canoes, which, as at Cape Coast Castle, are made 
pointed at one end, and provided with a high bulwark. 

As my excursions led into the mountains, Dr. Stanger 
offered to accompany us ; and Mr. McLean, who went with 
us on shore, kindly provided us with quarters for the night, 
it being too late to proceed to Danish Accra. Sunday 
morning, the 1st of August, we set out in two little carriages, 
each drawn by four negroes, (here also the common way of 
travelling for Europeans) for Danish Accra ; where we called 
on Mr. Richter, a Danish merchant, and accompanied by 
him visited the Danish Governor, Mr. Dall ; to whom Mr. 
Richter and Mr. McLean introduced us. 

The fortifications here are not important : they consist of 
a few large houses, with lofty, airy rooms surrounded by a 
wall and breastwork, and are inhabited by the Europeans. 
They are white-washed and conspicuous at a great distance. 
The Danish fort is classic ground for a botanist, for here 
Isert and Thonning made the collection, through which we 
became acquainted with this Flora. The humane spirit of 
Isert, so warmly expressed in his writings on behalf of the 
negroes, rendered this place highly interesting to me ; and 
the more so, as we were engaged in an enterprize, aiming at 
the objects which he had endeavoured to attain during the 
latter years of his life. I inquired anxiously after his esta- 
blishments in the interior, but could obtain no official infor- 
mation about them. After Isert's decease, they had gone 



42 JOURNAL OF THE 

to decay. Mr. de Khon, who is said to have assumed the 
management, and introduced the plough, and is represented 
in various works which I have read, to have effected so 
much, never came here, as Mr. Richter and the Danish 
Governor positively assured me ! Since his time, indeed, 
no one took any trouble about these plantations ; and about 
1808, they were altogether given up. Every thing is now a 
wilderness, and the place not to be recognised. Flindt esta- 
blished about this time, another plantation on the River 
Volta near the Fort, the main object being distillation : but 
this was soon discontinued. About ten years ago, I believe 
another plantation was formed at the foot of the mountain 
in Aquafim, named « Frederic's Gau ;" and as we wished to 
visit it, Mr. Dall had the kindness to indulge us ; but he 
told us it was not extensive, and the superintendent 
being ill, it could not be in a very satisfactory state. The 
distance is fourteen or fifteen miles : the only mode of getting 
there is in a sort of palanquin or basket, carried by two 
poles, on the head of two or four negroes. Mr. Dall, by 
providing abundantly for all our wants, caused our cortege 
to amount to about sixteen persons. The direction, accord- 
ing to compass, was almost exactly N. by E We started 
at half past eleven o'clock. The first and greatest part of 
the way leads through Savannahs, covered with Grasses and 
Cyperacea intermixed with many species of shrubby and 
half-shrubby Leguminosce, besides a few Malvacece, and 
some tall but more generally only moderately high trees, 
viz : Bombax the genus which I mentioned at Cape Coast 
as perhaps related to Crescentia* Ficus, Fan-palms, Euphorbia 
druptfera, very conspicuous from its naked spur-like branches, 

eZZ ' ♦' W , Stlff inVerSel ? S P athulate »«Te. at the 

S ST ' T near the villages and huts *«■"*■* 

and Hz focus populneus. Towards the coast, the soil is sandy 

cul Jl 7r, SandSt ° ne 5 but S00n im P™ v *s, from the 

so rif n ? C ° rn > CaSSam > Ya ™> A ™^> various 
sorts of Cucumbers, and Bananas. Cocoas are little culti- 

• May it not be the Bignonia tulipifera, Schumacher ? 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 43 

* 

vated here; or in any part of Africa, which I have seen. 
We crossed several ridges of hills affording pleasant views 
over the surrounding country, covered with fresh green, and 
struck then into the jungle; where the shrubs, common 
on this coast, grew abundantly, about a man's height, 
and closely interwoven with creepers. Leguminosa dimi- 
nished, and Rubiacece increased. Sarcocephalus, described by 
Schumacher as Cephalina esculenta, Th., is not uncommon. 
We arrived at the settlement towards six o'clock, p.m., too late 
to see much. The house of the superintendent lies half-way 
up the mountain ridge, and is roomy and comfortable, and 
being white-washed is conspicuous far off. At the foot of 
the mountain is a negro village and the plantation. Monday, 
August 2nd, having passed the night, in consequence of the 
friendly care of Mr. Dall, most comfortably, and supplied 
with every convenience, we were off at dawn of day; 
thermom. 73±° Fahr. The mountain is a quartz rock, covered 
in many places, and often to the depth of several feet, with 
vegetable mould, overgrown, where not cultivated, with 
Brushwood. The site of the house was at an elevation of 
about 1000 feet, and 100 above it grew a high Oil Palm. 
The brushwood consisted chiefly of Eubiacece, interwoven 
with Convolvulus : few in flower and none remarkable. In 
the plantation were the usual edible plants of this country : 
the settlement consists of a coffee ground, of no great 
extent. Governor Dall told us that about three years back, 
the trees had been destroyed by an insect, and they were 
now very small, 3 to 4 feet high, but thriving and bearing 
abundantly. The soil is excellent and rich ; but the esta- 
blishment looked neglected, which must be ascribed to the 
absence of the superintendent. Close by is another coffee 
ground belonging to Mr. Richter; but none of our compa- 
nions speaking English, I only heard of it after our return. 
Near these grounds is an avenue of Soursops {Anona muri- 
cata) and Oranges, and close by several trees just now beanng 
ripe fruit, clearly the Akee, or Blighia sapida. They seem 
to have been planted ; but on looking into Schumacher s 



44 JOURNAL OF THE 

description of Guinea plants, I found a Cupania edulis, men- 
tioned as an indigenous tree, which I dare say, is identical 
with the above. 

As we had only leave of absence until sunset of this day, 
we were obliged to content ourselves with the slight survey 
of a few hours, and after enduring an hour's heavy rain, we 
started at eleven o'clock and came back by the same road, 
though being down-hill, we got on faster ; and having returned 
sincere thanks to Governor Dall and Mr. Richter for their 
obliging and liberal assistance, we arrived in good time at 
British Accra ; where we found that the hour of departure 
had not yet been fixed. 

As soon as I got on board the Wilberforce, my first care 
was to shift my entire collection, especially the plants 
gathered since we arrived at Cape Coast Castle ; but though 
I had taken all possible care, much was spoilt and almost 
everything in a bad state. It has been my lot with almost 
all my collections on this coast, that after endless labour, I 
could only get together ill-conditioned plants ; for dampness 
and want of room are obstacles impossible to be overcome, 
and which forced me at last to satisfy myself with the mise- 
rable consolation, that I have done all the circumstances 
would admit. I mention this, on purpose, that in case my 
collection comes into other hands, I may not be accused of 
negligence. I have sacrificed every convenience to gain 
room and spared no trouble to overcome the dampness of 
the ship and of the atmosphere, but without success. The 
general arrangements of a man-of-war do not give much 
opportunity for such experiments. When will the time 
arrive, that expeditions, whose result must depend on the 
observations of naturalists, will afford them, from the outset, 
the appropriate and necessary accommodation ? At present, 
the vessels are fitted up for other purposes, and it is left to 
chance to d.scover a little nook for the philosopher. I was 
now obliged to devote the two days remaining which we spent 
at Accra, to the drying of my collection ; that all might not 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 45 

Thursday, August 5.— We left Accra after midnight, 
and cast anchor on Sunday, the 9th, at the mouth of a 
river, supposed to be the Nun. The weather was gloomy, 
and a dense rain falling all day, caused the wet to make its 
way through the shutters, so that it was difficult to find a dry 
place, even for standing room. We stayed there the whole 
day, and sailed next morning for the mouth of the Nun, 
anchoring about nine miles off it, alongside the Albert. 

Friday, August 13.— The want of water, already felt 
the day before, was now more severely experienced ; 
although we had collected some rain on Monday. How such 
an Expedition came to be unprovided with water, especially 
when we consider that, on no account, ought we to have made 
use at first of the Niger water, is incomprehensible to me ! 
It had been easy to obtain abundance of good water at 
Danish Accra. 

Sunday, August 15. — We quitted our anchorage at half 
past eleven, a.m., and crossed without difficulty the bar; 
beyond which we cast anchor beside the Albert, at about 
a quarter to two, p.m. Here we stopped four days; during 
which I could only examine the right bank of the river, 
because I had no boat to get to the opposite side ; where the 
greater extent of land and a village seemed to offer more 
interest. The river is here perhaps 10,000 yards wide ; and 
the stream carries down a great deal of sand. The tide 
showed itself very distinctly, running perhaps three or four 
knots an hour, and the current seeming to set more on 
the left shore, which appears to be a mere sandbank, or 
sandy foreland, than on the right, which is covered with 
jungle, immediately beyond the sandy strand. The mouth 
of the Nun looks like a Delta, on a small scale ; at least now, 
during the rainy season, being intersected by many shallow 
watercourses, forming, further on, low lands covered with 
Mangroves, similar to what I observed at Bassa Cove (Grand 
Bassa). The Avicennia appeared to prove, that the one 
hitherto seen, with quite naked leaves (A. nitida ?) at Grand 
Bassa, is but a variety of that at Sierra Leone. In these 



46 JOURNAL OF THE 

■ 

Mangrove swamps, the Oil palm often grew, covered with 
parasitical Ferns, (I found only two species of Ferns besides 
those, which are terrestrial), and on somewhat higher ground, 
Drepanocarpus lunatus, Ormocarpus verrucosus, a few shrubby 
Rubiacea, and a fewMimosece. Of the trees, intermixed with 
the Mangroves, little can be said : they were not many, and 
all covered, to the very top, with parasites. Some belonged to 
the genus Bombax. This land, if it can be so called, was but a 
few feet above high-watermark, and consisted of sea-sand and 
vegetable remains. The beach was quite flat, hardly higher 
than the sea, covered in many places with water, and formed 
of sand, mixed with mica, probably carried down by the 
Niger, and giving its shores a shining and peculiar appearance. 
In some places, the strand is clothed with jungle close to the 
sea, consisting of Chrysobalanus Icaco and Ecastophyllum 
Brownei ; the fruits of the former, of a beautiful red, were very 
conspicuous. Intermingled with these grew Melastomacea, 
Diodia maritima, Th., some other small Rubiacece, and Sco- 
paria dulcis ; while the border, towards the higher woods, 
was frequently ornamented with the beautiful yellow flowers of 
Hibiscus tiliaceus. Amongst these shrubs, spots might be seen, 
here and there, covered with tall rough Grass and Cyperacea, 
to the height of a man, and higher, bound together by Con- 
volvuli, Cassytha, and other Lianes, rendering them perfectly 
impenetrable. I found several places closely matted with 
Stylosanthes Guineemis, forming carpets; upon which one 
might cross pools without observing them. The most 
barren and sandy places were much overgrown with a Te- 
leianthera, R. Br., [lllecebrum obUquum, Schum. ?) an Euphor- 



rinervia 



creeping Dolichos and Convolvulus Pes Capra, (rotundi/ol. 
bchum.), which latter is diffused over the whole coast from 
Monrovia An Umbellifera {Hydrocotyle interrupta, fi- 
pla typh. DC), grew every where on the beach amongst 
the Mangroves, and seems to overspread the whole coast. 
A species of Malaghetty Pepper, differing from that in 
Irrand Bassa by the long beak of the fruit, was frequent. 



' VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 47 

On one spot, amongst the Mangroves, I noticed, on the de- 
caying roots, a delicate white plant, having white scales instead 
of leaves, and three flowers : it was a parasite on the roots, 
but sent forth roots of its own. I have preserved a few 
specimens in spirits. Upon the whole, I have seen too little 
of the vegetation here, to compare it with that of any place 
hitherto visited on the coast. On the opposite shore, they 
cultivate Cocoa Palms, of which the natives brought us 
the nuts : on the right bank, where we did not now see any 
inhabitants, the Cassada showed traces of abandoned plan- 
tations. The scenery is not remarkable. At the entrance, 
the left side presented a pleasant prospect, from the familiar 
forms of the forest and Cocoa Palm: on the opposite shore, 
beyond the forest and brushwood, there appeared a sort of 
lagoon ; while behind that, the Mangroves rose into an erect 
and lofty-stemmed wood. 

Of the natives, I saw only few, and none very near. They 
seemed to be well-formed, robust men, with their hair 
frequently shorn in a crest shape, but having nothing par- 
ticular in their dress. I was told that they have a language of 
their own (Bassa language). The weather was changeable, al- 
ternate rain and sunshine, the former moderate and the 
heat never oppressive. By day and night, but especially 
during the day, a fresh sea-breeze prevailed. 

Friday, August 20.— At break of day, we proceeded up 
the river, and although it rained violently, every one was in 
high spirits at our at last moving onwards, and beginning, 
after so much detention, the Expedition itself. A little 
above the bar, the river, dividing into creeks and branches, 
is very wide ; resembling a lake ; but the only branch deep 
enough for the steamers, at present known to unite with the 
upper part, called " Louis Creek/' is narrow in proportion, 
at one part only sixty to eighty English yards wide. So 
far, the shore is covered with Mangrove {Rhizophora), 
which, with its roots descending from the branches, has 
a singular appearance ; but this is only the case with old 
trees ; for the young Mangroves often form woods of dense 



48 JOURNAL OF THE 

foliage, now in the full splendour of green leaves — a glorious 

sight ! Only in a few places, I saw Ferns spring out of 

the water amongst the Mangroves. A little beyond Louis 

Creek, the character of the vegetation underwent a marked 

change : although the country was still much covered with 

Mangroves, they receded to the back-ground, and the stream 

itself was lined with young, still bushy, Oil-Palms : Pandanus 

Candelabrum showed, not seldom, its grass-like leaves ; while, 

here and there, other trees mixed with them ; until, near 

Sunday Island,* (about thirteen English miles from the sea), 

the Mangroves and Pandanus disappear. Then the shore 

was lined with small trees and shrubs, with fresh glossy 

foliage, backed by the tall and elegant forms of fully grown 

Oil palms, a view which can never tire our sight. These 

Palms are 60-80 feet high. The stems are thickest in the 

middle ; but the contraction towards the bottom is hardly 

perceptible. The top is rounded. The leaves are long, their 

tips somewhat pendent ; the lower leaves more so, which 

causes the cylindrical shape. 

Hitherto we had met few natives ; but they now began to 
show themselves, more and more numerous, in their small 
canoes. Their thatched huts, close to the river, were sur- 
rounded by plantations of Pisang, descending apparently into 
the water. I saw occasionally Bombax trees, or Leguminosa 
and Mimosea, easily distinguishable by their peculiar foliage; 
and some other trees, which might have been taken for 
species of Ficus. The trees increased in number : towards 
evening, we passed shores covered with tall Reeds, beyond 
which thick forests extended; but under no circumstances 
was there a deficiency of Oil Palms. Alternating with 
reeds, we observed plantations of Pisang and Sugar-cane, 
completely in water ; close to small villages which became 
very numerous. After sunset, we anchored in the midst of 
the stream. From Alburka Island we reckon to have 
made thirty-five English miles, (or forty from the sea.) 

* The influence of the tide extends only as far as " Sunday Island."-" 
(H. D. Trotter.) 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 49 

■ 

Saturday > August 21.— We proceeded, the three ships in 
company, at day-break. The vegetation resembled, on the 
whole, what we had seen yesterday : the trees often descend- 
ing close to the water, and exhibiting a mass of parasites of 
most singular forms. Sometimes I saw flowers, and fruit, 
which only made me regret, that I could not examine them 
closer. In Madeira I botanized on horseback, at Cape Coast 
Castle out of a carriage, and at Accra in a basket ; but from 
a steam-ship it was impracticable. The villages became very 
frequent : in the plantations we saw (through the telescope) 
besides Pisang and Sugar, occasionally Cassada, Maize and 
Yam; to which may be added the Oil palm and the Cocoa, 
similar to the latter, but (here at least) not so slender, being 
rather short and of vigorous growth. But whilst the Oil 
palm grew every where, the Cocoa showed itself only near 
villages : a sure proof of its not being indigenous. Soon 
after noon, an attempt was made to proceed by another than 
the usual branch of the river, round an island ; but we found 
that it did not speedily join the main stream ; and we were 
separated from the other vessels, which had taken the eastern 
branch. After sunset we anchored, having come about thirty - 
six miles. Soon after entering the western branch, we 
perceived on the right shore a village of clay cottages, 
from whence a chief came off to us : the village was called 
Otuo. The men in the canoes were a robust race, and, like 
others who visited us in the course of the day, had a line or 
mark drawn over the forehead down to the nose. Their 
clothes showed nothing remarkable : but the hair of some 
was divided into squares, like a chess-board ; while others wore 
it plaited, in numerous little tails, which stood erect on the 
head like so many horns. They spoke the Bassa language. 
The shore was generally very low, rising but little above the 
nver, at the most elevated part perhaps 4 feet ; while the 
bared roots of plants made me think that the water is 
sometimes higher than at this time. 

Sunday, August 22.— Proceeding at break of day, we soon 



50 JOURNAL OF THE 

perceived on the left side a town : the first we had yet seen, 
situated on an elevation of 6 to 10 feet above the river, and 
containing clay cottages, each with a covered court-yard; 
while higher up were some magazines or warehouses. I saw 
here no Cocoapalms ; but in the course of the day a few single 
ones occurred. The natives, who assembled on the shore, 
to the number of several hundreds, it was fancied, men- 
tioned the name of the town as " Amasuma*' and that of the 
river as cc Oguberri. 5 ' Further on we came to two equally 
wide branches of the river, with equally strong currents, 
joining together : after some consideration, the easternmost 
was chosen, and at two o'clock we arrived at a similar place, 
but where the western channel was very narrow. We pro- 
ceeded a short way upwards ; and Captain Allen caused two 
plants to be fetched by the boat, which was towing. One is 
probably a new Dalbergia, and one a Creeper, which I had 
watched eagerly ever since " Sunday Island/" It climbs 
up the trees along the shore, to their very summits, and 
then drops many thread-like stalks, 6 feet long, covered at 
the top with bundles of yellow flowers, which often reach the 
ground. It appears a new genus, closely allied to Mucuna; 
and I call it provisionally Mucuna flagellipes. Both plants 
were unfortunately without fruit. Returning down this 
branch, we saw, close to the fork on the left side, a village, 
the name of which we understood to be Haddi, i. e. small 
box. Towards sunset, we arrived again at the eastern or 
main branch, left on Saturday, which is, at the place of sepa- 
ration, a river of 3 to 4000 feet wide : its shores are elevated 
some feet and covered with reeds and shrubs : on the left 
bank, immediately opposite to the fork, stands a village, or 
rather three small ones, somewhat apart and consisting of 
clay h$fcs, and magazines, raised on posts. The name of the 
last of the three sounded like " Obokriga. 5 ' Not far beyond 
this we anchored, when it got dark. The general character 
of the country was the same as yesterday ; but the shores 
being somewhat higher, I was able generally to see the soil? 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 51 

though frequently the shrubs and plants were immersed up 

to their lower leaves. The vegetation appeared the same as 
before. 

Monday, August 23.— Again in movement at break of day. 
On the shore, which was lower than on the previous day, 
we noticed a few villages ; and some negroes came alongside 
in canoes and on board. They wore not only the streak 
down the forehead, but mostly three parallel lines on each 
cheek-bone. Towards ten o^clock we arrived at a village on 
the right shore, named in Laird's expedition " Ibu," and 
"Little Ibu" in Allen's chart :* the inhabitants called it Ocro- 
tombi or Korotumbi ; but it was some time, before we could 
clearly hear the name. The chief, who came on board, wore 
an old blue European jacket, and a perfectly new green cap, 
with tassel strings. It had rained in the morning : towards 
noon the weather cleared, and a boat going on shore to take 
the sun's meridian, I joined it, and we landed at a plantation, 
where the ground, about 4 or 5 feet above the level of the 
water, consisted of good vegetable soil, mixed with clay and 
sand, and cultivated with Cocoa trees. Yams, and Capsi- 
cum. Sorghum (rubrum ?) grew apparently indigenous, and 
formed grassy forests, 10 or 11 feet high. The geographical 
latitude was found to be 5° 14' N. The spot was a little 
lower down than that called Ofitulo on Allen's map. 
Towards ten o'clock we approached Stirling's Island, and on 
account of the violent rain, we cast anchor there for a short 
tune : the rain felt very cold (refer to my Meteorol. Journal). 
We proceeded about three o'clock ; the rain continuing 
Ml night, with variable violence. Shortly before dark we 
Passed a place on the right shore, called, according to 

* Lieut. Allen's chart of the River Niger or Quorra, published by 
B ate, in the Poultry, London.— Lieut. William Allen, who surveyed the 
nver i n 1832—3, in the Alburka steamer, under Messrs. Lander and 
Laird, was second in command on the Niger Expedition, and Comman- 
der of H.M. Ship Wilberforce, the steamer in which Dr. Vogel ascended 
the river.-(H. D. Trotter). 

E 2 



52 



JOURNAL OF THE 



Mr. Brown, « Ingliana." Near it I noticed an extensive plan- 
tation of Bananas ; and soon after this, we cast anchor. The 
borders of the rivers were every where covered with forests, 
reaching to the water's edge, or with intervening high grass, 
{.Sorghum saccharinum ?) Amongst these, there were frequently 
places cleared for plantations, or they might be natural 
open spots in the forests, where high trees would stand 
singly. A great inconvenience and misfortune it is that 
we are obliged to drink such bad water : it has not only 
a dirty colour, but owing to its being saturated with decora- 
posed vegetable and animal matter, a sickening taste, which, 
though somewhat lessened, is not removed by filtration. 

Tuesday, August 24. -At eight o'clock we passed so near 
the shore, that I could botanize ; and I observed the blos- 
soms of a high tree {Mimosa) and of a climber, a Tetracera, 
perhaps not different from T. Senegalensis {obovata ?) Towards 
ten o'clock we came to the Benin (Warree) branch. On the 
point of land, between the two arms of the river, a signal-post 
was erected, and this gave me the opportunity of visiting 
the shore for a few minutes, and I found it covered with the 
Sorghum previously noticed. An JEschynomene, Cassia 
mzmosozdesznd a Malvacea, were all I could pick up in the 
hurry. Though, from on board ship, the shore had appeared 
swampy, lt p roV ed fi rm to the ^^ J { \ &m 

inclined to believe that spots, looking marshy at a distance, 
are not really so p erh aps some swamps may be formed 
in .dry weather by the receding of the waters; but since 
our quitting the Mangrove country, I have not observed 

any absolute morasses: on the contrary, the land appears 
ever where to , or g ^ ^ PP 

Reason We7 "fl ^ ^^ SWam P s in the ^ 
season. We descended the Benin (Warree)* branch for a few 

Warree bra„chZ ( H. £ tIoS) "** *"*" * * M *" 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 53 

miles : it nowise differs from the main river, except that the 
stream is somewhat narrower. By four o'clock we returned 
to the point of junction ; and during our short stay, a great 
many canoes assembled about us. Some were large and 
carried twelve or sixteen persons, others fewer; and some 
had only one in them. The canoes are the same as before, 
with a high and broad stern. One man stood steering with a 
paddle. There were perhaps sixteen canoes, containing 
about one hundred and ten people, who had come mostly 
from Obiah, on the right shore of the river. Their dress had 
nothing very peculiar. The main difference consisted in the 
various coral and pearl strings, or ivory and brass rings, 
which they wore on arms and legs, and in the manner of 
dressing the hair. The latter struck us particularly, now 
that so many individuals had collected, and we could look 
down on their heads, from the deck of our ship. Some had 
cut their hair so round and formally, that it bore the most 
deceptive semblance to a wig: some shaved their heads 
quite bald; while others only kept a portion of hair behind, 
or a large portion forming a narrow ridge across, or it was 
allowed to grow high in the middle of the head, like a small 
steeple. Some whimsical fellows exhibited merely a narrow 
strip of hair from behind to the front, looking like the crest 
°f a helmet, or perhaps an oblong square ; or it was cut in 
chequers, and the remaining portion twisted into numbers of 
httle tails ; while others wore their hair like our European 
dandies, arranged in various ways on the sides of the head. 
The river,* at the separation of the Benin (Warree) branch, 

* The branch which here separates from the Nun or main branch of 
the Delta of the Niger, runs to the sea by the town of Warree or Warri, 
falling into the Bight of Benin to the north-west of the mouth of the 
Nun river. Captain Becroft of the Ethiope, Mr. Jamieson's steamer, 
was the first to ascend the Niger by this branch, in 1840. Lieutenant 
Allen had previously conjectured it to be the Benin river, with which, 
however, there is only a communication by creeks. This accounts for 
Dr. Vogel calling it the Benin branch in his Journal. 

Above the separation of these two branches, the river may be properly 



54 JOURNAL OF THE 

is about a mile wide : the commencement of this branch 
measured 696 yards. At five o'clock we quitted the Benin 
(Warree) branch, returning into the main stream, which has 
here a lake-like appearance, surrounded with high trees: 
many of the canoes followed, spreading over the water, 
and greatly enlivening the scene by zealously rowing to keep 
up with us. Towards sunset we cast anchor. The weather 
was very cheerless, being generally rainy, except at noon. 

Wednesday, August 25. — Proceeded at the usual time. 
Much rain and therefore several stoppages. At noon we 
reached a place, marked on Allen's map, Egaboh, but now 
called " Ulok." The sun showing itself, and an attempt to 
make observations following, I was enabled to land for a 
short time. The grass along the shore was not a Sorffhum, 
but some other genus. Close to the water-side grew a fig- 
tree, with very small fruit. The neighbouring chief, an old 
leprous man, came onboard: he wore a drummer's jacket 
given him at the time of Laird's expedition (he seemed to 
have taken great care of it) and carried an iron staff divided at 
the top and ornamented with brass rings. After some deten- 
tion, occasioned by heavy rains, we pursued our course, the 
stream being generally about half a mile wide, and the vege- 
tation the same as heretofore. Approaching the creek that 
leads to Ibu (Abdh)* the current proved so strong, that we 

called the Niger, the name by which it has been so long known in the 
civilized world. The natives have no name for the river, excepting 
the general appellation of " Water," which varies with the different 
languages spoken on the banks. Mungo Park found it called " Joliba" 
in the higher parts of the river. In the Houssa country it is called 
Quorra."— (H. D. Trotter). 



* 



Schon says the proper name of this town is not Ibu, but " Aboh. 
The town had hitherto been called by Europeans " Ibo" or " Eboe," 
and was generally supposed to be the capital of the whole of the Ibo 
country ; but we ascertained that its proper name is " Aboh," and that 
it is the principal town of the territory of the same name, which forms a 
part only, and that probably the most western, of the Ibo country. 
(H. D. Trotter).— See Captain Trotter's Report to Lord Stanley; Parlia- 
mentary Papers relating to the Niger Expedition, p. 91. 



Tab 1 




DELTA OF THE N ICER ._ LE FT B ANK ._ BELOW ABOH. 







^ fW 



Y1LLACE ON LEFT BANK OF THE DELTA. 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 55 

could hardly make way against it : on the preceding day it 
had only been one and a half or two knots an hour. Towards 
half past seven we cast anchor at the Ibu (Ab6h) creek, 
abreast of the creek leading to the town of Aboh. 

Thursday, August 26. — Early in the morning, the Captain 
and myself rowed about in the Ibu (Aboh) creek, and col- 
lected a few plants. This creek, at present very wide, is 
without a current : the main channel measures perhaps 100 
yards. The right shore is now inundated; the shrubs being 
altogether covered with water, and the grasses immersed to 
their ears, on which snails, ants and small beetles had settled, 
by way of refuge, in great numbers. We had taken on board, 
on the previous day, a man who wanted to go as pilot to 
Aboh : he seemed to be a careful and clever person. Granby, 
our interpreter * for Brass and Ibo," recognised him as an 
old acquaintance, he (Granby) having lived here a long while 
before being sold to the Europeans. The Ibo man was 
rejoiced to see him again, and expressed his astonishment, 
that a man sold to the Europeans should return; it being the 
general opinion that such slaves were used for food ! 

Large canoes were fastened in the jungle: they had come 
from the Brass country, chiefly to purchase palm oil, for 
which purpose, large casks lay on board, under roofs of 
matting. Aboh is on the opposite side of the shore, here 
intersected by several small creeks : otherwise it is covered 
to the water's edge with brushwood, behind which are the 
huts. I gathered on this occasion a few Mimosas, Sapinda- 
cece, and Rubiacea; but the most interesting was a shrub 
{Polyand. Pentag., fruct. placentis 5 parietalibus) apparently 
a new genus of Biwacece. In the main stream, and even in 
the smaller creeks was a Pistia, perhaps Pistia Stratiotes : 
it does not, however, seem to grow here, but to float down 
the Niger, where it may be seen drifting in large masses. 
Some specimens were in flower : fruit I could not discover. 
In the morning we had a visit from King Obi's son : towards 
noon he came himself, with a lot of noisy followers, and 



56 



JOURNAL OF THE 



henceforth we were constantly surrounded by many canoes. 
These people wear either a piece of cloth round the loins, or 
portions of European dresses; only King Obi had both 
coat and trowsers. Obi is between fifty and sixty, with a 
true Negro face, but cunning. The son is a finely formed, 
strong, powerful young man. King Obi brought with him 
one of his wives, a very young person, and a daughter, 
dressed in African style, i. e. sans g<?ne. When this was 
observed, Commissioner Cook gave to the wife a red, and 
Captain Allen to the daughter, a coloured gown ; but the 
latter was not pleased with hers. One might mention several 
peculiarities about their attire ; but such things, and their 
smoking pipes, &c, did not particularly interest me. Several 
women wore enormous ivory rings round the legs. The 
account I have before given of the various ways of dressing 
their hair might be extended. The desire to possess what- 
ever they saw, was unequivocal ; but I heard of no thefts. 
There were a good many tools scattered about on deck, 
which in the confusion might easily have been taken. The 
weather was rainy and very uncomfortable. 

Friday, August 27—Through incessant rains the ground 
got swampy, in fact so mnddy, that it became impossible to 
make any extensive excursions. Besides some plants pre- 
viously mentioned, I collected CucurUtacea, Apocynea, a 
Bens and a species of Malaghetiy pepper, which, judging by 
£e leaves and fruit, is identical with that at the mouth of the 
JNun River: a fine Costus was very common : a Salvinia, not 
rare m the creeks, and a Ceratophyllum, which I had seen 
before m Aboh creek. On the stems of trees grew three 
species of Mosses : on the ground none. Whoever may have 

nrobT, TT t0 mVeSti § ate *«■ creeks in a boat, would 
probably find many Cryptogamia, new to the African 

thi^S' fTZ 28 - J had r eSterda y se *n a tree, about 

* «m stiaignt branches, closely appressed at the top, 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 57 

and bearing a corymb of rose-coloured blossoms, rising from 
the terminal cluster of leaves. Having noticed this object 
through the telescope from the deck, I of course wished to 
obtain the flower, and landing, I asked two negroes (from 
Sierra Leone) who accompanied me, whether they would 
procure it ; but they both declared it impracticable, because 
of the high grass. I therefore cut a way with my knife ; but on 
reaching the tree, I found it too lofty for me to get to the top 
without loss of time ; the period for which the boat was lent 
me having expired. To-day, I succeeded again in obtaining 
the boat for a short while; and I found fortunately one 
amongst the negroes who climbed the tree, about 16 feet high, 
and gathered a few branches with an iron hook. I record 
this circumstance here intentionally, as an instance of my 
nearly daily difficulties. Amongst the few plants which 
I collected, there were many that occur along the whole 
coast; as, for instance, Sarcocephalus. According to what 
Mr. Schon told me, the name of this place, which. I had 
considered to be Ibu, is Aboh. In the afternoon we left Ibu 
(Aboh,) and steamed it by moonlight till eleven o'clock, when 
we cast anchor. Sunday, 29th, we did not move. Weather 
very bad. 

Monday, August 30.— Started by day-break. Neither the 
country nor the river offered any thing new. 

Tuesday, August 31. — I had twice an opportunity of 
visiting the shore for a short while. The first time, I found a 
terrestrial Orchidea, 4 feet high : a great part of the jungle 
on the right shore consisted of a Fig-tree, with long branch- 
es, covered with fructification shooting out from the old 
wood : its whit/" bark was visible at a great distance. The 
ants were here dreadfully troublesome. At two o'clock, when 
passing an island, we perceived a strong very sweet smell, 
(almost like the Tetracera which I had collected on the 24th), 
b ut I could not descry any flowers through the telescope. 
In the afternoon we saw, at a distance, on the left shore, the 
first low hills, and soon afterwards a water-course on the 



58 JOURNAL OF THE 

same side ; apparently quite still, for the current of the Niger 
ran in a sharply distinct line athwart it. This part, including 
the hills and river, is said to be called "Oredtha;" it is 
opposite Kirro market, (so named in Allen's chart.) In this 
branch of the river grew many Pistue ; but higher up the 
Niger, we also met them floating in large quantities. This 
plant appears to have been displaced, by rising waters, from 
its tranquil domicile, as is frequently the case with others : 
for we pass many small floating islands of grass and other 
plants, clumps of rolled-up grass, and stems of huge trees, 
appearing in the distance, with their roots and branches 
partly emerging from the water, exactly like canoes. The 
river, since we left Ibu, (Aboh), continues about half-a-mile 
in width, sometimes more : the water very muddy, and of a 
clay colour: the shores low, covered with brushwood, inter- 
twined with so many creepers as to form, sometimes for 
great distances, a vegetable wall. This wall was particularly 
remarkable on the left side of the said still water ; behind it 
rose a few hillocks, with much cultivation, {Sorghum vul- 
gar e ?) amongst which single trees were interspersed. A 
peculiar feature of this part consists in the small huts raised 
on poles along the shore ; from which the natives, according 
to Brown, drop their fishing-lines into the river. 

Wednesday, September 1.— This morning the river was 
very wide, in one part above a mile, and covered with Pistia. 
There were hills, especially on the left side, but they ceased 
before we reached Damugu* Of this place we only discerned 
a few huts, the first round ones, with a pointed overhanging 
grass roof. On the whole we saw to-day but few villages : 
if there are more, they must lie beyond the jungle. Nor did 
we observe any Cocoa palms, which had occurred in several 
places on the previous day. About Damugu, the country 
seems covered with high forests: hitherto, there had been 
only low woods. Towards evening, we saw isolated high 
trees, apparently covered with blossoms 3 but through the 

• Or Adda-Mugu.-(H. D. Trotter.) 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 59 

telescope we descried these fancied flowers to be white birds, 

{Egrets?) of which several stalked, here and there, along 
the shore. m 

Thursday, September 2. — Beyond Damugu, the land 
appears again lower and covered with jungle. I think that 
the shores of the main river are mostly lined with forests, 
and the islands covered with grass and underwood. To- 
wards noon we came to finely wooded hills ; and in the 
evening, King William's Mountain appeared, (see Allen's 
chart.) I had twice the opportunity of going for a short 
time on shore. First to an open place, covered with 
grass ; where I found Cassia Absus, mimosoides ? a Psoralea, 
some Graminete, Malvacete and Schmidelea : a Sarcocephalus 
grew likewise here. The second time was near a village ; 
where the cottages are round, and plaited of palm-leaves 
and grass. Storehouses, raised on poles, are filled with Indian 
corn. A Tephrosia (toxicarid), almost arborescent, was 
planted about the huts, which a Krooman told me, was used 
to benumb the fish. A fine red flower, on a high tree, could 
not be procured: it appeared to be Beauvois' Spathodea; 
and I fancied I had seen it several times in the Delta. 

Friday, September 3. — We can quite overlook the country 
from on board our vessel. On both sides, the river is mar- 
gined at some distance with hills : further off, towards the 
north, rise mountains, enveloped with blue mist. Only on 
the left side, the hills approach the shore, and are, for 
the space of about a quarter of a mile, quite abrupt to about 
100 feet high, of red sandstone, visible, because of its bright 
colour, at a great distance. The top is often covered with 
overhanging vegetation. On this hill stands the town of 
Attah*, (Iddah), surrounded by cultivated grounds. In the 
distance grow Cocoa palms and Baobab trees, the latter 
bearing long pendent fruit. This morning I had another 

* Attah is the name of the chief, and not of the town ; or rather, Attah 
ia the title of the chief, who is styled the Attah or King of Egarra, or 
more generally "the Attah." The town is called Iddah. — (H. D. 
Trotter.) 



60 



JOURNAL OF THE 



opportunity of going on shore. The ground in front 
of the hill, and down the river, is now quite covered with 
water. Some way up, I found a BaobalUree, apparently con- 
sisting of several stems joined : it was by no means low, per- 
haps 30 feet high to the branches, and altogether 70 to 80 feet 
high. The fruit is remarkable, suspended from stalks l\ foot 
long ; but I could only collect a few specimens, being obliged 

to rpfnrn "Wo ™^r«J 4.~ 4.x, _ • i . i , . ,. ^ 



dan" already was, to cut fire- wood, the « Albert" remaining 
behind, and lay close to the shore; of which a considerable 
breadth was inundated. In the afternoon, a number of 
natives arrived to see what we were doing ; especially, (as they 
said), because the people of the Attah sometimes come here 
to make slaves. They appeared never yet to have been in 
contact with Europeans : they wore the country cloth round 
their loins, and were armed with bows and arrows, the latter 
with only wooden points. The quivers seemed to be formed 
of goatskins. Their town is said to be five miles inland, and 
is called « Waapa .» The country is called Angori, and is 
under the chief of this town. 

According to one of our free negroes, a native of these 
parts this district belongs to "Benin Country," which 
extends to the sea. The « Great King" of it sacrifices daily 
three human beings. (!) I t was singular tha( . nQne of the 

Angori people had canoes, although their plantations 
came down to the edge of the river. One, of Yams (Dioscorea 
sahva) and Maize, was situated close to our vessel : amongst 
these plants grew a few Tephrosim, which, a « Nufi man" told 
me were used in his country for catching fish, and are seen 

eont 7f I „ CUlt 7 ated - The b ™-wood near the river 
wheTerH 7 °[ Qu ^ualis obovata, (Schum.), which, 
Lnea ra S „ WhltC ° r rCd Wrs > ha <* * beautiful 

TlZZT™. a ^^ Sp ° ndias > ^rcocephalus, a few 
Oil palms, Lonchocarpus formosa, &c 

me^haTtr T^ ^ ** int ° the interior showed 
me rtiat the soil on the hills is much mixed with sand, owing 

to the decomposed sandstone. I could not get far; the 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 61 

land being chiefly savannahs, the remnants of decayed forests : 
Tamarinds, and other Leguminosce, a Banisteria, (?) and 
Bombax were conspicuous, besides other trees, already men- 
tioned. Of herbaceous and shrubby plants I found, amongst 
the Cyperacece and Grasses, chiefly Leguminosce^ Besmodium, 
Cassia, Malvacece, Euphorbiacece, {Phyllanthus, Tragia). 
Near the shore, in water-holes, grew frequently a Lemna* 
now in flower. A flowering Loranthus, with verdigris-co- 
loured fruit, was parasitical on a Leguminosa, now almost 
under water. 

^ The burning sun, which came out after rain, gave me a 
violent head-ache. Towards evening, we proceeded a few 
miles up the river, and staid there during Sunday the 5th of 
September, in company with the other vessels, keeping 
the Sabbath as a day of rest. The current ran here extremely 
strong, about three knots and a half per hour. 

Monday, September 6. — I felt very unwell ; and towards 
noon slight fever came on, which exhausted me much. 
In the evening we followed the "Albert" to Iddah, and 
grounded near the eastern inundated part of English Island. 
Here we remained till Wednesday, September 8, in the 
evening, when we succeeded in getting afloat again, and 
proceeded a few miles upwards. 

Thursday, September 9.— Till mid-day I felt unwell and 
weak, but then got better. We approached the "mountains, 
which proved to consist of small ridges, 1,000 to 2,000 feet 
n gh; and the scenery was sometimes very pretty, the 
mountains being overgrown with trees to the top. The hills, 
which we passed first, and then the mountains, seemed 
to form several (more than two?) basins; through which 
the river had forced its way, as is frequently the case with 
fountain streams. We proceeded along the eastern branch, 
to the Bokweh Island. The foremost mountains of King's 
Peak (so called in Allen's chart) came down to the river, 
a nd we could clearly distinguish large strata in the declivity 

* Is it different from L. minor, of Europe ? The leaves are distinctly 
striated ; which, so far as I recollect, is not the case in our plant. 



62 JOURNAL OF THE 

and down to the bottom. At the northern end of the island, 
a beautiful prospect was suddenly disclosed, upon the 
mountains on the right shore, from Mount Jervis to Mount 
Saddleback, (see Allen's chart), contrasting, at the moment 
we came out of the channel, most distinctly with the horizon, 
then strongly illuminated by the setting sun. I observed no 
great change in the vegetation ; unless perhaps less grass 
prevailed on the right shore. We never before saw so many 
canoes descending the river as to-day : some very large : all 
had a small scaffolding in the middle ; and in some of them 
were horses, no bigger than donkeys. The current, where we 

anchored a little above Bokweh Island, was three knots and 
a half. 

Friday 9 September 10.— To-day we passed the mountains, 
most of which rise in elongated ridges • but others are isolated, 



their slopes covered with large boulders, between which is a 
thick brushwood. The scenery is very pretty : mountains 
often like those of the Rhine ; but castles and vineyards 
are wanting, and the rivers too wide and full of island and 
swamps. About noon, we stopped near a small island, 
beyond Mount Soracle (in Allen's chart); the name of 
which, according to some natives who came on board, was 
Dagore. I was again unwell and could not go on shore ; but 
Roscher, who did, found the island of granite formation, and 
he brought me a few plants. Between Mount St. Michael and 
Mount Franklin in Allen's chart, stood a village, situated 
on a partly isolated hill 5 the first, which I had observed here, 
built on a considerable elevation ; most of the villages being 
close to the river, so that, because of the unusual rise of 
water a port.on of the huts are under water. A Leguminosa 
with the habit of Robinia, and violet blossoms now in full 
splendour, struck me : I also saw here and there a Baobab 
with fruit : yesterday I noticed many Cocoas, to-day none. 
Near a village, on the right shore, a little above Maconochie 
island grew some Fan palms; and we subsequently met with 
more : before this, I had only seen one in the Delta. We 
anchored about half-way between Mount Franklin and the 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 63 



confluence of the Niger and Chadda. The current runs two 

and a half knots. 

Saturday, September 11. — Before eight o'clock we cast 
anchor off Adda-Kuddu, the place which had been prelimi- 
narily fixed upon for the model-farm. The river expands 
here to a lake ; while, to the extreme left, the confluence with 
the Chadda is seen. Mountains above 2000 feet high are 
visible in every direction at a distance. The landing-place 
was remarkable for the many boulders, lying one over the 
other, surrounded and partly overgrown with shrubs and 
trees. In one conspicuous place I found a Baobab, looking 
much like an old Oak. Close by, were several others, one 
quite denuded, the rest with a little foliage, but all showing 
their characteristic pendent fruit. Being still poorly, I took 
Captain Trotter's advice and went on shore. The ruins 
of Adda-Kuddu surrounded the place, and were already 

covered with vegetation. 

Cylindrical holes, several feet deep, and 2 feet in diameter, 
and bricked for making dyes, were still visible. The ruins 
of African towns offer nothing picturesque. We hurried to 
some spot; from whence we might survey the country. 
About the town, the habitations of which had been round 
clay huts, lies a level valley bounded by low hillocks, which 
promised the territory best fit for cultivation. To get at it, we 
had to pass a place, where seemed to have been something like 
a ditch and wall. The valley itself had evidently been culti- 
vated at one time, but is now covered with Gr amine*, 
Cyperacece, a few small Euphorbia, Malvacex, and particularly 
Leguminosce ; amongst which two Tephrosia, one 5 or 6 feet 
high, were the most remarkable plants, rendering our pro- 
gress very difficult by their woody stalks. The valley was 
nearly dry, with only a few puddles" of rain water; and the 
ground is pretty well cleared, with here and there a few 
iarge pieces of broken rock. The soil consisted of decom- 
posed granite, and if it ever had been mixed with vegetable 
earth, it is exhausted by former cultivation. Quartz remained 
abundantly in it, in the shape of coarse sand, and I could 



64 JOURNAL OF THE 

not help condemning the soil as extremely indifferent. The 
inhabitants of Adda-Kuddu, upon their town being destroyed 
by the Felahtis, removed to the opposite side of the river, 
and built there the town called " Schimri/' (afterwards I 
heard other names for the new Adda-Kuddu) close to the 
shore. It is now, by reason of this year's unusually high 
water, quite inundated ; and therefore the people have erected 
another new city. The chief or governor (or Aneidjo) ap- 
pointed by the King of Iddah, paid us a visit. His compa- 
nions wore the NufI Toba, an under-dress with wide sleeves, 
reaching to the knuckles. He was decorated with large bells 
on the wrists ; and a slave fanned him with a leathern fan. 
In the afternoon we proceeded up the Niger, to Stirling Hill* 
to examine the country : it was difficult to learn at whose 
disposal it was ; but at last we were assured, that an inde- 
pendent tribe, said to be very savage, dwelt on the mountain. 
I was requested, towards sunset, to examine the soil in the 
valley, and found it no better, than at Adda-Kuddu. There 
were plantations of Maize and Yams. Mr. Carr had, in the 
meantime, been on the hill, and detected a rich vege- 
table soil. We returned immediately to Adda-Kuddu, which 
we reached at dark. The current here is two knots. The 
natives had brought cocoa-nuts on board, and on my inquiry, 
they said, the tree grew on the other shore ; but afterwards 
they asserted, that it was not found here at all. Mr. Brown 
had brought me from thence a Unona (!) and an apparently 
entirely new genus of the family of Leguminosce, with a. fruit 
similar to Sivartzia, and I subsequently found this little tree 
every where on the shore about Stirling. 

Sunday, September 12. — We remained quietly at anchor. 
Monday, September 13. — I went on shore to botanize 
amongst the ruins of Adda-Kuddu ; but the hot sun quickly 
forced me back. Papaws are here still frequent ; also some 
sorts of Cucurbit acece, which, with Asclepiadeae and Creepers, 
have overgrown the ruined huts. A Lemna growing in a 
puddle was the same as I had seen at Iddah. I observed 
here but a single Pistia float by ; whilst the day before, W* 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 65 

met with them in abundance, floating on the Quorra (Niger). 
In the afternoon I went again to Stirling hill, and explored 
it for a short time; but found the soil to consist of sand- 
stone, impregnated with iron, and therefore bad. A few 
spots only exhibited vegetable soil, formed of decomposed 
plants. 

Tuesday, September 14. — At six o'clock we climbed 
Mount Patteh. It is rather steep, difficult of ascent, and 
covered with many boulders of red iron sandstone. The 
pea-like formation is remarkable. There were single strata 
of quartz. The cultivation of Yams, Capsicum, Guinea-grain, 
(now without blossom or fruit) a bean or Dolichos, and a few 
Bananas, continued to the summit. A streamlet, running 
down from somewhere about midway of the mount, had a 
bed of clay, which is also more or less mixed with the soil 
generally ; and along this channel the chief brushwood grew. 
Largish isolated trees are met over the whole declivity, pro- 
bably remnants of former forests. It looks as if the useful 
trees had been preserved. Four species occurred particularly 
often ; Baobab ; Parkia, now without fruit or blossom, but 
with foliage ; Sarcocephalus, sometimes a stately tree, but 
with long branches showing a disposition to climb ; and the 
Hog-plum (Spondias), but this chiefly at the summit. The 
barometer gave 1200 feet, according to a hasty calculation, 
(subsequently 1150), above the level of the Niger. On the 
top is table-land (level plateau) much cultivated, and covered 
often with brushwood and a tree with yellow flowers, I think 
Beauvois' Spathodea ;* another tree, of which blossomf and 
fruit are preserved in acid, a shrubby Mimosa and species of 
Ficus, without fructification. A species of Tephrosia was fre- 
quently cultivated. I saw no Palm. The natives appeared, as 
yet, to have had no communication with Europeans : they were 
armed with bows and arrows, much Hke those of the country 



same 



frequent on the declivity. 

t A high, much branched, leafless Euphorbia, the juke of which » 

Raid to cause blindness. 



66 



JOURNAL OF THE 



near Angori: their arrows are said to be poisoned; and 
their clothes consisted of stuffs, manufactured by themselves. 
They were of a gentle nature ; and the mere word " scanu" 
was sufficient to conquer their diffidence. For some presents 
which we gave them, they expressed their thanks by bowing 
to the ground, and strewing repeatedly dust on the forehead, 
perhaps twelve times : the women uncovered the bosom and 
put dust on it. Decency amongst the women seemed to 
require, that the upper garment should be tightly fastened 
above the bosom, so as to cover it completely. The boys 
we saw were circumcised. 

Towards two o'clock I returned, not feeling well, for I 
had exerted myself too much. The sun had been clouded, 
and I had latterly protected myself with an umbrella ; never- 
theless in the afternoon and evening I felt so tired, and yet 
so heated and restless, that I cannot recollect ever having 
been so uncomfortable and disabled, without absolute ill- 
ness. Every exertion seems now to produce more or less 
this effect. Restlessness and exhaustion, burning of the skin 
and eruptions, become quite insufferable. 

Tuesday, September 14.— To-day I had to take care of the 
plants, which I gathered yesterday, and wished to arrange 
my collection, for which purpose I had been unable to 
obtain either room or a case, and was therefore obliged to 
preserve them, as best I could, in bundles in my cabin I 
a plan which was good neither for them, nor for myself 
My assistant, now somewhat trained, was unfortunately the 
best linguist, and our intercourse with the natives being very 
great, I could hardly ever avail myself of his aid. At a 
distance this all appears trivial ; but to a traveller in m? 
situation the frequent repetition of such trials is extremely 
disheartening. The natives, perceiving our wishes, brought 
cnietly arms on board, some apparently made in a hurry for the 
occasion j also calabashes, mats and sacks of plaited grass, 
noney, palm-wine, stuffs of their own manufacture, reels of 
cotton earth-nuts, yams, goats, sheep, poultry and fat. In 
return they took cowries, cloth, wearing-apparel and particu- 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 67 

larly looking-glasses : the latter being chiefly bought by the 
women. The women are often beautifully painted with red 
Camwood (?) pulverized and made into balls as large as a fist, 
and thus sold : the eyelids they paint with antimony, which 
they brought with them on board in very neat cylindrical 
cases made of skins. 

Wednesday, September 15. — The intercourse with the 
natives continued. They bring, besides the things mentioned, 
tobacco, which they call taba, in flat rolled disks ; also a chalk- 
like substance, prepared from burnt bones, with which they 
rub the fingers when spinning, it is called Effu in the Aku 
language, Alii in Houssa; they kept this in small calabashes, 
or in masses like elongated dice : whips of hippopotamus 
skins, called Uoji : some rice, grown on the left shore, 
and a few Limes. The process for discharging their arrows 
seemed to me ingenious. They have a knife with a some- 
what broad handle into which they insert the hand,* and pull 
up the string of the bow with the back of the handle, being 
thus sure not to hurt the hand, and are thus ready to 
kill with the knife whatever the arrow may have hit. On 
the left upper arm they carry arrows for their immediate use 
in a wooden quiver. 

Thursday, September 16.— Captain Trotter wished me to 
visit the left shore. The current on the right side, 
where we were at anchor, was 1 and 1| knots ; but towards 
the middle it ran much stronger ; and in some places the boat 
could hardly make way against it. We kept therefore, after 
reaching the left bank of the Niger, close to the jungle, (I 
must not say shore; for every thing was under water). 
Amongst different things, 1 noticed a rather thick tree, 
30 feet high, which attracted my attention by its large fruit : 

* In Treviranus' Memoir occurs the following quotation from a letter of 
Dr. Vogel's, more clearly showing their manner of using the bow. ''In 
toe right hand they hold a knife with a hollow handle, through which 
they place four fingers in the middle of the handle. On the thumb they 
We an iron ring, and draw between this and the handle the bowstring, 
«o that they cannot injure the hand."— (See Memoir, p. l*J 



68 JOURNAL OF THE 

it is apparently an Artocarpus. The Kroomen call it Oqua, 
and told me that they eat the boiled seed. I saw only fruit 
and female blossoms : no male flowers. The tree contained 
much milky juice. Besides this I found here a seemingly new 
species of Anona, and the above-mentioned genus of Legu- 
minosce, occurring often as a small branchy tree, with white 
flowers, remarkable for its bright red terminal leaves. In 

# 

those nooks, where the current was weak, the Pistia grew m 
large quantities, mixed with Ceratophyllum, without fructifi- 
cation, and the Salvinia, and Jungermannia {?) of Ibu. At 
last we reached a bit of dry land, deep in the bush ; where 
some negroes had pitched their tent-like straw huts for 
temporary dwellings. They told me that they had come 
from the opposite side (from Dgaggu ?) to plant this place, 
against the rainy season; but they had not yet begun. The 
ground, now inundated, would be cultivated in the dry season* 
for it all consisted of rich vegetable soil. 

On my return, I could find no place but the deck for my plants. 
I then went on board the " Albert," to make my report to 
Captain Trotter, but was obliged to stop there a long time, 
for want of a boat to return. In the mean time, we had a 
heavy shower of rain, and on my subsequent arrival in the 
" Wilberforce" I found not a few of my plants spoiled, or 
quite lost, amongst them the Anona ; and I was unable to care 
for the rest, every nook that I could use having been filled 
long since, and my cabin was crammed nearly full. During 
the last four weeks, for want of suitable boxes in which to 
preserve my collections, I was unable to do almost any- 
thing in Botany. 

Friday, September 17.— I bought to-day a complete set of 
arms of Adgho for 2000 cowries. Captain Allen purchased an 
ox for 30,000 cowries, from the son of a former chief of Adda- 
Kuddu, whom he called M alien Katab, and who had poisoned 
old Pascoe and the Kroomen. This son, Machmakal, was 
one of the handsomest negroes I ever saw ; but he wanted to 
give his father's name differently. He made me a present of 
a pair of shoes of antelope hide, very well made. He under- 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 69 



stood a little Arabic, though he could not pronounce it 
according to Miiller's notions, but he wrote it; and singularly 
enough, he put the paper not in the customary oriental manner 
before him, nor writing the letters from the top downwards, 
but so, that they must be read in the usual manner. I have 
his name and nyne written by him. I had understood his 
name as Makola. According to Muller, what he wrote, is in 
the Algerine dialect, meaning : Machmakal.* 

Saturday, September 18. — The number of sick increases 
considerably ; and the " Soudan" is to take them to-morrow 
down to the sea. I, therefore, urrote letters to-day, I continue 
unwell; head-ache and fever. 



WRITTEN LATER, AT FERNANDO PO. 

Sunday, September 19. — Decided, but slight fever. The 
" Soudan" leaves for the sea. 

Monday, September 20.— It is settled that the " Wilber- 
force" shall also proceed to sea with the sick, which have 
much increased in number; and my first resolve was to 
remain here ; but our circumstances on shore were such, that 
as an invalid, I could hardly hope to be comfortable, and I 
therefore take Captain Allen's advice, which is to go down 
to sea in the " Wilberforce/' and stop at Fernando Po. 

Tuesday, September 21. — At six o'clock in the morning 
we proceeded down the river, I becoming daily worse. We 
arrived at Fernando Po on the 1st of October, and I earnestly 
entreated to be put on shore; for the vessel was to pro- 
ceed to Ascension Island, and stop there several months; 
which would have been for me worse than a prison. On 
leaving the ship I had still violent fever, which only quitted 
me after a week and a half. In the landing of my collection 
1 was kindly assisted by Mr. Forster. Of several of the 
most interesting fruits, however, which, until disabled, I had 
kept on deck to dry, nothing was to be seen. I regret espe- 
cially the fruit of Adansonia, ripe fruit of Artocarpus, a fruit, 

* Vogel's Private Journal. 



70. JOURNAL OF THE 

the blossom of which I have never seen, from Mount Patteh, 
being amongst the most interesting, with many more. Captain 
Allen had the goodness to order us a lodging at Mr. White's, 
the agent of the West African Company; and Mr. Roscher 
having also determined to remain here, he and I agreed to 
live together. The house intended for u§ not being quite 
ready, Mr. White was so kind as to give us, in the mean 
time, quarters in his own dwelling. We found soon how 
difficult it was to procure on this island the necessary provi- 
sion ; and as we had to be our own housekeepers, we asked 
for some articles from on board ship, that we might not at 
the outset be quite bare. 

On the 5th of October we landed. They sent us from 
our mess a few necessary utensils, cups, plates, &c., which 
were not to be obtained any how at Fernando Po, and for 
which we felt very grateful; but time forbade their fur- 
nishing us with the least provisions, the " Wilberforce" 
sailing on Saturday. On Monday, October 18, we quitted 
Mr. White's house ; to make room for the sick which had 
arrived on the previous day, by the " Albert." I had 
to be carried to our new residence, for we were in miser- 
able plight; and to get a piece of bread for money on the 
island, was actually impossible. If acquaintances had not 
obligingly supplied us in some degree, we should have 
had to fast this and the next day, in the strictest sense 
of the word. We, therefore, addressed Captain Trotter, 
who made arrangements, by which we were at least spared 
the necessity of running about in the heat of the &*1 
for provisions ; as all those, who have no stores of their own, 
are obliged to do. 

Here I stop. My recovery proceeds but slowly; to-day 
(October 25), I am not yet able to walk for half an hour. 

What concerns our stay at Fernando Po must be written 
hereafter. 



These 



•«« * M 8 wuius oi tne Botanical jownw 
in Dr. Vogel s private Journal there are some few entries after 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 71 

this date, referring mostly to personal affairs, despatches, 
provisions, and the like. 

It would appear that, towards the end of November, he 
felt strong enough to begin his botanical excursions, 
and says : f' The heat is too great to allow convalescents 
who are still very weak, to work much. Besides plants, I 
have now taken to collecting insects. Roscher has quite a 
mania for sporting ;" — and again : — 

December 2. — " We had intended to proceed this week into 
the mountains, to the tent which had been erected for Cap- 
tain Trotter; but ever since Sunday, Roscher has been ill, 
probably in consequence of his sporting, often in the heat of 
the sun ; and Thomson, who during the absence of the 
" Albert," remains here as doctor, attends him. There are 
several cases of fever : amongst them White, the store- 
keeper, and the doctor : all people who have been here for 
some time ! The weather is certainly not genial to European 
constitutions. Mornings and evenings are dull and foggy; 
though not so thick but that one can see the country: noon and 
afternoon changeable, a few hot hours, with west and south 
wind. Because of Roscher's illness I must attend to our 
housekeeping, which comes rather awkward to me. In the 
meantime, I continue my previous way of living, i. e. I make 
excursions from three o'clock till dusk (6 o'clock), but am 
very anxious to get into the mountains. Yesterday I went 
towards the farm ; to seek for the Calamus which Roscher had 
seen, but could not find it." 



With these words Dr. Vogel's private Journal ends ; and 
we may here introduce an extract from the Report of Captain 
Trotter, addressed to the Right Honourable Lord Stanley, 
Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated March 
15, 1843. 

" We found at Clarence Cove, Fernando Po, on our 
return in the Albert from the Niger, Dr. Vogel and Mr. 
Roscher. These indefati-able gentlemen, of whose zeal on 



72 JOURNAL OF THE VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 

all occasions it would be impossible to speak too highly, 
had fallen sick at the confluence, and were obliged to 
descend the river in the " Wilberforce ;" but they declined 
going to Ascension for the re- establishment of their health, 
hoping to be able to pursue their scientific researches in 
Africa. Dr. Vogel lived only to the 17th December fol- 
lowing ; but his memory will be cherished, as long as Botany 



remains a science." 






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BOTANY 



OF THE 



NIGER EXPEDITION.* 



NOTES ON " MADEIRA PLANTS." 

So great was Dr. Vogel's zeal in the cause of Botany, 
"at his collections were commenced before leaving England, 
during the few days spent by the Niger Expedition in 
Plymouth Sound. The plants in question consist princi- 
pally of Alga, and being only the common South of England 
species, and foreign to the object of this Memoir, need no 
further notice. 

During his four days' stay at Madeira, although unable to 
make any distant excursions, Dr. Vogel formed a very ex- 
cellent Herbarium, having been assisted in his investiga- 
tions by the Rev. Mr. Lowe. These plants we deem worthy 

Numeration ; as shewing what future voyagers may expect 
obtain during an equally short visit; and facilitating the 
troublesome task of determining their names by those general 
works on Botany in which alone the Madeira plants are de- 
scribed. The names of those collected by the Antarctic 
^xpeditionf on its outward voyage are added to this list : 
the majority of which, having been gathered (in October) at a 
v ery different season, were not met with by Dr. Vogel. 

AH the species have been determined by Dr. Lemann ; 

* By Sir W. J. Hooker and Dr. J. D. Hooker. 

t The smallness of this collection is to be attributed to the temporary 
lU healt h of the Botanist of the Antarctic Expedition during the ships' 
te & days' sojourn at Madeira. 



74 BOTANY OF THE 

whose botanical accuracy and acquaintance with the Floras 
of S. Europe, Madeira, and the Canaries, entitle us to place 
great reliance on the authenticity of the nomenclature. That 
gentleman has also favoured us with some notes on the 
Botany of Madeira, as compared with other neighbouring 
islands, which we beg to acknowledge most heartily, and 
which are embodied in the following remarks. 

The Island of Madeira contains 672 species of flowering 
plants and Ferns, of which 85 are absolutely peculiar, and 
480 common to Europe ; 280 are common to Madeira and 
the Azores (whose Flora is estimated at 425 sp.) ; 312 (or 
probably more) to Madeira and the Canaries ; and 170 to the 
neighbourhood of Gibraltar (where 456 have been collected.) 
It is remarkable that out of 400 European, and these Me- 
diterranean species, indigenous to Madeira, not more than 170 
occur in Gibraltar : for it were natural to suppose that the 
majority of 480 species are very widely dispersed throughout 
the S. Europe, and must have migrated by way, as it were, of 
Gibraltar, if transported across the ocean to Madeira. It is 
further worthy of observation, that the Azores, though very far 
to the westward, and the Canaries to the south, both contain 
many more of the Mediterranean plants seen in Madeira, than 
does Gibraltar. 

A considerable number of the Madeira plants belong 
to genera not found in the adjacent continent,* but in the 
Canaries, Azores, or Cape de Verd Islands ; thus indicating a 
botanical affinity between these groups and confined to them.t 

* Except, possibly, on the hitherto unexplored Atlas Mountains on 
the Morocco coast. 

t The following are some of the leading features of the N. Atlantic 
Island Flora, as distinguishing it from the continental. 

1 . Genera confined to the four groups, and represented in two or more of 
the islands, are : — 

Melanoselinum, (Madeira and Azores.) 

Aich™on, } (Madeira and Canaries.) 

Sinapidendron, (Madeira and Cape de Verd Islands.) 



NIGER EXPEDITION. 75 

The evidence of this relationship is very decided, from 
the peculiarity of the genera or species giving rise to it. 
Though comparatively few in number, their characters are 
so prominent and so widely different from the Mediterranean 
plants which accompany them, that the latter, though nume- 
rically much the greatest, seem superadded, and, as it were, 
intruders on the former. 

The Canaries and Madeira, from their central position and 
various other causes, are the centre of this Botanical region, 
called by Mr. Webb the " Macaronesian/' and exhibit more 
peculiarity than the Cape de Verds, (as far as they are at 
present known), or the Azores. There can be little doubt 
Madeira was even more peculiar in its vegetation than now, 
previous to the destruction by fire of the luxuriant forests, of 
which, almost clothing the lower parts of the island, we have 
historic^ evidence. Not only does such a catastrophe de- 
stroy species, but their place is afterwards occupied by strong- 
growing imported weeds, which prevent the re-appearance of 
the native plants by monopolizing the soil. 

With very few exceptions, the Mediterranean are the 
only plants found in Madeira and the Canaries besides what 
are confined to those islands : in the Azores, on the other 
hand, more Northern European species are associated with 

Ph7ltr ia> } (Madeira and Canaries.) 
Campylanthus, (Canaries and Cape de Verd Islands.) 

2. Orders represented by closely allied, but peculiar genera :— 

ScrophularinejE. 
Isoplexis, (Madeira,) and Callianassa, (Canaries.) 

Campanulace^. 
Musschia, (Madeira,) and Canarina, (Canaries.) 
which are further represented by the singular Campanula Vidalii in the 
Azores, and the equally distinct C. Jacoba>a in the Cape de Verd Islands. 
Other instances of representation by peculiar species are found in the 
Seneciones and Sonchi, and in the curious Euphorbia of the Canaries and 
the Cape de Verds, and several other genera. 



76 



BOTANY OF THE 



them. In the Cape de Verds, far to the south, W. African 
and W. Indian plants replace those of the Mediterranean. 

The Island of Madeira participates in the Flora of the 
W. Indies to a much greater degree than does any part of 
the adjacent continent :— that this is in a great measure due to 
the dampness of its insular climate, is clear, from the plants 
in question being almost entirely Ferns, viz. : 

Acrostichum squamosum, Sw. 
Aspidium rnolle, Sw. 
Asplenium monanthemum, Sw. 

,, furcatum, Sw. 

Trichomanes radicans, Sw. 

species found nowhere on the continent of Europe, or in 
N. Africa. The presence of a plant belonging to the other- 
wise exclusively American genus, Clelhra, is striking, be- 
cause indicating a further relationship with the Flora of 

the New World, but of a very different character from the 
above. 

The Helichrysa of Madeira are allied in rather a remarkable 
degree to the S. African species of that genus : a fact which 
reminds us that the Myrsine Africana, a Cape of Good 
Hope plant, is a native of the Azores, but of no intervening 
latitude on the West coast of Africa or the Atlantic Islands, 
nor indeed anywhere else but Abyssinia. Though not a 
subject felling immediately within the province of the pure 
Botanist, it may not be amiss here to state, that the four 
Island-groups in question have been conceived by my friend, 
Professor Forbes, to be the exposed remains of one continuous 
and extended tract of land, which formed the western prolon- 
gation of the European and African shores. He points to 
the specific identity of these islands and Europe, as affording 
Botanical ev.dence of this ingenious theory, which, however, 
he chiefly rests on geological grounds. Regarded in this 
hght, the quest.on will resolve itself, in the opinion of most 
Botamsts, into one concerning the power of migration, and 
the probabd.ty of transport having taken place, to a verv 



NIGER EXPEDITION. 77 

great extent, over the Atlantic Ocean, and against the pre- 
vailing direction of the winds. It may be contended that 
such a migration would have peopled these islands solely, or 
mainly, with certain of the more transportable classes of plants; 
and that the result must be, that the number of species belong- 
ing to each natural order would be great in proportion to the 
facility with which they bear transportation : while only those 
orders could be numerous, which possess that faculty in an 
eminent degree. But such are not the characteristics of the 
Mediterranean plants found in Madeira. 

On the other hand, the existence of such a continent, 
during the period when these islands bore the plants which 
they now produce, would argue the former presence of 

very large Flora belonging to the type which now distin- 
guishes the islands in question from the Mediterranean ; and 
or whose previous existence the remaining species, peculiar 
to them, are the indication. Against this theory it might 
e ur ged, that more specific identity between the plants 
to the several insular groups, would then be the natural 
consequence, than now is seen : for the affinity of vegetation 
between the different islands consists, not in identical species, 
°ut m representatives. The same agent, in short, which 
effected the peopling of the several groups with the plants 
of continental Europe, would also have distributed more 
equally the non-European species over the same area. 

It is, however, to the lofty peaks of Atlas that we must 
look, if any where, for the continental representatives of 
those peculiar plants which mark the North Atlantic Insular 
floras. Thus, we expect to find the productions of the Galapa- 
gos Archipelago on the higher levels of the Cordillera; and the 
"mountains of St. Thomas, Fernando Po and the Cameroons, 
0I * the west coast of Tropical Africa, may yet exhibit to us the 
Botanical features of St. Helena. Outlying and high islands 
commonly partake in the peculiar vegetation of a climate cooler 
than belongs to the low lands of the adjacent continent; 
though, in the case of Juan Fernandez, they sometimes 
exhibit genera equally isolated in botanical affinities as their 
habitats are in geographical position. 



78 BOTANY OF THE 



CATALOGUE OF M MADEIRA PLANTS."* 

1. Ranunculus grandifolius, Lowe.— Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

2. R. repens, L. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

3. Papaver dubium, L. — Curral, Vogel. 

4. Fumaria media, Loisel. — Curral, Vogel. 

5. Matthiola Maderensis, Lowe.— Funchal, Vogel & /. D.H. 

6. Cheiranthus mutabilis, UHer. — Curral, Vogel. 

7. Nasturtium officinale, R. -Br.— Funchal, J. D. H. 

8. Arabis albida, Stev.— Ribiera Frio, and Grand Waterfall, 

Vogel, 

9. Cardamine hirsuta, L. — Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

10. Teesdalia Iberis, DC— Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

11. Sinapidendron frutescens, Lowe. — Curral, Vogel. 

12. Raphanus Raphanistrum, L. — Funchal, Vogel. 

13. Viola Maderensis, Lowe.— Road to the Curral, J. D. H. 

14. V. sylvestris, Law.— Ribiera Frio and Grand Waterfall, 

Vogel. 

15. Linum angustifolium, Huds.— Funchal, Vogel & J. D. H. 

16. Malva parviflora, L.— Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

17. Sida carpinoides, DC— Funchal, J. D. H. 

18. S. rhombifolia, L.— Funchal, J. D. H. 

19. Hypericum humifusum, L.— Funchal, J. D. H. 

20. H. perforatum, L.~ Funchal, Vogel & J. D. H. 

21. H. glandulosum, Ait.— Curral, Vogel. 

22. H. grandifolium, Chois.— Curral, J. D. H. 

23. Erodium Botrys, Bertol.— Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

24. Geranium rotundifolium, L.— Curral and Grand Water- 

fall, Vogel. 

25. Oxalis corniculata, L.—Funchal, J. D. H. 

26. Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum, L.— Funchal, J. D. # 

27. Polycarpon tetraphyllum, Z. //.-Funchal, Vogel, J. D. B- 
^8. Cerastmm glomeratum, Thuill. — Curral and Funchal, 

Vogel, J. D. H. 

• Collected by the Botanist of the Niger Expedition; to which are 
added those of the Antarctic Expedition, drawn up by C. Lemann, Esq. 
^antao. KL.S. Sec. &c. 



NIGER EXPEDITION. 79 

29. Cerastium triviale, Link. — Curral, Vogel, J. D. H. 

30. Stellaria uliginosa, Murr. — Curral, Vogel, J. D. H. 

31. S. media, Sm. — Ribiera Frio, Vogeh 

32. Silene Gallica, L. — Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

33. Ulex Europeeus, L. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

34. Genista virgata, DC. — Curral, Vogel, J. D. H. 

35. G. Maderensis, Webb. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

36. Lathyrus sphaericus, Retz. — Curral, Vogel. 

37. Lotus glaucus, Ait.— ■ Funchal, /. D. H. 

38. Medicago tribuloides, Lam. — Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. 

39. Psoralea bituminosa, L. — Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. 

40. Vicia sativa, L. — Curral, Vogel. 

41. Scorpiurus subvillosus, L — Funchal, Vogel. 

42. Ornithopus perpusillus, L.— Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

43. Cassia bicapsularis, L— Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. (intro- 

duced ?) 

44. Acacia Farnesiana, Willd. — Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. 

(introduced ?) 

45. Chamsemeles coccinea, Lindl. — East Coast, Vogel. 

46. Alchemilla arvensis, Scop.— Ribiera Frio, Vogel, J. D. H. 

47. Poterium verrucosum, Ehr. — Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. 

48. Fragaria vesca, X.— Ribiera Frio, Vogel ; Curral, J. D. H. 

49. Ly thrum Graefferi, Tenor e. —Curral, /. D. H. 

50. Sempervivum glutinosum, Ait. — Funchal, Vogel. 

51. S. villosura, Ait.— Curral, Vogel, J. D. H. 

52. S. aizoides, Lam. — Funchal ? Vogel. 

53. Umbilicus pendulinus. — Hab.? Vogel. 

5 4. Saxifraga Maderensis, Don. — Curral, Vogel. 

55 . Bupleurum salicifolium, Solander.— Curral, Vogel. 

5 6. Crithmum maritimum, L. /3. latifolium.— East Coast, 

J. D. H. 

5 7. Sambucus nigra, L.— Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

5 8. Galium Aparine, L.— Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

5 9. Sherardia arvensis, L— Ribiera Frio, Vogel, J. D. H. 
GO- Phyllis Nobla, L.— Curral, Vogel. 

61 • Ageratum conyzoides, L.— Funchal, J. D. H. 
6 2. Phagnalon saxatile, DC— Hab. ? Vogel. 



80 BOTANY OF THE 



63. Eclipta prostrata, L.} — Funchal, /. D. H. 

64. Bidens leucantha, Willd. — Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. 

65. Chrysanthemum pinnatifidum, L.fiL— Rihiera Frio, VogeL 

66. Artemisia argentea, UHer. — Hab. ? VogeL 

67. Helichrysum obconicum, DC. — Sea-coast, J. D. H. 

68. H. melanophthalmum, Lowe. — Grand Waterfall, VogeL 

69. Gnaphalium luteo-album, L. — Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H» 

70. Calendula arvensis, L. — Curral, Vogel, J. D. Tf. 

71. Galactites tomentosa, Moench. — Hab. ? Vogel. 

72. Tolpis pectinata, DC. — Funchal, J. D. H. 

73. T. crinita, Lowe. — Hab. ? VogeL 

74>. T. umbellata, BertoL — Curral, Vogel, J. D. H. 

75. Thrincia nudicaulis, Lowe. — Curral, Vogel; Funchal, 

J. D. H. 

76. Sonchus ustulatus, Lowe, (leaves.) — South-east coast, 

/. D. H. 

77. Campanula Erinus, L. — Curral, Vogel, J. D. H. 

78. Centranthus Calcitrapa, Dufr. — Curral, VogeL 

79. Vaccinium Maderense, Link.—* Ribiera Frio, Vogel; Pic° 

Ruivo, /. D. H. 

80. Erica arborea, L. — Curral, J. D. H. 

81. E. scoparia, L. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel; Pico Ruivo, 

J. D. H. 

82. Clethra arborea, Ait.— Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

83. Heberdenia excelsa, DC. fit. (leaves.)— -Curral, J. D. H. 

84. Sideroxylon Marmulana, C. Sm.— Funchal, VogeL 

85. Convolvulus althaeoides, L.— Hab. ? VogeL 

86. C. solanifolius, Lowe. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

87. Plantago Lagopus, Hall. a. /3. Lusitanica. — a. Grand 

Waterfall, (3. Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

88. P. Coronopus, L. — Funchal, J. D. H. 

89. P. arborescens, Poir.— South-east coast, J. D. H. 

90. Globularia longifolia, Ait. — South-east coast, Vogel ; 

Funchal, J. D. H. 

91. Echium plantagineum, L.— Grand Waterfall, VogeL 

92. E. fastuosum, Jacq. — Hab ? VogeL 

93. Myosotis repens, Don— Ribiera Frio, VogeL 



NIGER EXPEDITION. 81 

94. Lavandula viridis, .^7.— Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. 

95. L. pinnata, L.fiL— Hab. ? Vogel. 

96. Bystropogon punctatus, L'Her. — Hab. ? Vogel. 

97. Origanum virens, Link.— Curral, J. D. H. 

98. Micromeria varia, Benth.— Curral, J. D. H. 

99. Melissa Calamintha, L. /3. villosissima, Benth. — Curral, 

/. D. H. 

100. Prunella vulgaris, Mcench. — Grand Waterfall and Ri- 

biera Frio, Vogel. 

01. Cedronella triphylla, Mcench. — Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

02. Stachys hirta, L. — Curral, Vogel. 
02. S. arvensis, L. — Curral, Vogel. 

02. S. Betonica, Benth. — Hab. ? Vogel. 

03. Clinopodium vulgare, L. — Curral, Vogel, J. D. H. 

04. Sideritis Massoniana, Benth. — Curral, Vogel. 

05. Teucrium abutiloides, Uffir.— Curral, J. D. H. 

06. Lantana aculeata, Ait. — /. D. H. 

07. Antirrhinum Orontium, Z,.— Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

08. Sibthorpia peregrina, — Hab. ? Vogel. 

09. Veronica acinacifolia, L.— Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

10. V. Anagailis, L.— Curral, Vogel 

11. V. arvensis, i.— Hab. ? Vogel. 

12. Odontites Holliana, Benth. (fruit.)— Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

13. Physalis pubescens, L. — Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. 

14. Hyoscyamus Canariensis, Ker. — Funchal, /. D. H. 

15. Vinca major ? not wild. — Funchal, Vogel. 

16. Olea (Phillyrea, D.C.) Lowei, DC— Maritime spots, 
/. D. H. 

17. Jasminum odoratissiraum, L. — Funchal, Vogel. 

18. Chenopodium ambrosioides, L. — Funchal, J. D. H. 

19. Sueeda laxifolia, Lowe. — East coast, /- D. H. 

20. Rumex Maderensis, Lowe. — Curral, Vogel. 

21. R. Acetosella, L.— Hab. ? Vogel 

22. R. aculeatus, L.— Curral and Ribiera Frio, Vogel 

23. Polygonum maritimum, L. — East coast, /. D. H. 

24. Mercurialis annua, L. var. /3. (M. ambigua, L. fil) 
Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. 



82 BOTANY OF THE 

125. Euphorbia Peplus, L. — Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. 

126. E. hypericifolia, L. — Funchal, Vogel, /. D. H. 

127. Persea Indica, Spr. — Curral, Vogel, J. D. H. 

128. Oreodaphne foetens, Nees. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

129. Apollonia Canariensis, Nees. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

130. Myrica Faya, Mas. — Mr. Veitch's garden, J. D. H. 

131. Parietaria Lusitanica, L. ? (P. Maderensis, Rchb.)— 

Funchal, J. D. H. 

132. Ephedra alata, Dene. — Funchal, /. D. H. 

133. Peristylus cordatus, Lindl. — Hab. ? Vogel. 

134. Himantoglossum secundiflorum, Lindl. — Ribiera Frio, 

Vogel. 

135. Amaryllis Belladonna, L. — Road to Curral, J. D. H* 

136. Ruscus Hypoglossum, L. — Hab. ? Vogel. 

137. Commelina communis, L. — Funchal, /. D. H. 

138. Juncus glaucus, Sm. — Hab.? Vogel. 

139. J. filiformis, L. — Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

140. Isolepis Saviana, Schult. — Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

141. Carex divulsa, Gooden. — Curral, Grand Waterfall, Ri- 

biera Frio, Vogel. 

142. Panicum vaginatum, Swtz. — Funchal, J. D. H. 

143. P. repens, L. — Funchal, J. D. H. 

144. Pennisetum cenchroides, Rich. — Funchal, J. -D. H. 

145. Lagurus ovatus, L. — Curral, Vogel. 

146. Cynosurus echinatus, L. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

147. C. elegans, Desf.— Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

148. Dactylis glomerata, L. ? — Hab. ? Vogel. 

149. Melica ciliata, L.— Curral and Grand Waterfall, Vogel- 

150. Poa megastachya, KoeL — Funchal, J. D. H. 

151. Briza minor, L. — Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

152. B. major, L.— Curral and Ribiera Frio, Vogel, J. D- &' 

153. Aira praecox, Z.— Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

154. A. caryophyllea, Z.— Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

155. Avena hirtula, Za^.— Curral, Vogel. 

156. Bromus maximus, Z. — Curral, Vogel. 

157. Festuca bromoides, Z.— Curral, Grand Waterfall and 

Ribiera Frio, Vogel, J. D. H. 



NIGER EXPEDITION. 83 

58. Festuca jubata, Lowe.— Curral, Vogel. 

59. Andropogon Halepensis, Sibth.— Funchal, /. D. H. 

60. A. hirtus, £.— Funchal, Vogel, J. B. H. 

61. Polypodium vulgare, L. — Curral, Vogel. 

62. Gymnogramma Lovei, Hook, and Grev. — Ribiera Frio, 

Vogel. 

63. Notholaena lanuginosa, Desv. —Funchal, J. D. H. 

64. Grammitis Ceterach, L.— Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. 

65. Adiantum reniforme, L. — Hab. ? Vogel. 

66. A. Capillus Veneris.— Funchal, Vogel, J. D. ff. 

67. Pteris aquilina, L. — Curral and Ribiera Frio, Vogel, 

J. D. H. 

68. P. arguta, VahL — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

69. Lomaria Spicant, Dm'.— Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 
0. Athyrium Filix-fcemina, Roth. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

71. Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum, L. (A. productum, Lowe). 

Curral, Vogel; Funchal, J. D. H. 

72. A. monanthemum, Sm. — Ribiera Frio. Vogel. 

73. A. anceps, Soland. — Curral, Vogel. 

74. A. palmatum, Swtz. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 
5. Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh. — Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. 

76. Nephrodium molle, Br.— Funchal, J. D. H. 

77. Aspidium angulare, Sm. — Curral, Vogel. 

78. A. elongatum, Swtz. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

79. A. falcinellum, Swtz. — Ribiera Frio and Curral, Vogel, 

J. D. H. 

80. Davallia Canadensis.— Ribiera Frio and Curral, J.D.H. 

81. Lycopodium denticulatum, Willd. — Curral, Vogel, 



7 



7" 



J. D. H. 



TENERIFFE. 



The 



leaving Madeira, was the island of Teneriffe : where the 
vessel in which Vogel had embarked remained but a few 
hours. The same island, and the same port, Santa Cruz, 
had been touched at by the Antarctic Expedition during the 
Previous winter. Teneriffe is always held to be classic 

g2 



84 BOTANY OF THE 

ground by- the Naturalist, as the opening scene of the labours 
of Humboldt, who there first appreciated, in their full extent, 
the laws governing the geographical distribution of plants. 
His life-like pictures of the natural phenomena, observed 
during an ascent of the famous Peak, have given to many 
succeeding scientific travellers that impulse which has turned 
their thoughts and steps from closet studies and the pursuit 
of Natural History at home, and induced them to seek far 
distant scenes, in the West, the East and the South. 

The Peak itself is seldom descried : one hurried glimpse ol 
its very apex, from upwards of sixty miles' distance, was all 
we obtained : it then appeared like a little short and broad 
cone high in the clouds, or rather as an opaque triangular 
spot on the firmament. It is difficult to imagine this to be 
the u culminating point ;" that mighty mass, at whose base 
the toil-worn traveller pauses ; who, having surmounted four* 
fifths of the mountain, finds his heart quail at beholding a 
* Pelion upon Ossa piled," so stern, so stony and so steep. 

Much and deeply did the officers of Captain Ross' and 
Trotter's Expeditions deplore the necessity of hurrying 
from this spot, most interesting to the sailor; being the 
point for which every circumnavigator first steers, and from 
whence, with chronometers carefully corrected at its well- 
determined position, he takes his departure. For years, 
too, this was the prime Meridian, distance in longitude 
at sea having been at one period reckoned from TenerirTe, as 
zero, by all the seafaring nations of Europe ; and by some it i s 
so still. From the days of the earliest circumnavigators, to 
the present, the words * we sighted the Peak of TenerifiV 
indicate that page in the narrative, from which all that is 
interesting in the voyage commences. 

In the History of Geology, the Canary Islands hold a 
conspicuous position. Von Buch developed his theory oi 
craters of elevation from what he there observed : his name 
too recalls, and most appropriately, that of his fellow-la- 
bourer on the same shores, Christian Smith, the amiable 
and gifted Swede, who first, after Humboldt, explored their 



NIGER EXPEDITION. 85 

Botany. Christian Smith returned to Europe to embark 
in the ill-fated Congo Expedition : when he again saw the 
Peak of Teneriffe, he welcomed it as a familiar object, and 
bade it adieu, rejoicing that a still more novel field of inquiry 
was opened to him, beyond this scene of his early exertions. 
A few short months terminated his life and hopes : like Vogel, 
he fell a victim to the dread fever of the pestilential coast of 
Africa : like him, too, he was a martyr in the cause of Bo- 
tanical Science. 

Fraught with so many and such touching associations, no 
naturalist-voyager can see the Fortunate Isles rising, one 
by one, on the horizon of the mighty Atlantic, without a 
feeling of melancholy, while he reflects on the fate of these 
his two predecessors — both accomplished Naturalists of their 
a ge and day — whose prospects and hopes were in every 
respect as bright, perhaps brighter, than his own. 

The excellent and beautiful work of Mr. Webb, on the 
Natural History of the Canaries, leaves little to be said, 
especially of their Botany, and renders even an enumeration 
of the few species gathered by Vogel and the Botanist of the 
Antarctic Expedition unnecessary ; for they were all collected 
within a very few miles of Santa Cruz, during a very hurried 
walk, and scarcely include a dozen kinds. This locality is 
one of the most barren of the whole group, especially in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the sea. The broad frontage of 
cliff and mountain, reaching upwards for several thousand 
feet - above the town, and fore-shortened to the view from 
seaboard, presents a progressive increase of verdure from 
the water's edge to the mountains. At this season, when 
the vines are out of leaf, nothing green meets the eye. 
The trees, either standing singly or in very small clumps, 
dot the alternate ridges and steep gullies with which the 
slopes are everywhere cut like the edge of a saw, producing 
that spotty effect in the landscape so admirably rendered 
in the phytographical illustrations of Mr. Webb's work, 
and which is eminently characteristic both of the Canaries 
a nd Madeira. 



■ 

86 BOTANY OF THE 

The Kleinia, Euphorbia and Plocama are three plants 
which the voyager recognizes long before reaching the shore; 
and they are so singular, whether as regards habit, locality, 
or botanical characters, that the opportunity of seeing them 
in a wild state, even from the sea, must be deemed a privi- 
lege by the Botanist. 



CAPE DE VERD ISLANDS. 



The voyage, from the Canaries to the Cape de Verd 
Islands, generally presents a hiatus in the journals of those 
sea-faring Naturalists who have followed this route. Before 
arriving at the Canaries, landsmen have scarcely recovered from 
the novelty of ship-board and its effects ; nor has there been 
time, since leaving those islands, to become thoroughly inured 
to the monotony of a sailing life. At first sight, the Cape 
de Verd Islands are very disappointing. It is true that we 
had passed from an extra-tropical latitude to far within the 
tropics; but the change in position was not accompanied 
with a corresponding difference, still less with luxuriance, 
in the vegetation and scenery. Yet these apparently barren 
islands have associations of great interest; and their exami- 
nation yields both pleasure and profit. They afforded us 
the first glimpses of the fever-smitten coast of Africa, and of 
slavery. Even here the black man, deprived of freedom, 
and an alien to the land in which, though guiltless, he is 
a prisoner for life, is apt to be regarded as a mere object 
of Natural History by his Caucasian fellow-creature; who, 
before he has time for reflection, may perhaps be excused for 
pausing to consider, whether a being so different in features 
and social position, be really of the same origin as himself; 
whether, in short, the poor African is a race of the same 
stock, or a species apart. 

There are many other circumstances, connected with 
these islands, which keep the mind busy while in their 
neighbourhood. They form the western extreme of the Old 
World, of what was the whole world to civilized man, till 



NIGER EXPEDITION. 87 

within the last very few hundred years ; and hence, with the 
North Cape and Cape of Good Hope, they constitute the 
three salient points in the geography of the eastern Atlantic. 
In many of their physical features, they form a continuation 
of the great Sahara desert, that mysterious blank on our maps, 
upon whose sea of sand so many of our venturous countrymen 
have embarked, to be heard of no more. The hitherto unex- 
plored mountains of the Cape de Verds rise 8000 feet and 
upwards above the sea, in serried ridges and isolated peaks; 
promising a rich harvest to some Botanist, who may in those 
higher and cooler parts of the islands rely on immunity from 
disease and a temperate climate. There he may expect to find 
new types of plants; for the Mountain Flora of Western 
Tropical Africa is wholly unknown ; and of its probable- 
nature even we can form no guess. To conclude, the Lin- 
nsean axiom of " semper aliquid novi ex Africa" has never 
yet proved false. A Naturalist cannot see the shores of that 
continent without feeling that no other spur is required to 
exertion, in a field to which such a motto still applies with 
so much force. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA; 



OR A 



CATALOGUE OF ALL THE PLANTS 



AS YET DISCOVERED IN THE 



CAPE DE VERD ISLANDS. 



FROM THE COLLECTIONS OF 



J D. HOOKER, ESQ. M.D. R.N., DR. T. VOGEL, 



AND OTHER TRAVELLERS. 



BY 



P. BARKER WEBB 



vatuai Triprjv k\vt5 'Hkzcivvw 
Eo^artjj irpos vvktoq. 

HESIOD. THEOG. 274. 



PREFACE* 



The collections from which the following catalogue was 
composed were formed in a hurried manner by different 
Botanists while on their way to more fertile regions, during 
the short stay made by the vessels in which they sailed, 
at one or the other of the Cape de Verd Islands. They were 
confided to me for publication by Dr. J. Dalton Hooker, 
on account of the supposed affinity of the Flora of these 
islands to that of the Canarian Archipelago. They do not 
probably contain more than a small portion of the coast 
vegetation, with a sprinkling of that of the neighbouring 
Mis, to the height, in general, of less than 3000 feet. The 
fountains of the interior of the larger islands and the lofty 
Island of Fogo, supposed to attain nearly 8000 feet, still 
remain unvisited, and are, botanically speaking, unknown. 
It may be added, as some palliation for possible errors 
to this list of names, that a portion of the materials 
w ere in a state which almost defied the powers of the most 
J ntrepid nomenclator : those, for example, of the Sapotece, 
from which, through his intimate knowledge of the Order, 
M. Decaisne was enabled to elicit a new species, contained 

* The Introduction to the following Florula of the Cape de Verd 
Isl ands, drawn up by the author of the Florula itself, explains the 
nature of the collections and the motives that induced us to j^™* 1 
J* 18 aid in this portion of the " Flora of the Niger Expedition." We 
|*re tender our sincere thanks for the generous manner in which 
he undertook the task, and for the extreme care he has devoted to 
*• accurate determination of the plants. The ability Mr. Webb has 
^Played, and the classical polish with which the whole is executed, 
8 Peak for themselves.— W. J. H. 



92 PREFACE. 

but a single flower. Such a result, derived from so much 
previous experience, cannot have existed in every case ; and 
some perhaps of our new species, founded upon imperfect 
materials, or even those assimilated to species already 
known, may not carry with them equal authenticity. But 
so much care has been taken in ascertaining their identity, 
essential for botanico-geographical data, that it is hoped 
that no grave errors have occurred. Collected, too, in 
different seasons, deficiencies of one set were occasionally 
made up by the better state of those supplied by other tra- 
vellers. 

The most complete collections were those of Dr. J- V* 
Hooker and the much lamented Theodore Vogel. They 
may be said to form the groundwork of the Spicilegtat 
though both were formed in the dry season, that of ™ r * 
Hooker in November 1839, and that of Vogel in June 
1841. Another very interesting set, gathered by Forbes, 
in a much better season, March and April 1822, and 
most liberally communicated by the Horticultural Society* 
has afforded many species in the best order. To these must 
be added a small collection made by that accomplished 
naturalist, Mr. Darwin, (the property of the Cambridge 
University Museum) and generously confided for p u "* 
lication to Dr. Hooker by Professor H en slow : it h aS 
added some interesting species to the catalogue. * ne 
rules of the British Museum forbid the loan of the treasures 
contained within its walls ; and it is through the collation 
by Dr. J.\D. Hooker of the specimens of the other herbaria 
with that of Christian Smith, preserved in that establish- 
ment, that 1 have been enabled to cite his plants and to 
quote the catalogue, contained in his journal, published i n 
Captain Tuckers Voyage to the Congo. Those of Forster 
I have not been able to see. 

The late Dr. Brunner, of Berne, on his return from Senegal? 
visited several of the Cape de Verd Islands. The species he 
there gathered appeared in his Ergebniss, originally published 
in the " Flora od. Bot. Zeitung." I was obligingly furnished 



PREFACE. 93 

by him with a nearly complete set of his plants, and by this 
means have been enabled to cite his synonomy with certainty. 
Lastly, the Professor Administrators of the Museum of 
Natural History of Paris, confided to me, with their well- 
known liberality, a collection, formed probably for the Por- 
tuguese government, and brought from Lisbon in 1808 by 
M. Geoffrey St. Hilaire. This was accompanied by no 
written document by which the native country of the plants 
could be ascertained ; but the identity of the very great 
majority of the species with those of the British collections 
from the Cape de Verd Islands, leaves no reasonable doubt of 
its origin. The specimens are generally satisfactory, and 
were evidently picked up at a moment when vegetation 
was starting into life and in its most florid state. It 

as ac *ded some highly interesting and characteristic species 
to our list. With this collection, there was brought at the 
same time from Lisbon, another, supposed to have come 
rom Brazil. The following circumstance, which might lead 
Us to imagine that some confusion may have taken place 
between these two sets of plants, has been pointed out to 
me by M. Adrien de Jussieu. The genus Aster ant hos, taken 

om the latter set by Desfontaines, belonging as it does to 
the strange African Order of the Napoleonete beautifully 
mustrated by the descriptions and drawings of this dis- 
tinguished naturalist, never having since been met with in 
America may very possibly have wandered to the Brazilian 
se t from that formed in the Cape de Verd Islands, and 
thus be in reality, what from analogy might be supposed 
a denizen, not of America, but of Africa. At any rate 
lt is us eful to call the attention of travellers to the existence 
of ^is geographical doubt, in order that it may be investi- 
gated and cleared up. 

The present catalogue, compiled from these several sources, 
0win g to the causes referred to above, contains only 250 species 
of fen *s and flowering plants. Of these 204 belong to 
the Dicotyledonous orders, only 31 to Monocotyledones, and 
13 to Equisetacece and Ferns. It is probable, however, that 



94 PREFACE. 

the proportion of Dicotyledons to Monocotyledons cannot 
be entirely depended upon, as it stands in this list ; but that 
the latter should be rated somewhat higher ; because Professor 






Parlatore, who kindly undertook to describe the grasses 
left several in the English collections untouched, and did 
not inspect those contained in the Cape de Verd collec- 
tion of the Museum of Paris* Add to this, the fugacious 
nature of many Monocotyledonous genera renders their 
collection by a casual visitor doubtful; whereas of many 
Dicotyledons and Ferns some remains may be found at 

all seasons. 

Of our 250 species, upwards of 48, or nearly a fifth, 
are either found in the Canaries or belong to decidedly 
Canarian genera and forms : about 25, or a tenth, belong 
to the Arabico-Nubian region: the Mediterranean series 
is represented by about a twelfth. The remainder are 
either common to most tropical regions, or Senegambian, or 
belonging to the islands. It is singular that in a country 
contiguous to the Old World, and amongst so restricted 
a number of plants, nearly a third should turn out to be 
species previously undescribed ; although Mr. Bentham had 
already published two Labiatce and three Scrophularinea from 
the collections of Forbes and Brunner. These prefatory 
remarks may be terminated with one word in justification of 
our title of Spicilegia Gorgonea. It must certainly be conceded, 
of all that lay that beyond the ff Fortunate Isles'* the geogra- 
phical knowledge of the ancients was exceedingly vague- 
Nevertheless the text of Pliny shows that they had a 
competent notion even of the Niger, its divergence into 
many streams or ekttottcis, as mentioned by Ptolemy, an(i 
its gradual rise, like that of the Nile, after the tropica 1 
rains, which is recorded by Pliny. After the Canaries, 
Ptolemy speaks of the promontory called Gannaria or Cape 
Blanco : near it is the island of Arguin, supposed to b e 
the Cerne of Pliny. The next promontory mentioned * s 
the Hesperian Ceras, which can hardly be any other than 
that of Cape Verd, where the continent is most protruded 



PREFACE. 95 

towards the west; and the isles opposite to it will be the 
Gorgades, or Isles of the Gorgons. " Contra hoc promon- 
torium Gorgades insulae narrantur, Gorgonum quondam 
domus, bidui navigatione distantes a continents"* It is 
right however to mention, that D'Anville places the Gorgades 
at the Bissagos, probably too far to the south, opposite 
to no promontory, and close to the continent. 



P. B. W. 



* Plin. lib. vi. c. 36. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 



I. Axonaceje, Juss. 



!• Anona squamosa, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 757. Dun. Monogr.p. 69. 

°C. Syst. l.p. 472. Protfr. l.p. 85. Brunn. Ergebn. p. 15. 
Ic. Rumph. ^w£. 1. fc 46. Sloane, Hist. Jam. t. 221. 

Rheed, Mai. 3. /. 29. Jacq. Obs. t. 6./. 1. 
Has. Arbor 20-pedalis, quae in ins. S. Jacobi, sylvis ut 

plunmum destituta, nemora ad summitatem collium vallis 

& Dominici efficit. (7. Da/fow /footer, n. 131. November, 

!839. sp.fructifera.) 

2 - Anona Senegalensis, Pers. %«. 2. ^. 95. Guill. <rf Perr. 

^ Sen - Tent. p. 5. Brunn. Ergebn. p. 14.— Ic. Deless. Ic. 
s *l. 1. /. 86. 

A B. In vallibus S. Bominici et Organorum ins. S. Jacobi 
\ runn. 1. c.) Anona tripetala, Linn, in catalogo Smithiano 
(Tuck. voy. p. 250) enumeratee nulla extant in herb. Mus. 
fi rit. specimina (J. Bolton Hooker, in litt.) 

II. Mentsperme^e, Juss. 

3 - Cocculus Leceba, DC. Syst. 1. p. 250. Richard, irc Tfewf. 
Fl - Sen. I. p. IS. Le*eba, For**. FL AZg.-Arab. p. 108 (ex 
^Pecimine Forsteriano Mus. Brit, et scheda sua inscripta 

L Ja ffo, Cape de Verd (nee maris Australis ut Candolleus 
^edebat.) (J. Bolton Hooker, in litt.) Menispermum 
^eaiba, Bel. Fl. d'Eg. descr. des pi. p. 140. Menispermum 
e %ticum, Poir. Suppl. p. 657. Cocculus Epibaterium, 
~ c - Syst. p. 530, et Cocculus ellipticus, ejusd. ibid. p. 526. 
k«rilacina anomala, genus forte novum, Chr. Smith, /. c.p. 



H 



98 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

249 ! (J. Dalton Hook, in litt.) — Ic. Forst. /. c. t 54 

Delile, Fl. oVEg. t. 51./. 2 et 3. 

The discovery, made by Dr. J. D. Hooker, of the identity 
of the Leceba of Forskal with the Epibaterium of Forster, 
has cleared up an error which might have long remained a 
blot on science. Though evidently the same species as the 
Egyptian, our plant is smoother, the young shoots alone 
being pubescent. The name Leceba was published a year 
previous to that of Forster : we may therefore retain it in 
preference to pendulus, by which no species of the genus 
can be distinguished from another, they being all climbers 
and pendulous. 

III. Papaverace^e, Juss. 

4. Argemone Mexicana ; Linn. Sp. PL p. 727. Chr. Smith, 
in Tuck. voy. p. 250 ! (/. Dalton Hook, in litt.)— a. floribus 
luteis, stylo subnullo.— Ic. Bauh. Prodr. t. 92. Curt. Bot. 
Mag. t. 243. Wight, III. Ind. bot. 1. t. 11.— /3. floribus 
pallide luteolis, stylo brevi. A. ochroleuca, Sweet, Brit, flow- 
Gard.—Ic. Sweet, I. c. t. 242. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1343. 

Hab. In arvis Gossypio satis et ad apicem usque Montis 
Verdo ins. S. Nicolai, necnon in sinu Tarrafal sive Tatna- 
ricum ins. S. Antonii {Forbes, n. 27, 11, et 7, April, 1823). 
In arena maris ins. S. Jacobi (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 135. 
November 1839). In maritimis ins. S. Antonii copiosa, 
(Th. Vogel, n. 43. Junio 1841.) 

5. Papaver Rhceas, Linn. Sp. PI. p . 726.— Ic. Engl. bot. t- 
645. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Paris.) 

6. Papaver, sp. nov. ? P. orientali of in. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. {Mus. reg. Par.) 

Th,s specimen of Poppy is in a very imperfect state, so 
that we are unable to describe or refer it to any known 
species The flower-stalks, somewhat hispid with erect ap- 
pressed ha.rs, arise at once from the root, and are naked and 
monanthous. What remains of the leaves shows them to 
nave been very hispid and like those of P. Rhceas on a large 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 99 

scale. The summit of the peduncle has the annular swelling 
large and papillated with the scars of the stamens. The 
capsule measures about six lines in length, and three in 
breadth : it is cylindraceo-turbinated, nearly glabrous, trans- 
versely torulose, and divided longitudinally into eight or nine 
nbs, which are themselves striated lengthways on the back. 

IV. CmjciFERiE, Juss. 

7. Nasturtium officinale, R. Br. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 4. p. 110. 

Sisymbrium Nasturtium, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 916.— Ic. Engl 
Bot. t. 855. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (Chr. Smith herb. ! fid. J. D. Hooker 
"i litt.) In montibus ins. S. Vincentii, ad alt. 1500 ped. 
(Th. Vogel, n. 33. Junio 1841 : specimina macilenta.) 

8. Sinapis nigra, Linn. Sp. PL p. 933. Engl. Bot. t. 969. 
Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (Chr. Smith/ in herb. Mus. Brit. fid. 

*• D. Hooker in litt.) In eadem ins. ad apicem montis 
cujusdam vallis S. Dominici (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 139. 
November 1839. spec, florida.) In eadem ins. (C. Darwin, 
spec, sine flore et fructu.) 

9- Sinapidendron (Podocarpica, Webb,) gracile, Webb ; ramis 
elongatis lignosis gracilibus albidis, foliis ovato- vel spathu- 
lato-lanceolatis tenuibus glabris margine sparse vel obso- 
lete grosse dentatis denticulis muticis vel spinuloso-api- 
culatis, spicis ad apicem ramorum elongatis gracillimis, 
pedicellis filiformibus, calycis foliolis apice pilosis, petalis 
longe unguiculatis, ovario gynophoro setaceo-filiformi duplo 
longiore, stylo brevi, stigmate capitato subdiscoideo, siliqua 
lineari, valvis tenuibus glabris subtrinerviis podocarpio 
gracili insidentibus, seminibus 1-seriatis pendulis testa 
(immersa) mucilaginosa, cotyledonibus incumbentibus con- 
du p U cat i s> _ Ic# (Tab. I.) Hook. Ic. PI. t. 751. 

Hab. In vallibusins. S. Nicolai (Forbes, n. 30, die 29 Martii, 
l8 22, spec, florida et fructifera) et in herb. ins. Cap. Vir. 
(Mus. reg. Par. !) 

T *B. I. Fig. 1. flower;/. 2. petal;/. 3. ovarium; / 4. siliqua; 

H 2 



100 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 



/ 5. seed ; f. 6. embryo ; /. 7. transverse section of the 
same ; — all magnified. 
10. Sinapidendron Vogelii, Webb ; ramis crassis nodosis, 
foliis rotundatis ovatisque crassis subtus nervosis puis 
brevibus strigoso-hirtis margine dentatis vel demum 
crenato-dentatis, basi integris cuneatis petiolatis, spicis 
basi hirsutis, calyce subsaccato strigoso, petalis amphs 
flavis aurantiaco-maculatis ? in unguem attenuatis, ovano 
lato gynophoro tenui triplo longiore, stigmate capitato 
subsessili, siliqua . . . . — Io. (Tab. II.) Hook. Ic. Plaid* 
t. 752. 
Hab. In ins. S. Vincentii, (Vogel, n. 32. Junio 1841, spec, 
florida.) Scientise martyris manibus hanc plantam dicatam 
voluimus. 

The region to which the genus Sinapidendron belongs we 
have elsewhere called Macaronesian. The two Sinapidendrons 
of the Cape de Verd islands differ from the Madeira and 
Canarian species in having a long slender support to the 
ovary, and fruit analogous to that of the Capparidece. No 
other characters, however, of any value, present themselves? 
so as to authorize their separation as a genus. 
Tab. II. Fig. 1. flower; /. 2. petal; /. 3. stamen ; /. 4. sili- 
qua : magnified. 
11. Koniga intermedia, Webb; Lobularia intermedia, ejusd. 
Phyt. Can. 1. p. 92.— Ic. Hook. Lond. Journ. of Bot. v. $< 
t. 6. ubi in errorem inscripti Koniga Brunonis. 
Hab. In declivibus aridis ins. S. Nicolai (Forbes, die 2/ 
Martii, spec, florida et fruct. !) In montosis ins. S. Vin- 
centii (Th. Vogel, n. 70. Juni 1841, spec, fructifera.) Hujus 
plantae in herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) specimen 3 
extant procera : an sp. diversa ? 

The specimens from the Island of St. Nicholas do not 
appear essentially distinct from what we formerly gathered 
in Teneriffe. Those from St. Vincent are very dwarfish, » n(1 
have small regularly spathulate and very hairy leaves ; dif- 
ferences which may perhaps be caused by the season y 1 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 101 

which they were collected. It occurs in the Cape de Verd 
herbarium of the Paris Museum, with much broader leaves 
and larger flowering stems ; but I cannot venture to separate 
these specimens from the plant described in the * Phyto- 
graphia Canariensis ;" for, in a genus where the species vary 
so exceedingly, and at the same time are so alike, it is only 
by the observation of the living plant under cultivation that 
such doubts can be effectually removed. 

V. Resedace^e, DC. 

12. Caylusea canescens, St. Hil. 2eme mem. sur les Resedacees 

(Montpell. 1837) p. 29. Reseda canescens, Linn. Syst. 
Veg. ed. 12. (1767) p. 33, non ejusd. Sp. PI. ed. 1. (1753) 

P> 448. nee ed. 2. (1764) p. 644. Vahl, Symb. 2. p. 52. Willd. 

Sp. PI, 2. p. 817. ex cl. patria et prater Forsk. syn. omnibus. 

Lamrk. encycl. 6. p. 158. excl. patria Salmantica et syn. 

omnibus prater Vahl et Forsk. ! Reseda Mediterranea, Linn. 

Mant. p. 564 ex herb. ! Reseda hexagyna, Forsk. PI. JEg. 

P- 92. Reseda podocarpos, Viv. PI. JEg. dec. p. 7. — Ic. 

**. I c t. 2. /. 3. 
Hab. In aridis ins. S. Jacobi, {J. Ballon Hooker, n. 165. 

November 1839, sp. florida et fruct.) 

The above composes the very intricate synonymy of this 
curious plant. The name canescens was originally given by 
Linnaeus to a species of Reseda, mentioned by Clusius, 
belonging to the actual genus Astrocarpus. This species has 
been admirably elucidated by M. Gay in the " Archives de 
la Flore de la France et d'AUemagne" of Schultz, 1842, 
P- 35, and named A. Clusii, which includes both the original 
i "**eda canescens, L., and the R. purpurascens, ejusd. A few 
years afterwards, in the " Systema Nature," Linnaeus, pro- 
bably from forgetfulness, without advertising his readers or 
forming them from whom he had received it, substituted 
f °r his original R. canescens, and under the same name, a 
totally different plant, sent to him probably from Palestine 
or Egypt. This plant was our present species. Hence has 
ari *en the greatest confusion, most of the authors who 



102 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

followed him confounding the two indiscriminately. Vahl 
was the first to doubt whether the R. canescens of the Syst. 
PI., which he recognized as the R. hexagyna of Forskahl, was 
not distinct from the plant called by the same name in the 
two editions of the Species Plantarum. M. de Tristan 
(Mem. du Mus. 18. p. 395) pointed out the peculiar nature 
of the fruit of this species; andM. de St. Hilaire, having still 
further investigated its structure, raised it to the rank of a 
genus, without however unravelling its synonyms. 

The R. Mediterranea of Linnseus, Mant, another very 
doubtful species, must, I consider, likewise merge in this. 
The specimen preserved under that name in the Linnean 
herbarium, I found, on examination, to be certainly a Cay- 
Imea, and I believe a cultivated specimen of C. canescens, 
St. Hilaire. M. Gay, however, for whom I inspected it, 
and who has since seen it himself, thinks that it may po s 



sibly be a fragment of Caylusea Abyssinica (R. Abyssinica, 
Fresen. Museum Senck. 2. p. 106) distributed by the 
Esslingen un. itin. in the Abyssinian collection of Schimper 
under the No. 103. 



VI. Capparide^:. 



13. Gynandropsis triphylla, DC. Prodr. 1. 238. Cleome 

triphylla, Linn. Sp. PL p. 498.— Ic. Herm. Lugd.p. 565. 

Descourtilz, Fl. des Ant. t. 44. 
Hab. Circa Porto Praya ins. 8. Jacobi, {Hooker fil n. 19 6 * 

November, 1839). Planta est annua circa tropicos sparsa 

quee Fortunatas non attingit. 

VII. CistinejE. 

14. Helianthemum Gorgoneum, Webb ; caule fruticoso, rai»i s 
pilis floccosis asperatis albidis, foliis latis ovatis l*n- 
ceolato-ovatisque acutis pannosis subenerviis cinereo- 
pubescentibus petiolatis, stipulis lanceolato-linearibus m- 
conspicuis caducissimis petiolo duplo triplove brevioribus, 
calycibus floccoso-tomentosis, foliolis latis rhomboideo- 
ovatis subacutis demum obtusissimis crassis coriaceis» 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 103 

nervis obsoletis 3-5 costato-nervosis, petalis aurantiacis 
basi purpurascentibus, staminibus ovarium globosum vil- 
losum vix excedentibus, filamentis crassis purpureis, stylo 
elongato, capsula rotunda pubescente. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 
Affine est H. Canariensi sed omnibus partibus major fortior- 
que, stipulse crassiores, breviores, foliola calycina latiora 
apice haud contorsa, crassa, aurantiaca, oculo purpureo 
nee luteo, stamina crassiora ovario vix longiora nee pis- 



tillum integrum subaequantia, capsulee valvis late ovatis 
nee ellipticis. Cum tot sint et tales differentice stirpes, 
ut probabile est, diversas, confundere voluimus. Generis 
zonam temperatam incolentis species est ultima versus 
fcquatorem protensa. 

VIII. P0LY3ALE.E, 

15. Polygala erioptera, DC. Prodr. 1. p. 326. Guill. et Perott. 
Nor. Sen. Tent. p. 38.— Ic. Deless. Ic. select, t. 15. 

Hab. In insula S. Antonii (Vogel, n. 50. Junio, 1841) in 
ins. S. Vincentii locis saxosis et arenosis (Vogel, n. 58, 
Junio, 1841) in planitie circa Porto Praya ins. S. Jacobi 
(J. -£>. Hooker, n. 134. November, 1841). 

An hue referenda P. obtusata, Brunner, circa Porto Praya 
observata ex speciminibus quae sub oculis habemus in 
eodem loco a cl. Hookero fil. lectis ? Plantse sunt amboe 
Senegalenses atque iEgyptiaco-arabicae nondum in Fortu- 
natis % lectee. 

16. Polygala micrantha, Guill. et Perr.i Fl. Sen. Tent. p. 39. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) specimen 

unicum cujus flores aliquantulum majores quam in planta 
Senegalensi, capsula ovata, semina tota villosa elongato- 
olivagformia. 



IX. Frankeniace^e. 



der 



Can. Ins. p. 154. DC. Prcdr. 1. p. 350. Phyt. Can. 1. 



104 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

p. 132. Brunn. Ergebn. p. 73. excl. sy. Desf.—lc. Phyt. 

Can. t. 45 et t. 17. 
Hab. Ad salinas ins. Sal (Forbes, n. 1. die 26 Martii, 1822) 
in clivis maritimis arenosis ins. S. Vincentii (Vogel, n. 8). 
In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par) 

X. Caryophylle^. 

18. Mollugo bellidifolia, Ser. in DC. Prodr. I. p. 391. Phar- 
naceum spathulatum, Swart z, FL Ind. occ. 1. p. 568. Phar- 
naceum belli difolium, Poir. EncycL 5. p. 262.— Ic. Plum- 
PI Amer. t. 21./ 1. 

Hab. Occurrit haec planta in apricis aridis circa Porto Praya 
ins. 8. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 163. November, 1839). 
Planta est circa tropicos sparsa quse et in Nubia obvia, 
(Kotschy, n. 119. die 3 Octobr. 1839). 

19. Polycarpia nivea, Nob. Achyranthes nivea, HorL Kew» 
ed. 1. \.p. 286. ed. 2. 2. p. 57. Polycarpia Candida, Webby 
Phyt Can. 1. p. 138. Helichrysum? anPhagnalon? Brunn. 
Ergebn. p. 77. Polycarpia glauca, Chr. Smith, Tuck, p* 250. 
(Hook. fit. in litt.) Polycarpia candidissima, Bert. Misceli 

111.— Ic. Phyt. Can. t. 21. Bert. /. c. t. 1./ 1. 
Hab. Valde vegeta crescit in arenis ins. S. Antonii (Th* 

Vogel, n. 2) occurrit quoque ad dimidium Monte Verede, 

ins. S. Vincentii sed minor (Th. Vogel, n. 54, Junio, 1841.) 

In ins. Sal (Brunner in herb, nostro). 

The Cape de Verd specimens of this plant are much 
stronger than those of the Canaries, and the flowers are some- 
what larger; but during a careful examination as well 'of the 
flowers as of the fruit, no really distinctive characters what- 
ever presented themselves. The specimen of Illecebrum 
gnaphalodes, sent to Desfontaines by Schousboe himself, * s 
in a different state of vegetation, and offering besides some 
distinction in the forms of the floral teguments, it requires 
to be seen in other stages before its real position can be 
decided. 

20. Polycarpia Gayi, Webb. 

a. helichrysoides ; fruticosa, ramis fuscis nodosissimis, inter- 



SPICILEGIA GOTtGONEA. 105 

mediis b'revibus, ramulis tomentosis albis, foliis oppositis 

vel verticillato-aggregatis rotundato- vel ovato-spathu- 

latis subobtusis crassis tomento brevi molli albo undi- 

que tomentosis subsericeis basi petiolatis, stipulis liberis 

mrnutissimis lanceolatis acutis, floribus ovato-cylindra- 

ceis, laciniis calycinis subtomentosis late scariosis margine 

ciliato-laceris, petalis lanceolatis acutis erosis, staminibus 

cum petalis et urceoli parapetaloidei lobis crenulatis alter- 

nantibus, ovario longius stipitato, stylo brevi, stigmate 
2-lobo. 

Hab. In ins. Sal petrosis Brunner (a. 172). In herb. ins. 
Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

P. halimoides; suffrutex, ramis elongatis cortice papyraceo 
fusco lacero tectis, junioribus sordide cinereo-pubescen- 
tibus vix nodosis, internodiis distantibus, foliis spathulato- 
lanceolatis oppositis vel verticillato-aggregatis obsolete 
undulatis tomento brevi ssimo albido argentatis basi in 
petiolum brevem crassum attenuatis liberis, stipulis liberis 
minimis late scariosis caducis, cymis confertis, floribus 
cylindraceis, laciniis calycinis late scariosis, petalis oblongo- 
lanceolatis obtusis, staminibus cum petalis et urceoli 
parapetaloidei lobis emarginatis alter nantib us, ovario de- 
presso ovato-3-angulari breviter stipulato, stylo brevi, 
stigmate orbiculari capitate 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

Y* lycioides; suftrutex, ramis rectis duris divergentibus, 
ramulis pubescentibus, internodiis brevibus, foliis oppo- 
sitis vel verticillato-aggregatis lanceolatis in petiolum 
brevem attenuatis pube stellata puberulis mox glabres- 
centibus ciliatis, stipulis minimis scariosis, cymulis crassis 
depressis pubescentibus, laciniis calycinis lanceolatis exte- 
noribus papposo-scariosis, petalis ovato-lanceolatis acutius- 
culis, staminibus cum petalis et urceoli parapetaloidei 
lobis rotundatis alternantibus, stylo brevi, stigmate amplo 
capitato. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir, (Mus. reg. Par.) 

We had originally considered as species these three very 



106 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

distinct forms ; but our indefatigable friend, M. J. Gay, who 
is preparing with his well-known accuracy a most interesting 
monograph of the group, informs us, that after a labonous 
and minute examination of the flowers, which occupied eight 
days, he has been led to reduce them to simple vanaties 
of a common species, which, though intimately allied to 
Polycarpia nivea, nob., differs essentially from that plant. 
21. Paronychia illecebroides, Webb ; caule prostrato ramo- 
sissimo, ramis filiformibus pubescentibus, stipulis fohis 
lineari-lanceolatis vel linearibus acutis puberulis dimidio 
brevioribus, bracteis flore brevioribus, calycibus brevis- 
sime mucronulatis, mucrone recto vel inflexo. — Hermana 
illecebroides, Chr. Smith, in Tuck. voy. p. 250 / ex herb. 
Mus. Brit. {J. D. Hooker, in litt.) — Ic. (Tab. VII.) 
Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 756. 
Hab. Communis est in insulis Gorgoneis. In sinu Tarrafal 
sive Tamaricum ins. S. Antonii (Forbes, n. 24, die 2 Aprihs, 
1822, spec, florida). In ins. S. Jacobi, vulgaris (/. Dalton 
Hooker, n. 112. November, 1839, spec. flor. et fruct.) la 
ins. S. Vincentii ab alt. 500 ped. usque ad cacumen Montis 
Verede (Th. Vogel, n. 25. Junio, 1841, spec, deusta.) 
Radix lignosa ; ramis filiformibus prostratis ; stipulis hyahms> 
oblongis, ciliatis, apice setaceis, folio duplo triplove bre- 
vioribus. Folia oblongo-linearia vel lineari-lanceolata, 
angusta, brevissime petiolata, acuta, pubescentia. Flores 
omnes axillares ; bracteis hyalinis, ovatis, calyce breviori- 
bus. Calyx cylindraceus, hirsutus, foliolis oblongis angustis 
costato-trinerviis brevissime mucronulatis, mucrone cras- 
siusculo inflexo, margine vix scariosis. Ovarium globu- 
losum, hirtum. Capsula exigua, ovato-rotundata. Semen 
glabrum. Embryo vermicularis, hemicyclica. 
Aftinis est hsec species P. polygonifolia, DC, a qua plurimis 
notis differt, stipularum scilicet et bractearum quoad folia 
et flpres longitudine, calycis forma et mucrone. A 
P. argentea, Lamck. cui flores ut plurimum capitati longius 
quoque recedit. 
Tab. VII. Fig. 1. flower, included within the bracteffj 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 107 

/. 2. bractea; /, 3. flower removed; /. 4. same cut open ; 
/. 5 . ovarium ; /. 6. seed ,• /. 7. embryo ;— all magnified. 

XL SlLENE^E. 

22. Silene Gallica, Linn. Sp. PL p. 595. Silene Anglica et 
Lusitanica, ejusd. ibid.—lc. Engl. bot. t. 1178. 

Hab. Specimina valde vegeta hujus plantse extant in herb, 
ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

XII. Malvaceae, Juss. 

23. Gossypium nigrum, Ham. var. punctatum. Gossypium 
punctatum, Guill. et Perr. ! FL Sen. Tent. p. 62. Brunner 
Ergebn. p. 75. — Ic. nulla ex toto varietatem nostram ex- 
primit: folia habet fere G. micranthi, Cavan. Diss. 6. t. 193. 
sed valde tomentosa, involucrum autem et florem G. Pe- 
ruvian^ ej. ib. t. 168. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (Chr. Smith! in herb. Mus. Brit., 
/. D. Hooker, in litt.) Ad sinum Tarrafal sive Tamaricum 
ins. S. Antonii (Forbes, n. 12. die 2 April, 1822, spec, 
flor. et fruct.) In eadem ins. S. Antonii et in Monte 
Verede ins. S. Vincentii (Th. Vogel, n. 55 et 5. Junio, 
1841, spec. flor. et fruct.) 

24. Malva spicata, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 967. Cav. Diss. 2. p. 80. 
Malva ovata, ejusd. ibid. p. 81.— Ic. Cav. I c. t. 20. /. 2 
et4. 

In ins. S. Jacobi (Chr. Smith I in herb. Mus. Brit. /. Dalton 
Hooker in litt.) In valle S. Dominici et in planitie oppidi 
ejusd. ins. (/. D. Hooker, n. 185 et 187. November, 1839, 
spec. flor. et fruct.) 

25. Sida spinosa, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 960. DC. Prodr. I. p. 460. 
Ic. Pluk. Phytogr. t. 9. /. 6. 

& Foliis ovato-subrotundis. — Sida alba, Linn. I. c. DC. 

I c Guill. et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. p. 74,. Wight et Am. Fl. 

Pen. Ind. or. p. 58. Sida repens, Chr. Smith, in Tuck. voy. 

p. 250 ! (Herb. Mus. Brit. fid. /. D. Hooker, in litt.) 
Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (Chr. Smith) ibid. (/. D. Hooker, 

n. 189. et 0. n. 191. November, 1839, spec. flor. et fruct.) 



108 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 



26. Sida stipulata, Cav. Diss. 1. p. 22. DC. Prodr. I. p. 460. 
— Ic. Cav. /. c. t.3.f. 10. 

Hab. In arvis Gossypio consitis ad sinum Tarrafal ins. 
S. Antonii {Forbes, n. 11. die 2 Aprilis, 1822, spec. fl. et 
fruct.) In valle S. Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi, {J. D. Hooker, 
n. 190. November, 1839, spec. fl. et fruct.) 

27. Sida rhombifolia, Linn. Sp. PL p. 961. Cav. Diss. 1. p. 23. 

DC. Prodr. I. p. 462. Webb, Phyt. Can. 1. p. 36. Sida 

canescens, Cav. 1. c. p. 23. Sida Canariensis, Willd. Sp. 

PL 3. p. 755. DC. Prodr. 1. p. 462.— Ic. Cav. /. c. t. 3. 

f.Uet t.S.f.S. 

Hab. In valle S. Dominici ins. £. Jacobi (/. IX Hooker, 
n. 186. November, 1839, spec. flor. et fruct.) In ins. 
S. Antonii {Th. Vogel, n. 37. die 17 Junii, 1841, spec. flor. 
et fruct.) 

28. Sida cordifolia, Linn. Sp. PL p. 961. DC. Prodr. 1- 
p. 464. Wight et Am. FL Pen. Ind. or. 1. p. 58. Sida 
herbacea, Cav. Diss. 1. p. 19. DC. Prodr. I. p. 463. Sida 
rotundifolia, Car. ibid. p. 20. Z>C. i&a 7 . p. 464. Sida althaji- 
folia, Swartz, Prodr. p. 101, a/gwe auct. omnium. Sida 
Africana, Pa/, de Beauv. Fl. d'Ow. 2. p. 87.— Ic. Cav. /. c> 
t. 3./. 2. t. 13./. 1. t. 194./. 2. Pa/, a^ Beauv. L c. t. 116. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi vulgaris, (/. Dalton Hooker, n. 184, 
197 et 198, November 1839, sp. flor. et fruct.) In eadem 
ins. {Darwin) et cop. in herb. ins. Cap. Virid. {Mus. reg. 
Par.) 

29. Sida urens, Linn. Sp. PL p. 963. DC, Prodr. 1. p. * 65 ' 
Guill. et Perr. FL Sen. Tent. p. 73. Sida micans, Chr. Smith, 
in Tuck. Journ. 250! (/. D. Hook, in litt.)— Ic. Cav. Diss. 
1. /. 2./. 7. 

Hab. In ins. £. Jacobi, {J. Dalton Hooker, n. 188. November 
1839, sp. fl. et fruct.) et in herb. ins. Cap. Virid. {Mv*- 
reg. Par.) 

30. Abutilon periplocafolium, G. Don, Wight et Am. Pr. &- 
Pen. Ind. Or. Sida periploceefolia, Sp. PL p. 962. DC* 
Prodr. 1. p. 467.— Ic. Pluk. Phyt. t. 74. /. 7. Dill. Jforf. 
Elth. t 3./. 2. Cav. Diss. 1. t. 5. f. 2. mala. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 109 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (J. D alt on Hooker,) n, 192. November 
1839.) In eadem ins. (Darwin) et in herb. ins. Cap. Virid. 
(Mus. reg. Par.) 

31. Abutilon glaucum, Webb; Sida Asiatica, Cav. Diss. 1. 
P- 31. quoad plantam Senegalensem et t. 7./. 2. non ejusd. 
Viss. 5. 1. 128./. 1. Guill. et Perr. ! Fl Sen. Tent.p.67. non 
Linn. Sida glauca, Cav. Ic. 1. p. 8. t. 11. Sida mutica, 
Del. ! Ill Fl. Eg. Voy. de Caill. p. 60. n. 45. Brunn. 
Ergebn. p. 113. Sida polycarpa, Chr. Smith, I. c. p. 250. 
(J. D. Hooker, in litt.) 
Hab. In ins. Sal. (Brunner !) In ins. S. Jacobi rarior, (J. 
Dalton Hooker, n. 196. November 1839, sp. fl. et fruct.) 
Ad dimidium montis Verede ins. S. Vincentii, et in ins. 
S. Antonii, (Th. Vogel, n. 85 et 30, spec. fl. et fr.) 
Brunner was perfectly right in considering this to be the 
true Sida mutica of Delile. A specimen from Senegal, iden- 
tical with the S. Asiatica of the Flor. Sen. Tent, and with 
the Cape de Verd plant, is so named in the herbarium of 
Desfontaines by that distinguished botanist himself. It 
is likewise the plant sent by Despreaux from the Canaries ; 
and which we named Abutilon Indicum in the Ann. des Sc. 
n at. (2eme ser. 13. p. 132), the specimens being without 
flower or fruit; because the authors of the Pr. Flor. Pen. Ind. 
Ur. seem to consider the A. Indicum hardly distinct from the 
A. Asiaticum, of which Dr. Wight has given a good figure in 
"is Icones. The carpels in the Indian plants are however acute, 
whereas in ours they are rounded at the apex. Hence the 
excellent name of Delile, which, however, must give place 
to the earlier appellation of his predecessor, Cavanilles. The 
confusion which has arisen in the species is owing entirely 
to the latter author, who originally confounded Adanson's 
specimen from Senegal, in the Jussisean herbarium, with the 
Indian plant of Plukenet and Linnaeus ; and thus De Candolle 
and the authors of the Fl. Sen. Tent, were led astray. 
Besides the form of the carpels in the Indian plant, which is 
distinctly marked in the figure of Plukenet and by Cavanilles 
himself, Diss. 5. t. 128. f. 1. e et/, the seeds of this species 



110 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

are smooth, with a few hairs about the hilum ; whereas in the 
Cape de Verd and Egyptian plant they are entirely covered 
with hair. After having merged the present plant in his Sida 
Asiatica, Cavanilles cultivated it from Senegalese seeds, and 
reproduced it under the name of Sida glauca, thereby adding 
to the confusion; though this name must necessarily be 
adopted by us. It is not only a question of nomenclature, 
but important geographically; as we thus obtain a purely 
African species in the place of an Asiatic plant, reappearing 
somewhat unaccountably in Egypt, the Canaries, the Cape 
de Verds, and Senegal. 

32. Adansonia digitata, Linn. Sp. PL ed. 1. app. p- l^O. 
Adans. Mem. de PAcad. Roy. des Sc. 1761. p. 218. Chr. 
Smith in Tuck. voy. p. 249 ! (fid. /. D. Hooker •, in litt) 
Guill. et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. p. 76.— Ic. Prosp. Alp. W- 
Mg. t. 67. Adans. 1. c. t. 6 et 7. Cav. Diss. 5. t. 157. 
Gaertn. 2. t. 135. Lamck. ///. t. 588. Juss. Fl. des Ant. 3. 
t. 33 et 34. 

Hab. Prope Portum Praya, ins. S. Jacobi, arbor unica. (J> 
Dalton Hooker, n. 141. November 1839, spec, floridum.) 

XIII. Byttneriace^, R. Br. 

33. Waltheria Indica, Linn. Sp. PL p. 941. Waltheria Ame- 
ricana, ejusd. ibid. Waltheria microphylla, Cav. Diss. 6. 
p. 317. Waltheria elliptica, Cav. I. c. Phyt. Can. 1. p- 4l - 

Ic. Cav. Let. 170. f. 2. 
Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (C. Darwin.) 

The figure of Cavanilles, cited above, comes nearest the 
specimen collected by Mr. Darwin. For the numerous 
forms and synonyms of this polymorphous plant see Wig llt 
and Arn. Prodr. Fl. Pen. Ind. Or. p. 67 ; to which may b e 
added Waltheria arborescens, Cav. /. c. 1. 170./. 1. 

XIV. TlLIACEiE, JUSS. 

34. Melhania Leprieurii, Webb ; Brotera Leprieurii, GutiM** 
et Perr. FL Sen. Tent. p. 85.— Ic. (Tabs. IV. V.) Hook. 
Ic. Plant, t. 753 et 755. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. Ill 

Hab. In planitie aprica circa Portum Praya, ins. S. Jacobi, 
(/. Dalton Hooker^n. 195. Novembre 1835, sp. florida et 
fructifera.) In eadem ins. {Darwin, n. 301) ; vidi quoque 
specimina plura in herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 
Obs. The authors of the Fl. Pen. Ind. Or., in their 
remarks on Melhania incana, Heyne, observe that it ex- 
ceedingly resembles the figure of Brotera ovata, Cav., said to 
have distinct styles. This, indeed, is the only character 
which separates Melhania and Brotera. A careful examina- 
tion, however, of the species which constitute this latter 
genus, has proved to me that no such character in reality 
exists, and that it must therefore merge in Melhania. In 
the Brotera ovata, formerly cultivated by Desfontaines in the 
Paris Garden, probably from seeds sent by Cavanilles him- 
self, and preserved in his herbarium, as well as in the 
#. Leprieurii and B. bracteosa of the Fl. Sen. Tent, in the 
Delesserian herbarium, I have found a very distinct style, 
not so conspicuous as in the species formerly placed under 
Dombeya, equally so, however, with those of the group of 
true Melhanias, to which M. ovata and M. Leprieurii belong, 
^t bracteosa will form another group with M. Kotschyi, 
Koch. The error of Cavanilles and of the authors of the 
*!• Sen. Tent, arose from the shortness of the style, and 
from its being frequently masked at a certain age by the 
ascendant hairs of the ovary; so that its divisions seem 
to be separate to their base, and to be seated directly 
on that body, though they are really connected below, and 
form a single column, as visible as in many of the neigh- 
bouring genera. The species of this genus are still exceed- 
ln gly puzzling; and it is not impossible but that the M. 
Leprieurii may hardly be distinct from the M. velutina, 
Forsk., or the M. incana, Heyne : it seems, too, to bear 
a remarkable resemblance to Melhania ovata. But I have 
n ot sufficient data by which to determine their identity 
or their difference. From a herbaceous plant, as it appears 
a * first, M. Leprieurii becomes in time a low woody shrub. 



112 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

Tab. IV, Fig. 1. unexpanded flower;/. 2. ditto with the 

sepals expanded. 
Tab. V. Fig. 1. petal;/. 2. portion of staminal column; 
/. 3. ovarium ; / 4. transverse section of ditto ; /. 5. ovule; 
/. 6. ripe fruit;/. 7. transverse, and/. 8. longitudinal 

section of ditto ; /. 9. fruit burst open ; /. 10. seed ; / U« 

vertical section of ditto ; /. 12 and 13. embryo : all more 

or less magnified. 

35. Corchorus trilocularis, Linn. Mant. p. 77. Chr. Smith, 
Journ. in Tuck, voy.p. 251. DC. Prodr. 1. p. 504. GuiU. 
et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. p. 88. Wight et Am. Prodr. Fl Pen. 
Ind.p. 72. — Ic. Jacq. Hort. Vind. t. 173. 

Hab. In valle umbrosa ad orientem Portus Prayce, ins. «• 
Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 168. November 1839, sp. 
fl. 'et fruct.) Chr. Smith places this species in his list 
amongst the " Plantse boreali-Africanse quae simul Cana- 
rienses ;" but it has never, that 1 know of, been found Hi 
those islands. - 

36. Corchorus olitorius, Linn. Sp. PL p. 746. DC. Prodr. I. 
p. 504. Guill. et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. p. 87. Wight et Am. 
FL Pen. Ind. Prodr. p. 73.— Ic. Gaertn. t. 64. Lamck. UL 
t. 478. 

Hab. In valle S. Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi, rarius, (J. Dalton 
Hooker, n. 156. Nov. 1839, sp. flor. et fruct.) 

37. Corchorus tridens, Linn. Mant. p. 566. DC. Prodr. 1- 
p. 505. C. Burmanni, ejusd. ibid. C. trilocularis, Burm. Fl. 
Ind. p. 123. Guill. et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. p. 89.— Ic. Pluk- 
Phyt. t. 127. f. 4. Burm. L c. t. 37./. 2. 

Hab. In humidiusculis ins. S. Antonii, (Th. Vogel, n. 43. 
Junio 1841. 

38. Corchorus Antichorus, Roeuschel, Nomencl. Bot. ed. 3. 
(1797) p. 158, nomen, Antichorus depressus, Linn. ManL 
p. 64. et Regn. Veg. ed. 13. (cur. Murray) p. 297. DC 
Prodr. I. p. 504. Brunn. Ergebn. p. 161. Jussisea edulis, 
Forsk. Fl. Mg. Ar. p. 210. Caricteria, Scop. Introd. p. 255. 
Corchorus sect. Antichorus, Endlich. Gen. p. 1008. Cor- 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 113 



chorus fruticulosus, Vis. PI. Mg. et Nub. p. 21. — Ic. Linn. 

/. Dec.fasc. 3. t. 2. Vis. /. c. t. 3./. 2. 

Hab. In planitie Porto Prayensi, ins. S. Jacobi, vulgaris, (J. 

Dalton Hooker, n. 166. Nov. 1839. In ipsis oppidi plateis 

{Brunner 1. c.) In ins. S. Vincentii et S. Nicolai, (Th. 
Vogel.) 

This species, first found by Forskahl in Arabia, and de- 
scribed by Linnaeus in the Mantissa, though it reappears 
in these islands, belongs essentially to Nubia and the 
Arabian peninsula. Aucher found it at Mascato (exsicc. 
n. 4286), Schimper near Djedda (exsicc. n. 813), Brocchi 
and Kotschy (it. Nub. n. 342) near Chartum, at the con- 



White 



ere 



in the latitude of the Cape de Verd Islands to form the 
•Nile, and the latter likewise at Tekele, on the borders of 
v^ordofan. It cannot certainly be separated generically from 
^orchorus. Professor Visiani justly describes it as fre- 
quently pentamerous; and probably on that account he did 
not recognize it as the Antichorus of Linnaeus, of which 
it scarcely forms a separate division, but should be placed in 
the section Coretoides of De Candolle. Both Forskahl and 
Brocchi say it is edible, like its congener, C. olitorius, L., 
a circumstance not mentioned by our voyagers. 
39. Triumfetta Lappula, Linn. Sp. pi. p. 637. T. Plumieri, 

Gaertn. p. 137.— Ic. Plum. ed. Burm. t. 255. Descourt. 

Ft. des Antilles, 2. t. 101 et 102. Da Arr. Fl.flum. t. 5. 
Hab. In valle S. Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, 

n. 191, Nov. 1839.) 
40- Triumfetta pentandra, Rich, in Guilt, et Perr. Ft. Sen. 

Tent. p. 93.— Ic. Rich. I. c. t. 19. 
Hab. In locis umbrosis vallis S. Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi, 
' {J. Dalton Hooker, n. 177. Nov. 1839.) 

The Cape de Verd specimens differ from the plant figured 
in the Flora of Senegambia in having the leaves entire 
a nd not 3-lobed. The reduction of the stamens to five, 
alternating with the petals, and that of the glands to the 
smallest proportion, with the almost entire suppression of 



114 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

the urceolate appendix to the torus, occur equally in our 

plant. 

41. Grewia echinulata, Del. Cent, des plant es de CailL p. 82. 

n. 70. Grewia corylifolia, GuilL et Perr. FL Sen. Tent. 
p. 95. — Ic. Guill. et Perr. I. c. t. 20. 
Hab. Arbuscula 15-pedalis ad apicera collium alt. 1000 ad 

2000 ped. in ins. S. Jacobi, Avellance sylvulas mentiens (/. 

Dalton Hooker, n.175, Nov. 1839), specimina flor. etfruct. 

In ead. ins. (T. R. H. Thomson) in herb. Chr. Smith, Mus. 

Brit, ex cl. J. D. Hooker, in litt. 

Mr. Arnott (in Ann. des Sc. Nat. 2eme ser. Bot. 2. p. 236) 
considers this plant not specifically distinct from the i* 
pilosa of the Fi. Pen. Ind. Or. p. 79. et Hook. Comp. bot. 
Mag. t. 10.) It is safer, however, to keep the two apart, 
till their positive identity has been fully confirmed. The 
African plant is everywhere smaller, more particularly i ts 
flowers; its leaves are much more villous, the leaflets ot 
the calyx are thinner and transparent, with nerves more 
conspicuous and divaricated. 

XV. OlacinejE, Mirb. 



42. Ximenia Americana, Linn. Sp. PL p. 497. DC, Prodr. h 
p. 533. X. muitiflora, Jacq. Amcen. p. 106. Heymassoli 
spinosa, Aubl. Guyan. p. 324. —Ic. Lmck. III. t. 297. /• 1 
et 2. Jacq. /. c. t. 297. /. 31. Aubl. /. c. t. 125. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi, (Chr. Smith, in herb. Mus. Brit. fi a - 
/. D. Hooker in litt.) 

XVI. Sapindace^e, Juss. 

43. Cardiospermum Halicacabum, Linn. Sp. PL p* 925. Car- 
diospermum hirsutum, Chr. Smith in Tuck. Journ. p- %^' 
(fid. J. D. Hook, in litt.— Ic. Rheed. MaL t. 28. Rump* 1 - 
Amb. t. 24. /2. Lamck. III. t. 317. Camb. Mem. da M**- 
18. t.l.f. A. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 160. spec. fl. et 



fruct.) 



Azeder 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 115 

Danvin), but can scarcely perhaps be considered indige- 
nous. 



XVII. OxALIDE^E, DC. 

44. Oxalis corniculata, L. Sp. PL p. 624.— Ic. Jacq. Ox. t. 5. 
Hab. In rupibus Montis Verede, ins. S. Vincentii, (Th. 

Vogel, n. 35. Junio 1841. spec, pusillum.) In ins. S. 
Jacobi, (Chr. Smith in herb. Mus. Brit, ex CI. J. D. Hooker.) 
In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

XVIII. Zygophylle^e, R. Br. 

45. Tribulus terrestris, Linn. Sp. PL p. 554. Guill. et Perr. 
PL Sen. Tent. p. 139.— Ic. Reich. Ic. Fl. Germ, et Helv. 
L 161. /. 4821. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 157/ Nov. 

1839, spec, florida et fructifera.) 
46- Tribulus cistoides, Linn. Sp. PL p. 554. — Ic. Pluk. 

Phyt. t. 67. f. 4. Jacq. Hort. Schcenb. t. 103. 
Hab. In rupestribus sinu Tarrafal (Forbes, n. 20, die 2 
Aprilis, 1822, sp. flor. cum fructu mature) In ins. S. Vin- 
centii (Forbes, n. 4. sp. flor.) In planitie lapidosa ins. 
8. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 159. November, 1839, sp. 
fruct. cum floribus, et Chr. Smith, ex CI. J. D. Hooker.) 
In ins. S. Vincentii ad alt. 500 ped. (Th. Vogel, n. 34. 
Junio, 1841.) In ins. S. Antonii (Id. n. 31. sp. fljr.) 
This is a true Tribulus, and not a Kails trcsmia, and there- 
fore perfectly distinct from the K. cistoides, Endl. (Syn. Fl. 
Ind. Occ. in Ann. des Wien. Mus. 1. p. 184.) 

47. Fagonia Cretica, Linn. Sp. PL p. 553. Brunn. Ergebn. 
P- 69. In sinu Tarrafal ins. S. Antonii (Forbes, n. 23. 
die 2 Aprilis, 1822, sp. fl. et fruct.) ; in rupestribus ins. 
S. Antonii (Th. Vogel, n. 41. Junio, 1841, sp. fructifera) ; 
in ins. Salis (Brunner, 1. c.) 

48. Zygophyllum Fontanesii, Webb, Phyt. Can. 1. p. 17. 
Zygophyllum album, Desf. Ft. Atl.—lc. Phyt. Can. t. 1. 

Hab. In arena maris ins. S. Vincentii, frutex ramosus dif- 
fusus (Vogel, n. 121. Junio, 1841, spec, fruct.) 

I 2 



116 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

49. Zygophyllum simplex, L. Mant. p. 68. Z. portulacoides, 
Forsk. FL Mg. Ar. p. 88. Z. stellulatum, Chr. Smith ! in 
Tuck. Journ. p. 250 qui zonee temperatae per errorem 
civem dixit cum sit ex toto littoralis (J. D. Hooker in litt.) 
Fagonia prostrata, Br win. t Ergebn. p. 69. — Ic. Forsk. 

ic. 12. 

In ins. Salis (Forbes sine n. Brunner !) Circa Portwn Praya 

ins. & Jacobi planta maritima. (/. D. Hooker, n. 179. 
November, 1839, sp. fl. et fruct.) In ins. SL Antonii 
(Th. Vogel, Junio, 1841, sp. unicum sole ustum.) In ins. 
S. Jacobi (Darwin, sp. fl. et fruct.) 

XIX. RHAMNEiE, JuSS. 

50. Zizyphus Jujuba, Lamck. EncycL 3. p. 318. Rhamnus 
Jujuba, L. Sp. PL p. 282. Z. sororia, Schult. Syst. 5. 
p. 338. Z. insularis, Chr. Smith in Tuck. Journ. p> 250, 
spec, pessimum (fid. J. D. Hooker in litt.) — Ic. Rheed. 
Mai. 4. t. 41. Rum ph. Arab. 3. t. 36. Pluk. Phyt. t. 312. 

The true Z. Jujuba, remarkable for its tawney down, and 
not the Z. orthacantha, DC. of Senegal, which Brunner says 
he saw in San Tiago (Ergebn. p. 127), of which the down is 
white in the specimens given me by Mr. Perrottet. A 
specimen, apparently of the latter, occurs without flower or 
fruit, in the herb, of the Paris Museum. 

XX. JjEGUMINOS^E, JUSS. 

51. Crotalaria Senegalensis, Bacl. in DC. Prodr. 2, p. 1^3. 
Guill. et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. p. 165, excl. syn. Del. I* 1 
rupestribus ins. S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 146 et 147, 
November, 1839, sp. flor. et fruct.) ibid. (Chr. Smith, in 
herb. Mus. Brit. excl. /. D. Hooker.) 

Our plant appears perfectly distinct from the C. macilenta, 
Del. Cent. PL Afr.p. 35. t. 3./. 2, with which it has been 
associated by the authors of the Fl. Sen. Tent. The leaves, 
as well as the whole plant, are more pubescent and the leaf- 
lets more oblong and obovate and not elliptic. The flowers 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 117 

are half and sometimes less than half the size of those of 
the Nubian species, the calyx and its teeth shorter, the 
standard much more ample, very hairy and not pubescent 
only outside, nor entirely yellow, but marked with longitu- 
dinal streaks of red; it is about the same length as the wings 
and not longer; the wings are narrow and oblong, not wide 
and spathulate, the plicatures all placed much nearer the 
apex; the keel is longer than the wings and standard, 
instead of being about the length of the wings and shorter 
than the standard; the fruit is oblong-oval and when ripe 
the base of the style which forms the apex is placed nearly 
m a straight line with the upper suture; whereas in the 
Nubian plant the ripe fruit is nearly round, and the apex 
forms an angle with the suture. Notwithstanding the great 
similitude of these plants, presenting as they do so many 
differences, it is more prudent to keep them apart. Our 

comparison was made with the plant of Kotschy (Iter Nub. 
n. 24.) 

52. Crotalaria microphylla, VahL, Symb. 1. p. 52. Benth. 

Enum. Legum. in Hook. Lond. Journ. of Bet. 2. p. 573. 

C. pumila, Hochst. et Steud. Exsicc. Arab. Schimp. 1837. 

n. 778. 
Hab. In rupibus maritimis ins. S. Antonii {Forbes, die 
' 2 Aprilis, 1822, sp. unicum fructiferum.) 

I had at first distinguished this plant specifically under 
the name of C. trigonelloides ; but after a careful examination 
it seems scarcely possible to separate it from C. microphylla, 
Vahl; though the branches which are stouter appear less 
procumbent and the leaves are more approximated. The 
upper leaflets in both, as in C. humilis, Eckl., frequently 
become linear and elongated and sometimes simple. The 
pubescence and the stipules are identical ; the segments of the 
calyx in our plant are however somewhat narrower and more 
sharply pointed. Unfortunately, we have no perfect flowers; 
but the keel is apparently of the same form: the fruit, ripe 
in our specimen, though otherwise similar to the unripe fruit 
of that of Schimper, is a little larger. 



118 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

53. Lotus Jacobams, Linn. Sp. PL p. 1091. DC. Prodr. 2, 
p. 210.— Ic. Cotnmel. Hort. Amst. 2. t. 83. Curt. Bot. 
Mag. t. 79. 

Hab. In zona temperata ins. S. Jacobi (Chr. Smith, 1. c. 
p. 250. In rupestribus maritimis ad sinum Tarrafal ins. 
8. Antonii (Forbes, n. 18. die 2 April, 1822, spec, florida 
valde hirta, foliis latioribus, carina et vexillo pallidis, alis 
atropurpureis, specimina his similia sed gracihora in 
eadem ins. legit Th. VogeV). In vallibus ins. 8. Nicolai, 
(Forbes, n. 18. die 29 Mali, 1822, sp. florida, alis et vexillo 
atropurpureis, carina pallida.) In palmetis ins. S. J aC0 
(Forbes, n. 5. die 5 April, 1822, spec, florida et fructifera, 
alis atropurpureis, carina et vexillo pallidis. Ad apice 
montis cujusdam acuti vallis S. Dominici ins. S. Jacofn a 
alt. 2000 ped. (J. D. Hooker,n. 153. November 1839, spec 
fructifera et florida, alabastris novellis undique prodituns, 
gracilia foliosissima, foliis angustis, alis et vexillo atropur- 
pureis, carina pallida.) 

It appears that this plant grows from the sea-coast to an 
elevation of 2000 feet, varying according to its station m 
the breadth and hairiness of its leaves and in the colour ot i s 
petals ; though these are never entirely yellow, like those o 



Lotus Brunneri. 



elon- 



>4. Lotus melilotoides, Webb ; caule frutescente, rami* 
gatis diffusissimis molliter pilosis, foliis sessilibus folioh* 
stipulisque elongatis lineari-lanceolatis vel linearibus basi 
attenuatis pilosis viridibus, junioribus rufo-hirtis, bracteis 
linearibus flores vix excedentibus, calycis turbinati hirti 
dentibus lanceolatis apice setaceis, alis lanceolatis carinee 
longitudine vexillo acutiusculo vix brevioribus. Flores 
videntur rosei ; aflftnis est L. anthyttoidi, Vent., sed foliorum 
forma et pubescentia differt. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 
55. Lotus purpureus, Webb ; caule frutescente, ramis diffusis, 
foliis appresse pilosis virentibus, stipulis ovatis cum acu- 
mine, foliolis latis ovatis velobovatis obcordatisque, calycc 
urceolato distincte 2-labiato, dentibus lineari-lanceolatis 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 119 

apice setaceis labii superioris longioribus, inferioris dente 
intermedio lateralibus duplo fere longiore, carina vexillo 
obtusiusculo subbreviore alis oblongis breviore. — Icon. 
Tab. VI. Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 757. 
Hab. In arvis et in Euphorbia Tuckeranm sylvis ins. S. M- 
cholai {Forbes, die 30 Martii 1822, spec florida.) 
This species, though very distinct, is allied to L. macranthus, 
Lowe, (L.Portosanctanus, Nob. in Steud. Nomenclat.) of which 
the flowers are pale purple. Those of our plant have the keel 
and standard rose-coloured and the wings tipped with deep 
purple. Some of the leaflets are as much as 4 lines long by 
2i wide. 

Tab. VI. Fig. 1. flower; /. 2. vexillum; /. 3. ala; /. 4. ca- 
rina ; /. 5. ovarium : —magnified. 

56. Lotus coronillafolius, Webb; cauie frutescente, ramis 
elongatis gracilibus diffusissimis glabellis, stipulis lanceo- 
latis, foliis petiolatis foliolisque petiolulatis latis obovatis 
obcordatisque parce et appresse pubescentibus viridibus, 
junioribus fulvis, calycis turbinati pubescentis dentibus 
subeequalibus basi ovatis apice lineari-setaceis, vexillo 
glabro, carina acuta alis obtusis longiore, stylo breviter 
1-dentato. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

This species in its general appearance resembles the Lotus 
spartioides, Nob. (Phyt. Can.), but is easily distinguished by 
the form of its leaves and of the teeth of its calyx. 

57. Lotus Brunneri, Webb; caule fruticoso procumbente, 
foliis pube cinerea adpressa sericeis, stipulis lanceolatis 
sessilibus petiolo brevioribus caducis foliolis obovato -lan- 
ceolatis, pedunculis paucifloris, calycibus urceolato-campa- 
nulatis sericeo-pubescentibus, dentibus lanceolatis acutis, 
corolla lutea, vexillo elliptico subacuto carina sublongiore. 
Lotus anthylloides ? Brunn. Ergebn. p. 86 ! non Vent. ! 
ex sp. Malmaisonensi herb. Desfont. — Icon. Tab. HI- 

Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 754. 
Hab. « In insula- Salis lapidosis magna copia sed constanter 



120 SPICILEGIA. GORGONEA. 

flore luteo nunqiiam atropurpureo." (Brunner, in scheda 
speeiminis nobiscum communicati.) 
, A plant, perfectly distinct from the L. anthylloides, 
Vent., of which Brunner had seen no authentic specimen 
when he originally associated them, nor of L. Jacobaus 
of which he afterwards considered it a mere variety. It 
differs from the latter by the form of its leaves, by its 
appressed and not villous and patent pubescence, by its 
short sessile stipules, by the teeth of the calyx being merely 
acute and not more or less filiform at the extremity and by 
the form and colour of the corolla. 

Tab. III. Fig. 1. flower; /. 2. vexillum ; /. 3. ala; /. 4. ca- 
. rina; f. 5. stamina and ovaria ; /. 6. ovarium; /. 7. pod; 

/. 8. seed: — magnified. . 
58. Lotus glaucus, Hort. Kew, ed. 1, 3, p. 92. Chr. Smith in 
Tuck. voy. p. 250. quanquam nulla extant in herb. Mus. 
Brit, specimina (ex cl. J. Bolton Hooker, in litt.) Phyt- 
Can. 2. p. 84.— Ic. Phyt. Can. t. 61. 
Hab. In regione temperata> ins. S. Jacobi, {Chr. Smith, I *•) 
In ins. S. Vincentii, (Th. Vogel, n. 75. Junio 1841, sp. 
fructifera, et n. 74. parce florifera.) 

The leaves of the Cape de Verd plant are much broader than 
those of the Canarian and Madeiran specimens, and resemble 
those of L. Lancer -ottensis, Nob., from which, however, as 
well as the typical form it is distinguished by its one or two 
flowered capitules and by the narrow teeth of its calyx. 
Christian Smith mentions an L. lanatm 9 sp. n. Tuck. voy. 
p. 251.; but Dr. J. D. Hooker informs us that he has 
not identified such a plant in his herbarium at the British 
Museum. 

59. Indigofera hirsuta, L. Sp. PL p. 1062. Lamck, Encyd 
. 3. p. 246. Guill. et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. p. 174. Walp. 
Repert. 1. p. 660.— Indigofera Guineensis, Thonn. et Schum. 
K. Darsk. Vid. Selskap. Afhandl 4. p. 140.— I c. Astra- 
galus spicatus, siliquis pendulis hirsutis, foliis sericeis, 
Burm. Thes. Zeyl t. 14. Hemispadon pilosus, Endl. Atakt 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 121 

* 

/. 3. ex Walp. L c. sed planta macrior quam in speciminibus 
nostris. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

60. Indigofera tinctoria, L. Sp. PL p. 1061. a. macrocarpa, 

DC. Prodr. p. 244. Guilt. etPerr. Fl. Sen. Tent. I. p. 178. 

-Ic. Pluk. Phytogr. t. 165./. 5. 

Hab. In ins. S. Antonii, frutex tripedalis, (Th. Vogel, Jun. 
1841, sp. fruct.) 

61. Indigofera viscosa, Lamck. Encycl. 3. p. 24*7. DC. Prodr. 
2. p. 227. Guill. et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. I. p. 180. Indigo- 
fera glutinosa, Perr. in DC. I. c. non Vahl !— Ic. Wendl. 
Sert. Han. t. 12. 

Hab. In locis graminosis planitiei ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton 
Hooker, Nov. 1839, sp. macilenta fruct. et florida, flores 
coccinei.) 

62. Indigofera Senegalensis, Lamck. Encycl. 3. p. 248. Guill. 
et Perr. FL Sen. Tent. p. 183. Indigofera tetrasper ma, Vahl 
in herb. Desf. ! Pers. Syn. 2. p. 325, non Thonn. et Schum. 
PI. Guin. nee DC. Prodr. 

Hab. In herb ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

63. Indigofera linearis, Guill. et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. p. 184. 
Hab. Vulgatissima circa P or turn Pray a, ins. S. Jacobi, (J. 

D. Hooker, n. 151. Nov. 1839, sp. fl. et fruct.) 
^. Tephrosia bracteolata, Guiil. et Per. Fl. Sen. Tent. p. 194. 
Hab. In valiis Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, 

Nov. 1839, sp. fl. et fruct.) 

65. Tephrosia anthylloides , Hochst. in Kotsch. Sched. IU 
Nub. 1841, n. 1841. et Schimp. It. Abyss. 1842, n. 721. 

Hab. Specimina 2 fructifera in ins. parva Coturnicum, prope 
• ins. S. Jacobi, a cl. J. Dalton Hooker lecta, aliaque flor. et 

fruct. in herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) hue referenda 

°pinor. 

66. Sesbania punctata, DC. Prodr. 2. p. 265. Guill. et Perr. 

Ft- Sen. Tent. p. 198. 
Hab. In palmetis ins. S. Jacobi, (Forbes, n. 8. die 5, April, 

1822, sp. florida.) 

67. Zornia angustifolia, Smith in Rees Cycl. n. 1. DC. Prodr. 



122 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

2. p. 316. Guffl. et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent, p. 203. Hedysarum 
diphyllum, a. Linn. Sp. PL p. 747.— Ic. Rheed. Malab. 9. 
*. 82. 
Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi, {J. Dalton Hooker, n. 143. Nov. 

1839, sp. pusillum.) 
68. Desmodium tortuosum, DC. Prodr. 2. p. 332. Hurab. et 
Kunth ! Nov. Gen. et Sp. 6. p. 521. Hedysarum tortuosum, 
Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. p. 107. Desmodium terminate, 
Fl. Sen. Tent. ! p. 307. an DC. Desmodium ospriostreblum, 
Steud. in sched. Schimp. It. Abyss, sect. 2. n. 1039 . 
Ic. Sloane, Hist, of Jam. 1. t. 116./. 9. 
Hab. In ins. S. Antonii, {Th. Vogel, June 1841, sp. A. et 
fr.) In vallibus et in pascuis siccis ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton 
Hooker, n. 148 et n. 149, Nov. 1839, sp. fl. et fr.) 
Apparently a common plant in tropical regions, parti- 
cularly those of the New World. It begins to flower at 
a very early stage, and varies exceedingly in the strength ot 
its stem and the size of its leaves and pods, on which 
account it will probably be found to have a synonymy as 
wide as its geographical range. The specimens of Hedysarum 
tenellum, Kunth ! (in the herb, of the Museum of Paris) 
appear to be a delicate form, and Hed. Cumanense ejusd. . 
a robust individual, with larger and more elliptic leaves, of 
this species, very similar to the specimens of Vogel, gathered 
in St. Antonio. I have not, however, ventured to unite 
these species, the authentic specimens not admitting of 
sufficient examination. 

69. Mysicarpus vaginalis, DC. Prodr. 2. p. 353. Guill. et 
Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. p. 210. Wight et Arn. Pr. FL Pen. Ind. 
Or. 1. p. 233. Hedysarum vaginale, Linn. Sp. PLp. 1° 52 ' 

Ic. Pluk. Phyt. t. 59./. 3. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

70. Arachis hypogaa, Linn. Sp. PL p. 1040. DC. Prodr. 
2. p. 474. Arachidnoides Americana, Nissole Mem. de TAc 
des Sc. 1723. p. 387. Arachis Africana et A. Asiatica, Lour. 
FL Coch.—lc. Pluk. Phyt. t. 60. /. 2. Rumph. Amb. 5. 
t. 156. t. 2. Trew, Ehret, t. 3. /. 3. Nissol. /. c. t. 19. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 123 

Hab. Extat ex ins. Cap. Vir. in herb. Mm. reg. Par. 
71. Scemmeringia psittacorhyncha, Webb; ramis robustis 
stnatis glaberrimis fulvis, stipulis amplis coriaceis oblongis 
latioribus rotundatis sessilibus amplexicaulibus integerrimis 
stnato-venosis glabris, foliis abrupte pinnatis 5-jugis, 
foliolis brevissime petiolulatis, petiolulis crassis stipellatis, 
stipellis caducis ovato-flabellatis obliquis obtusis e basi 
o-nerviis reticulato-nervosis pellucido-puncticulatis co- 
riaceis margine membranaceis integerrimis, spicis dicho- 
tomis basi stipulatis irabricatim bracteatis, bracteis am- 
plissimis membranaceis sessilibus connatis nervoso-reti- 
culatis glaberrimis integerrimis imbricatis obcordatis florem 
foventibus, floribus in axillis bractearum solitariis pedun- 
culatis, pedunculo parce piloso bistipulato, stipulis scariosis 
ovatis sessilibus apice ciliolatis persistentibus, calyce 
bilabiatim bipartito corolla vix breviore chartaceo striato, 
iabio inferiore compresso carinato 3-dentato dentibus 
acutis pilosulis, superne 2-dentato basi ad unguem vexilli 
gibbo, corollse papilionacea3 vexillo oblongo apice assur- 
gente medio incumbente basi utrinque auriculato ungui- 
culato, ungue reflexo plicato, alis vexillo incumbente invo- 
lutis recti s oblongis ab apice ad basin plicaturis deorsum 
s pectantibus corrugatis unguiculatis per auriculas con- 
natis carinae petalis liberis deflexis recurvis psittaci rostrum 
aduncum referentibus duplo longioribus, staminibus 10 
ln phalanges 2-5 andras intra carinae petala recurvas 
connatis, ovario breviter stipitato elliptico recurvo 2- 
ovulato hirto, stylo ascendente glabro, stigmate apicillari, 
iegumine * * * *, seminibus ** ** 

"ab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 
Though this plant differs in many particulars from the 

01 %inal Scemmeringia, in the absence of fruit it is not 

Possible to separate them. The corolla appears to be tawney 

0r yellow, with the tip of the keel purple. 

72. Phaca Vogelii, Webb ; cinereo-villosa, ramis gracilibus 
elongatis foliosis decumbentibus, foliis subsexjugis, foliolis 



124 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

parvis ovatis, spicis axillaribus densifloris folio demum 
subduplo longioribus, floribus exiguis sessilibus, calyce 

; campanulato pilosissimo, dentibus linearibus subsequalibus, 
corolla calycem vix excedente, legumine minimo inflato 
elliptico-ovato acutiusculo pilosissimo. — Ic. (Tab. VIII.) 
Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 758. 

Hab. In rupibus maritimis ins. S. Antonii (Forbes, n. 2. die 

- 2 April. 1822, sp. florifera cum fructu immaturo.) Ibid. 
(7%. Vogel, n.46. Junio 1841, sp. florifera et fructifera.) 

Herba diffusa, lignescens; ramis 1-2-pedalibus, decumbenti- 
bus, crassitie pennee columbinee, pube ascendente villosulis, 
foliosissimis. Folia impari-pinnata, pedicello brevi nudo, 
subsexjuga, jugis approximatis, foliolis exiguis sessilibus, 
ovato-lanceolatis, obtusiusculis vel mucronulatis, integerri- 
mis, utrinque pilis subappressis cinereo-villosis. Sp*<& 
e foliorum fere omnium axillis prodeuntes, 12-16-florse, 
folio demum subduplo longiores, filiformes, duriusculi, 
incurvuli, post foliorum casum persistentes. Flores minimi 
inconspicui, glomerati, subsessiles, bracteis filiformibus, 
hirtis, calyce duplo brevioribus subtensi. Calyx campanu- 
latus, hirtus > persistens, dentibus brevibus linearibus, 
acutis, subaequalibus, superioribus latioribus. Corolla flava 
calycem vix excedens, post fecundationem ab ovario inflato 
protrusa. Vexillum oblongo-ellipticum, apice rotundatum 
emarginatum, concavum, alae oblongae vexillo breviores, 
carina lata obtusa incurva valde concava longiores et cum 
ea per seculos connexae. Stamina 10, filamento vexillan 
. libero. Ovarium 1-loculare, 1-ovulatum, ellipticum, p 1- 
losissimum. Stylus brevis, arcuatus, mox antrorsum re- 
curvus. Stigma capitatum, demum antrorsum decline. 
Legumen parvum, inflatum, ovato- ellipticum, apice acu- 
tiusculum, 1-loculare, 2-spermum, demum ad suturam 
superiorem dehiscens. Semina elongato-reniformia, scro- 
biculata, nigerrima. Embryo perispermio mucilaginoso 
immersus, cotyledonibus ovato-ellipticis, petiolulatis, supra 
. radiculam claviformem incumbentibus. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 125 

Tab. VIII. Fig. 1. flower ; /. 2. vexillum ; / 3. ala; /. 4. ca- 
rina ; /. 5. ovarium ; /. 6. lateral ; f. 7. front view of legume; 
/. 8. transverse section of ditto : — all magnified, 

73. Dolichos Daltoni, Webb; caule annuo gracillimo volubili 
pilis patentibus mollibus hirtulo, stipulis oblongis acutis 
nervosis, pedicellis elongatis gracilibus pilosis, foliolis 
elliptico-obliquis acutis appresse pubescentibus demum 
glabris ciliatis stipellis 2 minimis filiformibus munitis, 
bracteis filiformibus basi dilatatis, floribus 1-2 in axillis 
foliorum pedunculo brevissimo insidentibus, calycis tubo 

. brevi, laciniis elongatis filiformibus ciliatis, leguminibus 
compressis falcatis (immaturis) pilosulis 4-5-spermis, semi- 
nibus planis nigris. . 

Hab. In pascuis ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, Nov. 
1839, sp. unicum macrum. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. 
reg. Par.) sp. adulta florida et fructifera. 

74. Lablab vulgaris, Sav. Diss. p. 15. DC. Prodr. 2. p. 401. 
■ W %bt et Arn. Fl. Pen. Ind. Or. 1. p. 250. Dolichos 

Lablab, L. S. PL Lablab niger, Moench, Meth. p. 153. 

Dolichos Benghalensis, Jacq. H. Vind. et D. purpureus 
. ejusd. fragm. p. 45. Pro syn. reliquis cf. W. et Arn. 

1- c— Ic. Rumph. Amb. t. 136, 137, et 1841. /. 1. Jacq. 
• Vind. 2. /. 124. fragm. t. 55. Smith, Ex. Bot. t. 74. 

Wight in Hook. Bot. Misc. 2. Suppl. t. 15. Ker, Bot. Reg. 

*< 830. Sav. I c. f. 8- 9. 
Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, sp. fruct.) In herb. 

ms. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

75. Voandezeia subterranea, Du Pet. Thou. Gen. Mad. n. 77. 
r>C. Prodr. 2. p. 474. et Mem. Leg. p. 464. Guill. et Perr. 
Pi- Sen. Tent. 1. p. 254. Arachis Africana, Burm. Fl. Cap. 
Prodr. p. 22. non Lour. Glycine subterranea, Linn. Dec. 
P- 37. Mant. p. 442. Syst. ed. Murr. p. 548. Willd. Sp. 
PI- p. 1053.— Ic. Linn. Dec. 1. 17. DC. Mem. t. 20. / 106. 

Hab. Extat hsec planta in herb ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. 
Par.) ubi vulgo * Obizendanbanbi" ex scheda. 

7 6. Cajanus Indicus, Spreng. Syst. 3. p. 248. Wight et Arn. 



126 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

Prodr. FL Pen. Ind. I. p. 256. Cytisus Cajan, L. Sp. PL 
p. 1041. Syst. ed. Murr.p. 555. Variat vexillo nunc toto 
luteo nunc extus striis purpureis picto. Cajanus flavus et 
Cajanus bicolor DC. Cat. Hort. Monsp. p. 85. Prodr. 2. 
p m 406.— Ic. Pluk. PhyL t. 231. /. 3. Rheed. Malab. 6. 
/. 13. Jacq. Obs. t. 1. et Cytisus pseudo-Cajan, hort. 
Vind. 2. /. 119. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

77. Rhynchosia minima, DC. Prodr. 2. p. 385. Guill. et Perr. 
FL Sen. Tent. 1. p. 214. Dolichos minimus, L. Sp. PI* 
p. 1020. Glycine, Chr. Smith, in herb. ins. Cap. Vir. 
Mus. Brit. (J. D. Hooker in litt.) — Ic. Jacq. Obs. t. 22. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (Chr. Smith). In ins. Salis hurai- 
diusculis (Brunner in herb, nostro, Ergebn. p. 109). * n 
herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

78. Rhynchosia Memnonia, DC. Prodr. 2. p. 386. Glycine 
Memnonia, Dei. Fl. oVEg.p. 100.— Ic. Del. I. c. t. 38./. 3. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, November, 1839, sp. 
fruct.) In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

79. Abrus precatorius, Linn. Syst. p. 533. Glycine Abrus, 
Sp. PL p. 1025.— Ic. Pluk. PhyL t. 214. /. 5. Rheed. 
Malab. 8. /. 39. Rumph. Amb. 5. /. 32. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mm. reg. Par.) In i flS - 
S. Jacobi, valle Organorum (Brunner). 

80. Cassia obtusifolia, Linn. Sp. PL p. 539. (excl. syn. 
Rumph.) DC. Prodr. 2. p. 493. Guill. et Perr. FL Sen. 
Tent. p. 260. Vog. Syn. p. 24. Torr. et Gray, Fl. N. Am. 1. 

p. 394.— Ic. Dill. Hort. Elth. t. 62./. 72. Sloane, i/i^- Jam ' 
2. /. 180./. 5. Plum. ed. Burm. t. 76./. 2. 
Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 146. November, 
1839, sp. flor. et fruct.) 

81. Cassia occidentalis, L. Sp. PL p. 540. Collad. Mon.p- 107- 
DC. Prodr. 2. p. 497. Wight et Am. Prodr. FL Pen. I* d - 
Or. p. 290. Vog. Syn. p. 21. Torr. et Gray, Fl. N. Am- i- 
p. 294. Pro syn. reliquis cf. Walp. Repert. bot. 1. p- 8l6 ' 

Ic. Comm. Hort. Amst. 1. t. 26. Ker, Bot. reg. t. 83. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 127 

Hab. In ins. 8. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 150. November, 
1839, sp. flor. et fr.) Ibid. (Chr. Smith et Thomson in 
herb. ins. Cap. Vir. Mus. Brit. J. D. Hooker, in litt.) 

82. Cassia bicapsularis ; Linn. Sp. PI. p. 538. DC. Prodr. 2. 
p. 494. Vog. Syn. p. 18. Cassia sennoides, J acq* Collect. 
1.;?. 74. DC. I. c. Brunner, Ergebn. p. 37 ! — Ic. Plum. ed. 
Burm. t. 76. f. 1. Jacq. Fragm. t. 58. et Ic. rar. 1. /. 170. 

Hab. In ins. Brava {Brunner in herb, nostro !) 

83. Cassia obovata, Collad. Monogr. p. 92. DC. Prodr. 2. 
p. 492. Guill. et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. p. 260. Vog. Syn. 
p. 36.— Ic. Burm. Fl. Ind. t. 33./. 2. C. Senna, Nect. Voy. 



<ew 



Hab. In alveis siccis rivorum ins. Salts (Forbes, n. 4. 26 
Maii, 1822, spec, florida.) Ad oram maritimam et in 
niontibus ins. S. Vincentii usque ad altitudinem 500 ped. 
(Vogel, n. 6. Junio, 1841, sp. florida, fructu immaturo.) 

^ Cassia micrantha, Guill. et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. I. p. 262. 
Walp. Repert. l.p. 834. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

85 - Cassia microphylla, Willd. Sp. PI. 2. p. 529. DC. Prodr. 
2. p. 505. Cassia geminata, Vahl, herb. Schum. Beskr. 

Guin. Plant. 2. p. 228. Guill. et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. 1. 
P. 263. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

**>• Dicrostachys nutans, Benth. in Hook. Journ of Bot. 4. 

P- 352. Caillea Dichrostachys, Guill. et Per. Fl. Sen. Tent. 

*• p. 240. Desmanthus trichostachys et nutans, DC. 

p rodr. 2. p. 445—6. Brunn. ! Ergebn. p. 54.— Ic. DC. 

Legum. t. 67. 
Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi montosis (Brunner in herb, nostro). 
87 - Acacia albida, Guill. et Perr. Fl. Sen. Tent. 1. 245. 

Brunn. Ergebn. p. 4. A. albida /3, Senegalensis, Benth. in 

Hook. Lond. Journ of Bot. l.p. 505. 
Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (Brunner, 1. c.) 
^ Acacia Arabica, Guill. et Perr. FL Sen. Tent. 1. p. 250. 

A. Arabica, a tonientosa, Benth. 1. c. p. 500. 



128 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi, arbor 30-pedalis (J. D. Hooker, 
n. 145, November, 1839, sp. sine flore et fructu.) 

89. Acacia Farnesiana, Willd. Sp. PI. 4. p. 1083. Benth. 1. c. 
p. 494. Mimosa Farnesiana, Linn. Sp. pi. p. 1506. Va- 
chellia Farnesiana, Wight et Am. Prodr. Fl. Pen. Ind. or. 1. 

* p. 272. Farnesia odora, Gasp. Descr. di uno nuov. gen. 
p. 5.— Ic. Aid. Hort. Farn. p. 2 et 7. Pluk. Phyt. t. 73. 
f. 3. Descourt. Fl. des Antil. t. 1. Gasp. /. c. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, November, 1839) 
circa Portum Praya et in valle S. Dominici (Brunner, 

* Ergebn. p. 5.) 

XXI. TAMARisciNEiE, A. de St. Hil. 

90. Tamarix Gallica, Linn. Sp. PI Webb, Obs. in Hook. 
Lond. J mm. of Bot. 3. (1840) p. 429, et in Ann. Sc. Nat. 
2eme sir. 16. (1841)^.264. T. Canariensis, Willd. Act 
Ber. (1812—13) ed. 1816. p. 77. ex DC. Prodr. S.p. 96. 
Webb 9 Phyt Can. 1. p. 171. T. Senegalensis, DC. Ic- 
Guill. et Perr.l Fl. Sen. Tent. 1. p. 309.-Ic. Phyt. Can. 
t. 25. Webb in Hook. Lond. Journ. I. c. t. 15. 

Hab. In ins. S. Vincentii ubi seepe arbor fit mediocris (i • 
- Vogel, n. 7. Junio, 1841, sp. fl. et fr.) In ins. S. Jacob 

(C. Darwin, Thomson, in herb. ins. Cap. Vir. Mus. Brit. 

J. D. Hooker, in litt.) In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. 



Par.) 



XXII. Onagrarie^e, Juss. 



91. Epilobium parviflorum, Schreb. Spic. p. 146. Mert. e 
Koch, Deutschl. Fl. 3. p. 14. Phyt. Can. 2. p. 7.— Ic- F l 

. Dan. t. 347. Engl. Bot. t. 795. 

Hab. Ad rivulos in ins. S. Antonii \Th. Vogel, n. 24. Junio, 

1841, sp. floriferum.) In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg- 

Par.) (sp. procera valde hirsuta.) 

XXIII. CuCURBITACE^E, JuSS. 

92. Citrullus Colocynthis, Schrad. in Eckl. et Zeyh. enum- 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA, 129 

p. 279. Linnaa, 12. p. 414. Phyt. Can. 2. p. 3. Cucumis 

Colocynthis, L. Sp. PL p. 1435. DC. Prodr. 3. p. 302. 

Chr. Smith in Tuck. Voy. p. 251. Wight et Am. Prodr. 

PL Pen. Ind. or. 1. p. 342. Brunn. Ergebn. p. 50. — Ic. 

Nees, PL off. 12. *. 11. Turp. Fl. med. t. 128. Wight, Ic. 2. 
*. 498. 

Hab. In arvis Gossypio satis ins. S. Jacobi, (Forbes, n. 12. 
die 5 April, 1822.) Ibid. (/. D. Hooker, n. 133 et Darwin) 
in ins. S. Antonii, (Th. Vogel, n. 23.) 

93. Momordica Charantia, L. Sp. PI. p. 1433. DC. Prodr. 
3.J9. 311. Wight et Am. Prodr. Fl. Pen. Ind. or. p. 348. 
Brunn. Ergebn. p. 90. Momordica Senegalensis, Lamck. 
Encycl. 4. p. 239. Chr. Smith in Tuck. Journ. p. 249. 
Momordica muricata, Willd. Sp. PI. 4. p. 602.— Ic. Rumph. 
Amb. 5. t. 151. Rheed. ilfa/. 8. t. 10. Hill. &?#. syst. class 
21. ortf. 10.— Ic. Wight, Ic. 2. t. 504. 

TT 

Uab. In sylvis Phamicis dactyliferce, ins. &. Jacobi (Forbes, 
n. 9. die 5 April, 1822, sp. fl. et fruct.) Ibid. {Chr. Smith, 
in herb. ins. Cap. Vir. Mus. reg. Par.) in valle S. Domi- 
nici ins. S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 162. November, 1839, 
S P- fl. et fructifera.) 

XXIV. Portulacace^:, Juss. 

94. Portulaca oleracea, Linn. Sp. PL p. 638. Phyt. Can. 1. 
P- 169,— Ic. Lob. Ic.p. 388. Turp. FL med. 5. /. 283. 

H ab. In ins. £. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 109. November, 
!839, sp. jam diu fructifera.) Ibid. {Chr. Smith, in herb, 
ins. Cap. Vir. Mus. Brit, et in herb. Mus. reg. Par.) 

95. Aizoon Canariense, Linn. Sp. PL p. 700. DC. Prodr. 3. 
P- 453. Phyt. Can. 1. jt?. 207.— Ic Pluk. Phyt. t. 503. 
/• 4. Niss. ^c/a ^c/. Par. 1711. /. 13./. 1. DC. PL 
grasses t. 136. 

Hab. In campestribus ins. Salis (Forbes, n. 5. die 26 Martii, 
J822, sp. juniora). In ins. S. Jacobi (C. Darwin sp. fruc- 
tifera). 

**>• Umbilicus horizontal, DC. Prodr. 3. p. 400. Cotyledon 
Wizontalis, Guss ! Ind. sem. in Bocc. 1826, Rr©*„ W 






130 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 



ice. 1. p. 517. Presl, Fl. sice. 1. p. 517.— Ic. Ten. Fl. 



sice 



Neap. t. 234./. 1. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

XXV. MELASTOMACEiE. 

Osbeckia, L. Char. gen. reformatus.* — Calyx campanulatus, 
4 Scepius 5-fidus ; divisuris simplicibus (id est intenore 
membrana non duplicatis ut in plurimis Melastoraacearum 
generibus) ovatis vel triangularibus, acutis; tubo hirsuto 
vel piloso. Corolla petala 4-5, obovata, mucrone pilifornn 
vel setis aliquot fasciculatis baud raro terminata mter- 
dumque ciliolata. Stamina 8-10, alternative majora et 
minora ; filamentis glabris ; antheris lineari-subulatis, apic 
uniporosis ; connectivo infra loculos longe producto et in 
insertione filamenti varie conflato, saspius biauriculato. 
Ovarium 4-5-loculare, ovatum, ad medium usque tu o 
calycino vittis 8-10 antheras in prasfloratione intus reflexas 
separantibus adhserens, apice setis styli basin cingentibus 
coronatum. Stylus filiformis vel utrinque subulatus. 
Stigma subcapitellatum aut punctiforme. Ovula num 
rosa, placentis 4-5 subtriquetris centralibus affixa. ^ P 
sula calyce persistente vestita, loculicide 4-5-valvis. 
mina minuta cochleata. — Osbeckise omnes frutices snjji ~ 
tieesve 1-3-pedales, calidiorum partium Americee australis, 
Africae, Indise nee non insularum quarumdam Oeeani Atlan- 
tici Indicique incoke, nee, quod mirum est, e Nepali® mot- 
tibus temper atts omnino exules. 
97. Osbeckia Princeps, Dec; fruticosa, ramis dense hirto- 
tomentosis rufescentibus, foliis 1-3-pollicaribus petio© 
4-8 lineas longo instructs. DC. Prod. 3. p. 140. BM** 
Princeps, Bon pi. Rhex. tab. 45. 

The genus Osbeckia is probably the only one to * 
family of Melastomacece which is found both in the N** 
and the Old World ; unless botanists prefer, which is fr*" 

* We are indebted to M. Ch. Naudin, who has paid much attention to 
the difficult family of the Melasiomacece, for the description of this sp ecl 
of Osbeckia. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 131 



quently the case, to divide it into as many genera as there 
are parts of the globe or even islands wherein it occurs ; 
though I doubt whether there are sufficient characters for 
doing so. But if the genus itself is cosmopolite, such is not 
the case with its species, which seem generally to be included 
m restrained limits ; yet, the group being widely disse- 
minated it is not surprising that in the present instance, 
contrary to the usual rule, our plant differs from the few 
species hitherto found on the neighbouring continent 
of Africa. However this may be, it certainly does not 
differ from the O. Princeps of Bonpland and Decandolle found 
in Brazil. This we have ascertained by attentively examining 
the specimen from the same country in the herbarium of the 
Museum of Paris. We have grounds to suppose its true 
native country to be Africa, whence it may have been 
brought into the New World by the negroes. 

XXVI. Umbellifer^e, Juss. 

Trib. nov. Tetrapleurea, Pari. 

Fructus a dorso lenticulari-compressus. Mericarpiorum juga 
4 prominentia, cequalia. — Tribus ad Umbelliferas orthos- 
permas pertinens, fructus forma ad Angeliceas et Pence- 
dineas accedit, sed ab utrisque omnino differt jugis 4 pro- 
minentibus, quorum 2 ex secundariis formata, nee margi- 
nalia in alam expansa. — Pari. 

Tetrapleura, Pari. ; Calyx . . . Petala . . . Mericarpia jugis 
primariis 5, lateralibus marginantibus prominentibus, duo- 
bus aliis dorsalique obsoletis fere nullis, secundariis 4, 
duobus dorsali proximis elevatis marginantium magnitu- 
dine, duobus aliis subnullis, unde mericarpia quadrijugata. 
Vittm solitariae sub jugis quatuor prominentibus, commis- 
sura 2 vittata, vittte omnes filiformes. Carpophorum bi- 
Partitum. Semen complanatum. Albumen carnosum, car- 
nosum, planiusculum. — Pari. 

•**. Tetrapleura insularis, Pari. 

H ab. In insula S. Vincentii (Th. Vogel.) 

k 2 



132 SPICILEGTA GORGONEA. 

Hujus species ramum pessimum tan turn possideo, sic ejus 
descriptionem mihi ullo modo non licet adumbrare. Pari 

99. Tetrapleura . . . . sp. ? 

Hab. In montosis ins. S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker*) 

XXVII. RuBlACE^E, JUSS. 

100. Hedyotis (Oldenlandia) Burmanniana, R. Br, in Wall 
Cat. n. 868. Wight et Am. Prodr. Fl. Pen. Ind. Or. \.p- 
415.— Ic. Rheed. Mai. 10, t. 35. Burm. Thes. Zeyl. 1. 11. 

Hab. In umbrosis ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, spec. 

duo florida et fructifera cum sequente sub eodem numera 

commixta.) 

It is not without much hesitation that I introduce the 
present species here; but I cannot find any perceptible 
difference between the two specimens named above, and 
others from India, under the same name, sent either by 
Roxburgh or Wallich to Lambert. Our plant may perhaps 
prove not distinct from the H. longifolia, Schum., a little 
known species. From the following it differs, not only 
in having its peduncles two-flowered, but likewise by i ts 
much larger fruit and the wider lanceolate teeth of its calyx, 
which are more subulate at their apexw 

101. Hedyotis (Oldenlandia) corymbosa, Linn. Sp. PL P- ^ 4 ' 
DC. Prodr. 4 p. 426.— Ic. Plum. ed. Burm. t. 212. /• *■ 
ex DC. I. c. 

Hab. In locis umbrosis circa Portum Praya, ins. S. Ja co0t > 
(J. Dalton Hooker, n. 172. Nov. 1839, sp. fructifera.) 
Christian Smith cites in his catalogue (Tuck. voy. p- "°7 

the Hed. Capensis : no specimen, however, of this plant is 

found in his herbarium at the British Museum, (/. Dalton 

Hooker in litt.) 

102. Hedyotis (Oldenlandia) virgata, Willd. Sp. PL l* P' 567 ' 
DC. Prodr. 4. p. 425. 

Hab, In herb* ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

103. Hedyotis (Kohautia) stricta, Smith in Rees Cycl l7< 
n. 21 . DC. Prodr. 4. p. 430. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mm. reg. Par.) 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 133 

104. BorrerTa Kohautiana, Cham, et Schlect. in Linnaa, 1828. 
p. 311. DC. Prodr. 4. p. 541. Spermacoce verticillata, 
Linn. Sp. PL p. 148. quoad plantam Africanam Chr. Smith 
I c p. 249. (ex cl. J. D. Hooker in litt.)— Ic, Dill. Hort. 
Elth.t.277.f.m$. 

Hab. In arvis Gossypii, (Forbes, n. 1. die 1 April, 1822, 
spec, fructifera.) In campis apertis ins. eadem, fruticulus 
parvus, floribus albis capitatis. (/. Bolton Hooker, n. 174. 
Nov. 1839, sp. florida et fruct.) 

Spermacoce "diversi generis videtur," Chr. Smith, 1. c. 
p. 249. (in herbario suo deest J. D. Hooker, in litt.) 

105. Mitracarpum* Senegaleme, DC. Prodr. 4. p. 572. Stau- 

rospermum verticillatum, Thonn. ex Schum. Act. Hafn. 2. 
p. 93. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

106. Galium Aparine, Linn. y. scaberrimum, Webb, Phyt. 
Can. 2. p. 183. G. hispidum, mild. Enum. 1. p. 154. G. 
scaberrimum, Hornem. Hort. Hafn. I. p. 135. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

107. Galium rotundifolium, Linn. var. villosum, Webb, Phyt. 
Can. 2. p. 185. G. rotundifolium, a. Linn. Sp. PI. 1. p. 
1^6. G. hirsutum, Nees, et Bach. Hor. phys. Ber. p. 113. 
G. Neesianum, Req. in DC. Prodr. 4. p. 600.— Ic. Bocc. 
Siec. t. 9.f. 1. Moris. Hist. 2. s. 9. t. 21. /. 3. Barr. Ic. 
304. Nees, /. c. t. 22. 

Hab. Prope apicem Montis Gurdo, ins. S. Nicolai 9 (Forbes, 
d. 30 Martii, 1822, spec, florida cum fructu juniore.) 

XXVIII. Globularie^, DC. 



10 8. Globularia amygdalifolia, Webb; caule fruticoso, foliis 
lanceolatis ovato-lanceolatisque in petiolum brevem atte- 
nuatis 1-nerviis divaricato-nervulosis, capitulis ad apicem 
ramulorum axillaribus approximatis subumbellatis, pe- 
dunculis folio vix brevioribus pilosis, bracteis paucis 
oblongis distantibus, involucri squamis oblongis acutis 
ciliatis, calycis tubulosi dentibus basi lanceolatis apice 

* Mitracarpum, scd non bene, scripsit generis cl auctor. 



134 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

subulatis ciliatis bracteola sublongioribus, corolla calycem 
paullo excedentis labio superiore subnullo inferiore trifido 
laciniis linearibus, genitalibus corollse longitudine vel 
breviter exsertis. 

- 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par) 

This plant approaches very nearly the G. salicifolia, Lamck. 
but differs in the shape of its leaves, in the length of its 
peduncles, in the form of the teeth of the calyx, and its 
much shorter stamens and style. In none of the speci- 
mens from Madeira, or from the Canary Islands, is there any 
approximation towards the Cape de Verd plant : this identity 
of form is so remarkable that I am induced to consider 1 
specifically different. 

XXIX. Composite, Juss. 

109. Vernonia cinerea, Less. inLinnaa, 1829, p. 291. et 1831, 
p. 673. DC. Prodr. 5. p. 24. Conyza cinerea, Linn. Sp-P l - 
p. 1208. Chrysocoma violacea, Schum. PL Guin. 158, ex 
DC— Ic. Pluk. Phyt. t. 243./. 3. Rumph. Amb. 6. t. 14. 
/. 1. Burm. Thes. Zeyl. t. 96./. 1. 

Hab. In campis Gossypio consitis ad sinum Tarrafal, ins. 
S. Antonii, (Forbes, n. 10. die 2 April. 1822.) In vallibus 
umbrosis ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 200. Nov. 
1839.) In cultis ins. 8. Antonii, (Th. Vogel, n. 35. Jun. 
1841.) Spec, omnia florida et fructifera. 

110. Erigeron varium, Webb; suffrutex, ramis divaricatis vel 
rectis pubescentibus, foliis ovatis lanceolatis oblongisve 
dentato-serratis serraturis apiculatis utrinque pubescenti- 
bus in petiolum brevem basi attenuatis, panicula laxa vel 
conferta, pedicellis filiformibus hispidis, capitulis parvis, 
involucri squamis linearibus pubescentibus, pappo J* u * 
denticulato, ligulis brevissimis discum haud superantibus 
2-3-dentatis, florum hermaphroditorum styli ramis lineari- 
lanceolatis acutis. 

Hab. Passim in ins. S. Nicolai, forma major, foliis ovatis, 
[Forbes, n. 36. die 27 Martii, 1822.) In ins. 8. Antonii, forma 
eadem sed panicula valde conferta (Forbes, sine n.) In ins- 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 135 

S. Vincentii, a medio ad apicem Montis Verede, (Th. Vogel, 
n. 48 et n. 49, forma parva, foliis oblongis.) In ins. S. 
Antonii, (Th. Vogel, n. 9. foliis fere linearibus apicetantum 
dentatis, capitulis minimis.) 

111. Con yzz.pannosa, Webb; caule lignescente erecto piloso, 
ramis junioribus setosis, foliis ovatis obtusis grosse crenato- 
oentatis inferioribus petiolatis superioribus basi attenuatis 
sessilibus dentibus usque ad caule m protractis, panicula 
corymboso-cymosa, pedunculis pedicellisque hirsuto-pube- 
scentibus, involucri squamis linearibus vel lineari-lanceo- 
latis apice apiculatis margine scariosis glabrescentibus 
pappo rufulo subscabro brevioribus, floribus radii foemineis 
filiformibus, corolla apice minutissima denticulata denticulis 
ineequalibus, stigmate corollam duplo excedente, antheris 
acutis ecaudatis, styli ramis lanceolatis dorso papillosis, 
acheenio sub-complanato ad peripherium papilloso parce 
piloso albido. 

«ab. In ins. 8, Vincentii ad partem tertium superiorum 
Montis Verede, ubi copiosissima, (Vogel, n. 52. Jun. 1841. 
spec, fructifera et florifera.) 

*12. Conyza odontoptera, Webb ; caule elato tenuiter pube- 
scente cum ramis per totam longitudinem alis runcinato- 
dentatis, foliis oblongis dentatis acutis glanduloso-puberulis, 
panicula racemosa patula, capitulis amplis, involucro pauci- 
senali squamis linearibus acutis punctulato-glandulosis, 
receptaculo piano punctulato nudo, pappo albido sub- 
scabro, floribus radii plurimis filiformibus denticulato- 
truncatis, disci 5-dentatis, stylo papilloso, achenio 4-angulo 

subcompresso. 
Hab. In herb. Mus. reg. Par. sp., floridum et fruct. 

Though this species has all the appearance of the section 
Pterocaula of the genus Blumea, and comes near thei*. odon- 
to ptera (male Pterodonta) of De Candolle, its anthers, entirely 
Without caudce or appendices, necessitate its being placed in 
th e genus Conyza. These artificial sections, however, of 
er y similar plants, require revision. 
1] 3. Phagnalon melanoleucum, Webb; fruticulus, ramis te- 



136 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 



nuibus incurvis tomento pannoso albo vestitis, folus 
alternis lanceolatis majoribus ssepe pollicaribus 4 fere hn. 
latis margine revoluta undulata in petiolum brevem atte- 
nuates, junioribus saepe in axillis fasciculatis supra tomento 
albo araneoso deciduo tectis mox atrovirescentibus subtus 
albo-tomentosis, pedunculis ad apicem ramorum vel in 
axillis supremis vel oppositifoliis solitariis vel geramatis 
2-3-chotomis filiformibus tomentosis apice nudis, involucn 
campanulati glaberrimi nigrescentis squamis 5-seriahbus 
exterioribus ovatis mediis oblongis interioribus lineanbus 
margine scariosis denticulatis apiculatis, capitulis pauci- 
floris heterogamis, floribus omnibus tubulosis, foetni- 
neis pluriserialibus filiformibus 5-dentatis, stylo exserto 
ramis elongatis obtusis, hermaphroditis sub 8 campanu- 
latis glahriusculis, antheris basi attenuatis ecaudatis, sty 
ramis exsertis superne claviformibus apice subtruncati 
stigmatoso-papillosis, receptaculo angusto, acheniis oblongis 
subcompressis erostris, pappo albo pilosiusculo florum 
fcemineorum 3-4-setoso hermaphroditum 5-setoso.— * • 
(Tab. IX.) Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 759, 
Hab. In Monte Verede, ins. S. Vincentii, ultra alt. 1000 ped- 
usque ad apicem, (77*. Vogel, n. 37. Junio 1841, spec 
florida et fructifera.) 
Tab. IX. Fig. 1. hermaphrodite;/. 2. female flower, 

magnified. 
114. Phagnalon luridum, Webb; fruticulus lignosus durus 
ultirameus foliosus, ramis fuscis nigrisque striatis supe- 
rioribus gracilibus tomento parco fusco indutis, foliis alternis 
lineari-lanceolatis basi attenuatis saepe 2-pollicaribus l- 
lin. latis inferioribus petiolatis petiolo tenui margine re- 
volutis eroso-dentatis, junioribus pube fusco-cinerea parca 
obsitis demum glabratis lucidis nigris, pedunculis term 1 " 
nalibus 2-3-chotomis filiformibus nigris junioribus fusco- 
puberulis apice parce squamigeris, involucro turbinato- 
campanulati glaberrimi nigrescentis squamis scariosis 
inferioribus ovato-oblongis mediis lineari-oblongis inte " 
rioribus linearibus angustissimis acutis apice subfinabriato- 



both 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 137 



ciliatis, capitulis paucifloris heterogamis, floribus foemineis 
pluriserialibus filiformibus apice setoso-denticulatis styli 
ramis elongatis setaceis obtusis, hermaphroditis paucis 
cylindraceo-campanulatis laciniis glabris acutis stylo sub- 
exserto ramis cylindraceis apice subclavatis truncatis stig- 
matoso-papillosis, receptaculo piano foveolato, acheniis ova- 
to-oblongis compressiusculis erostris pilosis, pappo albo 
superne scaberulo fl. foem. 2-3-setoso herm. 5-setoso. 
Hab. In Monte Verede, ins. S. Vincentii, ultra alt. 1000 ped. 
[Vogel, n. 51. Junio 1841. spec, fructifera et quodam 
florida.) 

115. Piuchea ovalis, DC. Prodr. 5. p. 450. Pers. Syn. 2. 
p. 424. 

Wab. In ins. S. Vincentii, ubi austrum et favonium spectat 
ad alt. 500 circiter pedum, frutex ramosus 2-3-pedalis, 

(Vogel, n. 45. Junio 1841, spec, florida et fructifera.) 
Ho. Inula (Limbarda) leptoclada, Webb; caule erecto, 
ramis gracilibus, pilis crispulis superne hirtulis fuscis, foliis 
distantibus oblongris lins:ulatis acutis basi auritis semi- 
amplexicaulibus margine dentatis pubescentibus dentibus 
quandoque subobsoletis, capitulis ad apicem ramulorum 
confertis subcymosis, pedunculis filiformibus, foliis minimis 
stipatis, involucri squamis anguste linearibus acuminatis 
glanduloso-puberulis, receptaculo subplano, floribus om- 
nibus hermaphroditis, radii 3-dentatis aliquando subligu- 
latis, disci 5 -dentatis, dentibus brevibus ovatis subacutis, 
genitalibus inclusis, styli ramis brevibus, antheris 2-setis, 
acheniis (immaturis) cylindraceis leviter apice constrictis 
birsutis, pappo denticulato albo basi libero. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mm. reg. Par.) 
Valde afEnis est sp. nostra plante ^Ethiopicae a cl. Kotschya 
°bm l ectae (1839— 38, n. 26), sed folia habet magis denti- 
culata, ramos decumbentes, capitula in paniculo laxiore 
disposita, involucri squamis laevioribus, acheniis compres- 
siusculis et sub apice vix ac ne vix constrictis. Pulicariam 
quoque Arabicam refert sed pappus duplex et aliee a Pali- 
carta notee differentiates* 



138 SPICILEGIA GORGOKEA. 

117. Pegolettia Senegalensis, Cass. Diet. 38. p. 230. DC. 
Prodr. 5. p. 481. Brunn. Ergebn. p. 97. 

Hab. In ins. Sails, (Brunner, 1. c.) 

118. Francoeuria crispa, Cass. Die/, des Sc. Nat. p. 44, 38 et 
374. DC. Prodr. 5. p. 475. Schultz, Bip. in Phyt. Can. 2. 
p. 222. Aster crispus, Forsk. Fl. Mg. Arab. p. 150. 
Inula crispa, Pers.v. 2. p. 450 (excl. syn. Vent.) Fran- 
coeuria diffusa, Shuttlew. in Brunner Ergebn. p. 72. — Ic. 
Inula crispa, De/. / Fl. d'Eg. t. 45./. 2. 

Hab. In ins. $a/is planitiebus siccis (Forbes, n. 3, die 2o 
Maii, 1822). Provenit magna copia in lapidosis ins. Sal 
(Brunner, rns. in herb, nostro.) 

Our plant, described by Shuttleworth as a distinct species, 
is identical with the Senegambian specimens in the herb, ot 
Desfontaines, and of M. Gay, described by Cassini in the 
Diet, des Sc. Nat. vol. 38, as F. crispa. It is undoubtedly 
of stronger growth than the Egyptian plant: the capitules are 
much larger ; and, instead of being merely ciliated, the scales 
of the involucrum are covered with down. This is likewise 
the case with the Canarian specimens ; but their capitules 
are not larger than those of the Egyptian plant ; and as after 
a minute inspection of the inflorescence and fruit no other 
tangible difference is discernible, this plant can scarcely be 
considered specifically distinct. 

119. Odontospermum, Neck. C. H. Schultz, Blp. in Phyt- 
Can. 2. p. 231. 

We formerly remarked to our friend and collaborator, 
Dr. C. H. Schultz, of Deux Ponts, that Lessing, and after 
him De Candolle, by adopting the errors of Mcench, who 
misunderstood the genus Asteriscus of Tournefort, and by 
giving that name to the well assorted group called Naitph* 18 
by Cassini, had been the unintentional cause of considerable 
confusion. The Asteriscus of Tournefort belongs in reality 
to the genus Pallenis, Cass. ; since from Buphthalmum spino- 
sum, L., its sole occupant, both the character and the figure 
of that genus were taken by him ; to which he appended two 
other species, Buph. marilimum and aquaticum, which do not 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 139 

accord either with the character or figure of his genus. One 
of these was unadvisedly considered by Moench to constitute 
the Tournefortian genus, and to it he attaches the name and 
cites the figure of that author. Dr. Schultz adopted our 
views and has shewn besides that the Odontospermum of 
JVecker, composed of the two species wrongly appended by 
Toumefort to his genus Asteriscus, is identical with Nauplius, 
and not with Borrichia as De Candolle imagined. 

It might have been preferable to retain the names of 
Cassini for genera he has so well defined ; but the question 
naving been once mooted and more ancient names erro- 
neously applied, the law of priority must now be fully carried 
out. Pallenis, Cass, must reassume its name of Asteriscus, 
lourn., and Nauplius that of Odontospermum and the two 
genera will stand thus : 

Asteriscus, Tourn. non Moench, nee Less., nee DC. Pallenis, 
Cass. 



Moench. Less. DC* non 



Tourn. Nauplius, Cass. 

We here give three new species of the latter genus. The 

" rsfc j 0. Smithii, resembles so closely in appearance the 

°- sericeum, C. H. Sch. Bip. as to be easily taken for it ; but 

tne pappus and the teeth of the corolla are perfectly distinct. 

The second, O. Daltoni, has very much the aspect of O. inter- 

tedium, ejusd. ; the third, O. Vogelii, that of some forms of 

• ste nophyllum, ejusd. ; but they are in reality quite different 
plants. 

l2 0. Odontospermum Smithii, Webb; fruticulus robustus, 
r amis crassis fuscis, foliorum cicatriculis rugulosis juniori- 
°us sericeo-albidis, foliis latis ad apicem ramorum con- 
gests spathulato-lanceolatis in petiolum dilatatum atte- 
ftuatis sericeis albis, involucri foliolis spathulatis, interior^ 
bus oblongis basi concretis, capitulis amplis, floribus exte- 
rioribus ligulatis, ligulis elongatis apice 3-dentatis, denti- 
bus ovatis acutis, floribus disci tubo cylindraceo medio, 
constricto basi coriaceo albido laciniis lanceolatis acutius- 
c ulis subtus papulosis membrana marginali destitute, 



140 • SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

antheris basi caudatis caudis laceris, styli ramis elongato- 
lanceolatis, fl. radii acheniis triquetris angulis pubescen- 
tibus, pappo illic sublongiore, disci 4-angulatis, pappo 
eequali paleis achenia amplectentibus concavis dorso can- 
natis carina denticulata superne hirsutis apice in setam 
fuscam productis. 
Hab. In rupibus ins. S. Nkholai (Forbes). 

121. Odontospermum Daltoni, Webb; fruticulus erectus, 
ramis virgatis dichotomis inferioribus rufis superionbus 
pubescenti-hirtis subalbidis, foliis sparsis distantibus fo- 
ri eari-spathulatis in petiolum longiusculum sensim atte- 
nuatis, involucri oblongi squamis exterioribus basi atque 
interioribus totis inter se concretis, capitulis mediocribus, 
floribus exterioribus ligulatis, ligulis linearibus apice 
breviter ovato 3-dentatis, disci tubulosis, tuba cylindraceo 
superne constricto laciniis lanceolatis acutis margine raem- 
brana denticulato-fimbriata auctis, antheris basi caudatis, 
caudis breviusculis basi suhlaceris, styli ramis spathulatis 
obtusiusculis, acheniis setosis, ligularum triquetris, papp 
setaceo vix denticulato subeequali ad angulos vix longiore, 
paleis achenia amplectentibus concavis dorso acutis integris, 
apice glabellis denticulatis obtusiusculis cum acumme* 

Hab. In rupestribus sinus Tarrafal ins. S. Antonii (Forbes, 
die 2 April. 1822, sp. juniora florida). In collibus alt. 
1000 ad 2000 ped. que vallem 8. Dominici obvallant in ins. 
S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 201, November, 1839, sp. A- 
et fructifera.) 

122. Odontospermum Vogelii, Webb; fruticulus diffusus, 
ramis dichotomis albis, foliis sparsis lineari-spathulatis W 
petiolum attenuatis utrinque sericeis, capitulis parvis ovatis, 
involucri squamis lanceolatis imbricato-appressis inter se 
concretis. 

Var. /3, Darwini, foliis elongato-linearibus confertis, capitulis 
majoribus rotundatis, corollse dentibus hirsutioribus ligulis 
longiusculis valde papillosis breviter et acute dentatis. 

Flores disci tubulosi, tubo cylindraceo medio vix constricto 
basi crasso colorato, laciniis lanceolatis obtusiusculis mem- 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 141 

brana margine subintegerrima auctis. Anthera breviter 
caudatas, caudis basi laceris. Styli rami ovato-claviformes 
obtusi. Achenia exteriora 3-quetra pappo ad angulos 
multo longiore, disci 4-gona, striata, subglabra, ad angulos 
setosa. Pappus setaceo-paleaceus, basi dilatatus, distans, 
brevis, seta unica ad angulum internum longe producta. 
Palea achenia amplectentes concavae, apice acute setoso- 
hirtae dorso carinatae, carina fimbriata. 
Hab. In ins. S. Vincentii (Forbes, n. 2. die 1 Aprilis, 1822, 
sp. unicum floridum.) Inter rupes Montis Verede, ins, 
S. Vincentii ab alt. 800 circiter ped. usque ad cacumen. 
Fruticulus pulcher, ramis decumbentibus, ramulis arrectis.' 
(Th. Vogel, n. 46 et 80. Junio, 1841, sp. fl. et fruct.) 
£. Darwini, in ins. S. Jacobi (Darwin, sp. florida.) 
!23. Blainvillea Guyana, Cass! Diet. 47./?. 90. DC. Prodr. 

5.^.492. 
Wab. In rupestribus ins. S. Jacobi vulgaris (J. D. Hooker, 
n - 182. November, 1839, sp. flor. et fruct.) 
Cassini, in his description of this plant (1. c. p. 91), says 
^at the pappus is formed of three squamules, between which 
there exist some rudiments of smaller imperfect squamellules. 
Ine fact is that the pappus is biserial, the exterior composed 
°* two or three aristae continuous with the nerves of the 
angles of the achenium, the interior shorter* of many aristae 
fringing the margin of the disk (pulvillus, Cass.), which 
surrounds the base of the corolla and nectarium. This 
fetter organ is slightly elongated in the form of a beak, more 
So indeed in this species, than in any other of the genus. 
l2 4. Zinnia pauciflora, Linn, Sp. PL p. 1269. Rudbeckia 
foliis oppositis hirsutis ovato-acutis, Zinn. hort. Gatt. 
P- 409. Zinnia lutea, Gcertn. 2. p. 459.— Ic. Zinn. L c. 
'1. Gaertn. /. c. t. 172. 
Var - fl. multiflora. Zinnia multiflora, Linn. Sp. PL p. 1269.— 

Ic. Linn. fiL Dec. t. 12. 
If AB. Var. a. in ins. S. Jacobi (Darwin). Var. fl. ad apicem 
collis alt. 2000 ped. in valle S. Dominici ins. S. Jacobi 
(* D. Hooker, n. 206. November, 1839. sp. flor. et fruct.) 



142 SPICILEGTA GORGONEA. 

Ambse ut credibile est formse cum Tagete patula, Linn. 
ex hortis urbanis olim erant transfugae et nunc e civibus 
Americanis Africae metoecae factae sunt. 

125. Sclerocarpus Africanus, Jacq. Act. helv. 9. (1786) jf. 34 
DC. Prodr. 5. p. 566.— Ic. Jacq. /. c. t. 2./. 1. et Ic. rar. 

1. t. 176. 

Hab. In petrosis ins. S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 183. Nor. 
1839. sp. fruct.) In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par) 
sp. florifera. 

126. Bidens bipinnata, Linn. Sp. PL p. 1166. DC. Prodr. 5. 
p. 603.— Ic. Moris. Hist. s. 6. /. 7. /. 23. Herm. Parad. 
t. 123. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

127. Bidens pilosa, Linn. C. H. Schultz. Bip. in Phyt. Can. 

2. p. 242. 

Var. a. radiata, C. H. Sch. Bip. I. c. Coreopsis leucantha, 
Linn. Sp. PL p. 1282. Bidens leucantha, Willd. Sp. PI- 3 ' 
p. 1719. DC. Prodr. 5. p. 598. Brunn. Ergebn.p. 26. 

Var. j3. discoidea, C. H. Sch. Bip. I. c. Bidens pilosa, Linn. 
Sp. PL p. 1166. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. p. 1719. DC. Prodr. 5. 
p. 1597. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi vulgatissima, ubi achenia uncis arma a 
ambulantibus mense Novembre valde molesta (J. D. Hootcei, 
u. 201. Nov. 1839, sp. florida et fruct. discoidea, unicurn 
radiatum). In ins. S. Vincentii et S. Antonii (Th. VogeU) 
spec, discoidea et radiata in speciminibus autem Vind^ 1 ' 
tibus radius et quasi exstincturus nee pulchre et conspic 
explicatus ut in Canariensibus et Maderensibus. 

128. Tagetes patula, Linn. Sp. PL p. 1249. DC. Prodr.*- 
p. 643.— Ic. Dod. Pemph.p. 255. Dill. Hort. Elth. t. W* 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (Darwin). In planitie Porto Prayed 
(J. D. Hooker, n. 205. Junio, 1839, specimina florifera). 

129. Artemisia (Absinthium) Gorgonum, Webb; caule fr u ~ 
tescente, ramis robustis fulvo-tomentosis, foliis flavide 
tomentosis, supra sulcatis subtus 1-nerviis 2-3-pin naU- 
partitis, pinnis latis oblongis versus apicem 3-5-dentato- 
lobatis, paniculis thyrsoideis, capitulis mediocribus nutan- 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 143 

tibus, involucri squamis late ovatis apice rotundatis 
margine scariosis laceris dorso leviter tomentosis, recep- 
taculi convexi setis brevibus latis acutis, floribus glabris 
tubulosis laciniis lanceolatis acutis, radii paucis foemineis, 
disci hermaphroditism genitalibus inclusis, antheris oblongis 
apice longe acuminatis acutissimis loculis basi subacutis, 
styli ramis truncatis apice breviter et parce papilloso-peni- 
cellatis. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

Kamis robustis, involucri squamis, corolla? antherarum et 
stigmatum forma, ab affini A. Canariensi differt. Generis 
borealis conturmalis extremus eequinoctii aestus subit. 

130. Gnaphalium luteo-fuscum, Webb; herbaceum, totum 
albido-tomentosum, radice lignescente nigro, foliis infe- 
noribus spathulatis petiolatis superioribus oblongis apice 
spathulatis sessilibus subamplexicaulibus obtusiusculis, 
capitulis corymboso-cymosis heterogamis, floribus foemineis 
rnultiserialibus, hermaphroditis paucis, involucri squamis 
scariosis glabris acutissimis fusco-luteis demura sordide 
fittcis, acheniis nigris ovatis costatis glabris. 

Hab. In petrosis supra medium Montis Verede ins. S. Vin- 
centii (Vogel, n. 38. 55. 56. Junio, 1841, sp. florida et 
fructifera.) 

1M. Gnaphalium luteo-album, L. Sp.Pl. 1196. DC. Prodr. 6. 
p. 230.— Ic. Engl. Bot. t. 1003. FL Dan. t. 1763. 

Hab. In declivibus umbrosis ins. 8. Nicolai {Forbes, n. 2G. 
die 27 Martii, 1822) et in arvis Gossypinis sinus Tarrafal 
ins. S. Antonii (Id. n. 5. die 2 Aprilis, 1822, spec, florida.) 

13 2. Centaurea Melitensis, Linn. Sp. PL p. 1297. Var. a. 
conferta, C. H. Schultz, Bip. Phyt. Can. 2. p. 360.— Ic 
Bocc. Pi. sic. et Mel. t. 35. 

Hab. I n herb. ins. Cap. Vir. {Mus. reg. Par.) Spec, flori- 
dum. 

13 3. Schmidtia/arimtfowi, Webb; caule fruticoso brevi crasso, 
foliis lanceolatis et lineari-lanceolatis sessilibus margine 
sparse dentatis apice attenuatis integerrimis cum panicula 
juniore tomento albo deciduo farinoso coronata, panicula 



144 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

brevi subumbelliformi nuda squamigera, involucri squamis 
exterioribus brevissimis, interioribus filiformibus glabres- 
centibus margine scariosis, acheniis turbinatis costulatis 
subpapillosisj pappo 4-5-setoso, squamulis intermediis 

: plurimis interjectis. 

Hab. In summo cacuraine Montis Verede ins. S. Vincentit 
(Th. Vogel, n. 53. Junio, 1841, spec. 2. florifera et fructi- 
fera) . 

134. Urospermum picroides, Desf. Cat. hort. Par. ed. L 
p. 90. DC. Prodr. 7. p. 116. Tragopogon picroides, U 

Sp. PL 1111.— Ic. Lamck. III. t. 646./. 3. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

135. Lactuca nudicaulis, Murr. N. coram. Goett. 3. p> »y 
C. H. Schultz, Bip. in Linncea, 15. p. 725. Chondrilla nudi- 
caulis, Linn. Mant. p. 278. Microrhynchus nudicaulis, Less. 
Syn.p. 139. DC. Prodr. 7. p. 180. excl. var. /3.— Ic- Murr. 

Hab. In saxosis ins. S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 202. Nov. 

1839. spec, fructifera.) 

Dr. Schultz rightly observes that the original M. *** 
caulis, Less, is a mere section of Lactuca, distinguished 
solely by its achenia having a beak shorter than in the 
other species. We shall show hereafter that the remaining 
species, placed by DC. in this genus, together with his variety 
fi. of the original species, belong to the genus Rhabdotheca, 
Cass. Microrhynchus therefore must be entirety abandoned. 

136. Sonchus oleraceus, a. et /3. Linn. Sp. PI p- " 
Sonchus oleraceus, Koch, Syn. {ed. 2.) 2. p* 497.— l c# 
Hayne, Arzneigen, t. 48. 

Hab. Ad apicem montis cujusdam in valle S. Dominici ms. 
8. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 203. Nov. 1839, spec, fructi- 
ferum) in cultis ins. S. Vincentii ad alt. 500 ped. (-* 
Vogel, n. 68. sp. flor.) et in cultis ins. S. Antonii (Th- 
Vogel, n. 36. sp. fructiferum, Junio, 1841.) 

137. Sonchus Daltoni, Webb; caule brevi crasso lignoso 
apice foliosissimo, foliis anguste lanceolatis apice atte- 
nuatis runcinato-lobatis lobis latis rotundatis denticulate 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 145 

glabris utrinque viridibus, petiolo basi incrassato coriaceo 
amplexicauli, caulinis oblongis acutis basi in appendiceal 
rotundato-cordiformem araplexicaulem dilatatis, inflores- 
centia umbelliformi, capitulis rotundatis, involucri ovato* 
rhomboidei squamis acutis glabris margine minutissime 
denticulatis. 

Sonchum congestum, Link, refert sed involucri squamse valde 

diverse.— Ic. Tab. nost. X, 
IJocto atque indefesso Josepho Dalton Hooker orbem An- 

tarcticam jam visuro ejusque floram illustraturo stirpem 

inter primas quas Britannia relicta corapulit sacram dica- 

tamque voluimus. 
Hab. In cacumine collis abrupti alt. 1500 ped. in valle 

S. Dominici ins. 8. Jacobi {J. D. Hooker, n. 199. Nov. 

1«39) et in ins. S. Vincenlii copiosus ad apicem Montis 

Verede {Th. Vogel, Junio, 1841. sp. flor.) 
* ab. X. Fig. 1. floret ; /. 2. achaenium : — both magnified. 

Rhabdotheca, Cass. 

Great confusion has all along existed in the classification 
of the plants attributed by DC. to the genus Microrhynchus, 
founded originally by Lessing on the second species of 
Lomatolepis, Cass. viz. L. (Chondrilla, L.) nudicaulis, Cass. To 
™e genus thus constituted by Lessing from this single plant, 

e Candolle appended in his first section three others, 
Sonchus divaricatus, Desf., as a mere var. of M. nudicaulis, 
^ e ss., (we made the same mistake in the //. Hisp.), M. patens, 
DC. and M. asplenifolius > ejusd. The original M. nudi- 
C( ulis, and perhaps M. patens, alone truly belong to the 
genus. M. nudicaulis, divaricatus (S. divar. Desf.) is in 
f eality a very distinct species, in which, as in the cognate 
s Pecies, M. asplenifolius, the pappus is entirely sessile, there 
bei ng at no time any appearance of beak either in the ovary 
°r fruit. These plants, therefore, require to be removed from 
their present position ; and we must see to what genus they 
c an be conveniently attached. 

The first was erroneously supposed by De CandoUe 



146 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

9 

to be the plant described by Cassini as his Rhabdotheca 

sonchoides. He was led astray probably by the article itself 

of the Diet, in which the genus Rhabdotheca is described; 

where the author says that the plant on which it is founded 

was ticketed S. divaricatus in the herbarium of M. Gay. 

By an inspection, however, of the plant itself, I find it to 

be the Sonchus chondrilloides , Desf. (Zollikoferia chondril- 

loides of DC), and it is the type of his genus Zollikoferia, 

as well as of the more ancient genus Rhabdotheca, Cass. 

This latter name must therefore prevail. Under this genus 

I consider that our present plants ought to be placed. It i s 

distinguished from Sonchus, by its aspect approaching more 

to that of the Lactucece than the Sonchece, by its capitulum 

not swelled at the base, by the scales of the involucrum being 

usually bordered by a wide scarious margin, the outer ones 

remarkably shorter, and by its tetragonal or rarely sub-o- 

gonal, sharp or rounded, not compressed achenia, rarely 

though sometimes attenuated towards the summit or base, 

and more orlesspapillated or scabrous. The following are the 

species which compose the genus Rhabdotheca thus considere . 

R. chondrilloides,— R. sonchoides, Cass., Zollikoferia chon- 
drilloides, DC, and probably likewise his second species 
Rhabdotheca (Zollikoferia) pumila. 

R. divaricata, — Sonchus divaricatus, Desf. Ann. Mus. 
p. 212. t. 46. M. nudicaulis, Webb, It. Hisp. excl. syn. non 
Less. Microrhynchus nudicaulis, /3 divaricatus, DC 
« R. asplenifolia! — Prenanthes asplenifolia, Willd. Micro?' 
hynchus asplenifolius , DC 

To these I add two new species and the Sonchus spino^ 
DC, which cannot remain with the section Atalanthus o 
Sonchus where De Candolle has placed it, with which it h aS 
so little affinity. Its capitulum, achenia, and general aspect, 
approach much more closely those of our present group > 
though its admission renders the genus less uniform. 
138. Rhabdotheca picridioides, Webb; caule basi suffru- 
tescente foliorum cicatricibus superne annulato apice sub- 
rosulato-folioso, foliis oblongis in petiolum basi dilatatum 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 147 

amplexicaulem angustatis apice rotundato-obtusis margine 
spinulosis glaberrimis, scapo longissimo terminali tereti 
striato glabro fusco apice vel rarius per totam longitudinem 
ex axillis squamarum floriferis, inflorescentia subramosa, 
pedicellis squamis sessilibus ovatis acutis margine undu- 
lato-scariosis cum involucro continuis dense obsitis, invo- 
lucri squamis inferioribus brevissimis conformibus ovato- 
lanceolatisque interioribus elongatis subscariosis capitulum 
cylindraceumefformantibus^ floscuiis inferne pilosis, antheris 
basi caudatis, pappo pluriseriali exteriore simplici interiore 
denticulato, acheniis elongatis 4-gonis angulis obtusis apice 
vix attenuatis interioribus sublaevibus exterioribus squa- 
moso-scabridis. — Ic. Tab. nostr. XI. 
The achenia of this species are somewhat longer than those 

of the original R. chondrilloides, with the angles blunt, or as 

tassini expresses it subcylindraceous ; but the granulation is 

nearly the same. 

Hab. In fissuris rupium ins. S. Nicolai, (Forbes, n. 34. die 
27 Martii, 1822, spec, florida et fruct.) In Monte Verede 
ins. S. Vincentii ab alt. 1000 ped. usque ad apicem (77/. 
Vogel, n. 43. 44. Junio, 1841 spec, florifera et fruct.) 
To this species the description of another, though not 

within the province of our Flora, may be appended.* 

Tab. XI. Fig. 1. floret; /. 2. achsenium :— both magnified. 

139. Rhabdotheca spinosa, Webb; "Thorny shrub sow- 
thistle of Africa." Parkins, Theatr. p. 804. Prenanthes 
spinosa, Forsk. Fl. Mg. Arab. p. 144. Brunner, Erg. p. 104. 
Lactuca spinosa, Lamk. Encycl. 3. p. 408. Sonchus spi- 
nosus, DC. Prodr. 7. p. 189.— Ic. Parkinson, /. c. Phytogr. 
Can. 2. /. 125. 

* Rhabdotheca Brunneri, Webb ; fruticulosa, ramis glabris horizontalibus, 
foliis ramorum oblongo-linearibus linearibusque elongatis integerrimis, 
inflorescentia corymbosa, pedicelli squamis ovatis, capitulis subcylin- 
draceis squaraatis, involucri glabri foliolis exterioribus lanceolatis 
anguste scariosis, acheniis 4-gonis elongatis apice haud attenuatis 
angulis subacutis striatis interioribus dense squamulosis. — Sonchus 

• " ex ins. Sor et palude Limnutt," Brann. Ergebn. p. 1 16. Sonchus an 
Prenanthes ? ex siccis juxta paludem Limnutt ; ojusdem in herb, nostra i 

L 2 



148 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

Hab. In siccis ins. Boa Vista (Brunner in schedis herb, 
nostri.) 

Achenia quaedam 4-gona, plura nunc obsolete nunc omnino 
5-gona, angulis obtusiusculis, transverse rugulosis, spatio 
inter angulos sulcato. — Planta est quoad ordinationem 
difficilis neque Soncho nee Prenanthi uti nunc consti- 
tuents conjungenda, atque hue potius inter concives 
Africanos facie et patria similes melius collocanda est, 
quanquam achenia potius Sonchorum habeat virorum, sea 
involucrum Rhabdothecce . 

XXX. Campanulace^j Juss. 

140. Campanula (Medium) Jacobaa, Chr. Smith, in Tuck. 
Voy. p. 251. (Herb. Mus. Brit, ex J. D. Hooker) ; fruticu- 
losa, caule noduloso lignescente cavo, ramis diffusis albidis 
junioribus fuscis strigoso-hirtis foliosis, foliis spathulato- 
ovalibus lanceolato-ovatis obtusiusculis strigoso-hirtis sub- 
tus pallidis nervosis basi attenuatis caulinis breviter petio- 
latis superioribus semiamplexicaulibus, calycis tubo brevi 
cyathiformi laciniis anguste lanceolatis strigoso-cihatis, 
corolla campanulata sequali calycis laciniis 3-plo longiore, 
filamentis -plano-filiformibus basi dilatatis glaberrimis, cap- 
sula depressa, seminibus ovatis. Variat floribus cceruleis 
albisve. — Ic. nost. tab. XII. 

Hab. In ins. S. Nicolai fissuris rupium (Forbes, n. 35. die 
27 Martii, 1822, spec, florida.) In ins. S. Antonii (Forbes, 
n. 4. April, fi alba spec, flor.) In rupibus collis acuti 
Campanula sp. n. perpulchra in vallis S. Bom., ins. S> 
Jacobi ad alt. 2000 ped. (J. D. Hooker, November, 1839, 
spec. flor. et fruct.) In monte Verede, ins. 8. Vincentn 
ab alt. 1500 ped. usque ad summitatem (Th. Vogel, n. 73. 
Junio 1841, specimina adusta.) In ins. S. Jacobi (Darwin.) 

Tab. XII. Fig. 1. stamen ; /. 2. pistillum :— both magnified. 

XXXI. Cyphiace.e, D.C. 
141. Cyphia Stheno, Webb; caule elongato sarmentoso 
tenui flexuoso herbaceo glaberrimo vel superne parcissime 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 149 

piloso basi squamulato, foliis distantibus glabris sparsim 
glanduloso-dentatis acutis inferioribus 3-angularibus, supe- 
rioribus linearibus, floribus axillis foliorum sumniorum 
solitariis pedicellatis, pedicello filiforrai puberulo supra 
medium bibracteolato, bracteolis lineari-spathulatis inte- 

gerrimis vel denticulatis, calyce turbinate) 5-fido, tubo 
brevi inter costulas pubescente, laciniis tubo duplo lon- 
gioribus lineari- oblongis obtusis infra medium laciniato- 
dentatis glabratis, corolla calyce 3-plo Iongiore apice 
purpurea subtus lutescente ultra medium tubulosa, tubo 
leviter incurvo 2-labiato, laciniis eequalibus, 3 superioribus 
arrectis lanceolatis acutis extus glabris pilis albidis pubes- 
centibus venosis, petalis mox basi solutis, staminibus 5, 
tubo corollse inserta subdimidio breviora, filamentis liberis 
basi latioribus, superioribus apice pilosulis, stylo stamini- 
bus breviore crasso glabro complanato stigmate simplici 
rotundato sublaterali, ovulis a placentis ad apicem loculi 
cujusque sitis pendulis. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 



XXXII. ASCLEPIADE^E, JltSS. 

142. Sarcostemma Daltoni, Dene. ; ramis teretibus aphyl- 
lis, umbellis terminalibus, pedicellis glabris, corollse laciniis 
ovatis ex oblique acuminatis glaberrimis, coron. stauiinea 
exter. plicata sinubus subcequalibus obtusis, folior. coron se 
inter, basin eequantibus, fol. coronae inter, rotundato-ovatis 
gynostegio incumbentibus, stigmate pentagono medio ma- 
roilloso, folliculis lineari-lanceolatis glabris. Decaisne, MSS. 
Ic. Tab. nostra XIV. 

Sarcostemma nudum, Chr. Smith, in Herb. Mus. Brit, (ex cl. 
J* D. Hooker.) 

Hab. Ad apicem collium et in rupestribus maritimis ins. S. Ja- 
cobi, " caulis haud volubilis" (J. D. Hooker, Nov. 1839, sp. rl. 
etfruct.) Ibid. (Forbes, n. 11. die 5 Aprilis, 1822.) In 
ins. S. Antonii (Th. Vogel, n. 22. Junio, 1811.) In ins. 
8. Vincentii, " Asclepias, caule basi lignoso, ramis diffuses 
teretibus viridibus procumbentibus vel pendulis. Latex 



150 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

albus, flores rari, folia nulla vel pauca marcida." (Th. 

Vogel.) 
Tab. XIV. Fig. 1. flower; /. 2. corona :— both magnified. 

143. Calotropis procera, R. Br. in Hort. Kew. ed. 2. /?. 78. 
Decaisne, in DC. Prodr. 8. p. 535. — Ic. Apocynum Syria- 
cum, Clus. Hist. 2. p. 87. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1792.] 

Hab. In insula parva Coturnicum Portus Pray a, ins. S. Ja- 
cobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 207. Nov. 1839.) Ibid. {Chr. Smith,) 
in Herb. Mus. Brit, (ex cl. J. D. Hooker.) In ins. S. An- 
tonii, (Th. Vogel, sine num.) 

144. Periploca laevigata, Hort. Kew. 1. p. 301.— Ic. Periploca 
punicjefolia, Cav. Ic. 3. p. 91. t. 217. Periploca angusti- 
folia, La Billard. Dec. 2. t. 7. Periploca rigida, Viv. PI- J* 
spec. t. 6././. 3. 4. h. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. {Mus. reg. Par.) 

XXXIII. Gentianb^, Juss. 

145. Erythraea ramosissima, Pers. Syn. 1. p. 283. " Cen- 
taurium minus palustre ramosissimum, flore purpureo. 
Vaill. Bot. Par. p. 32. Gentiana pulchella, Siuartz, Act. 
Holm. 1783.— Ic. Vaill. I. c. t. 6./. 1, Swartz, /. c. t. 3./ 8 
et 9. Fl. Dan. t. 1637. Engl. Bot. t. 458. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (Chr. Smith ex sp. Mus. Brit, a cl. 
/. D. Hooker, viso.) 

XXXIV. Bignoniaceje, Juss. 

146. Sesamum radiatum, Sebum. Gain. 282, ex DC. Sesa- 
mopteris radiata, DC. Prodr. 10. j*. 251. excl. syn. Endl. 
Heudel. ex sice. Seneg. n. 547 ! 

Nolo hue S. gracilis, Endl. iconem cum celeb. DC. adducere, 
nam plantce nostras caulis nee gracilis, dense villosus nee 
glaberrimus, folia nunquam trisecta aut glabra, calyx 
corolla capsula hirsutissima. Caulis superne 4-gonus, p» lS 
crispis villosissimus, foliosus. Folia vilioso-pubescentia, 
subtus glaucescentia, inferiora rotundato- vel ovato-rhom- 
boidea irregulariter et grosse dentata, superiora lanceolata 
subintegerrima acuta. Calyx persistens laciniis linean- 
lanceolatis extus villosis. Corolla conspicua, purpurascens, 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 151 

* 

villosa. Capsula crassa 4-gona, pollicaris vel pollice brevior, 
2 vel 2\ lin. lata brevissime acuminata. Semina nigra, 
testudinea, hinc plana illinc convexa, pyriformia, sulcis e 
medio ad marginem radiantibus ornata. Testa Crustacea 
per totum marginis peripherium in laminas binas quarum 
altera plana, altera testudinis modo gibba, solubilis ; tegmen 
chartaceum albescens, apice chalaza basi pilo notatum. 
Cotyledones ovato-rotundatse, compressse, carnosee ; radicula 
cotyledonibus triplo brevior. 

XXXV. CoNVOLVULACEiE, JuSS. 

147. Rivea tilicefolia, Chois. Conv. Or. p. 25, et in DC. Prodr. 

9. p. 325. Convolvulus tilieefolius, Desrouss. Encycl. 3. 
p. 544. 

Hab. In ins. S. Vincentii. "Caulis sarmentosus et volu- 
tins, seepe quoque colitur tantum modo sicut visum est 
ut sarmenta ad tecta straminis modo tegenda inserviant." 
(Th. Vogel, n. 27. Junio, 1841, sp. florida). 

148. Batatas paniculata, Chois. in DC. Prodr. 9. p. 339. a 
lobata. Convolvulus paniculatus, Linn. Sp. PL p. 223. 
Ipomoea Mauritiana, Jacq. Hort. Schcenb. 11. p. 73. 
Ipomoea gossypiifolia, Willd. enum. p. 208. Ipomcea pani- 
culata, R. Br. Prodr. p. 486. Convolvulus roseus, Kunth, 
fyn.p. 222.— Io. Jacq. I. c. t. 200. Ker, Bot. Mag. L 62. 

Hab. Ad dimidium et inde ad apicem usque Montis Verede, 
ins. 8. Vincentii, caulis prostratus. {Th. Vogel, n. 64. 
Junio, 1841, spec florida cum ramis aliis jam diu fructi- 
feris.) 

149. Batatas pentaphylla, Chois. Conv. Or. p. 54. et in DC. 
Prodr. p. 339. Wight, Ic. PI. Ind. Or. p. 3. Convolvulus 
Pentaphyllus, Linn. Sp. PL p. 223. Ipomoea pilosa, Cav. 
*. 4. p. 11.— Ic. Cav. /. c t. 353. Jacq. /. c. t. 319. 
Wight, I c. t. 834. 

Hab. In rupestribus ins. S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 138. 
Nov. 1839, flores albi, spec, fructifera apice florida.) Ibid. 
(C»r. Smith, in herb. Mus. Brit, ex cl. /. D. Hooker.) 

15 0. Ipomcea Pes-capra>, Sweet, Hort. sub Lond. ed. 2. p. 289. 






152 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

Chois. in DC. Prodr. 9. p. 349. Convolvulus Pes-capr<e 
et Convolvulus brasilianus, Linn, Sp. PL p. 226. Ipomoea 
maritima et Ipomoea carnosa, R. Br. Prodr. p. 486. Con- 
volvulus retusus, Coll. hort. rup. app. 3. p. 31. — Ic. Ipomoea 
maritima, Curt. Bot. Mag. t. 319. Coll. I. c. t. 8. 
Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi ad pagum Villa do Rio (Forbes, tt. 10. 
d. 5 April. 1822, spec, florida.) Ad littora ins. S. Jacobi 
frequens (Brunn. sp. flor. in herb, nostro.) Ibid. (Darrein, 
sp. sine fl. et fruct.) In ins. S. Jacobi (Chr. Smith, in herb. 
Mus. Brit, ex cl. J. D. Hooker.) 

151. Ipomoea leucantha, Jacq. Coll. 2. p. 280. Chois. in DC. 
Prodr. 9. p. 382. Convolvulus leucanthus, Desrouss. 
Encycl. 3. p. 541. — Ic. Jacq. Ic. rar. 2. t. 318. 

Hab. In rupestribus ins. S. Jacobi, flores dilute carnei 
(J. D. Hooker, n. 137. November, 1839, spec, fructifera et 
juniora florida.) 

152. Ipomoea Coptica, Roth, n. sp. p. 110. Chois. in DC 
Prodr. 9. p. 384. Convolvulus copticus, Linn. Mant. 
p. 559. 

Hab. In valle S. Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi, (J. D. Hooker, 
n. 161. Nov. 1839. spec. fl. et fruct.) 

153. Ipomoea Cairica, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 222. (sub Convolvulo). 
Ipomoea palmata, Forsk. Fl. j£g. Arab. p. 43.— Ic. C. Bauh. 
Prodr. p. 134. Moris, Hist. s. 1. t. 4./. 5. (cum ic a C. B. 
mutuata.) Barrel. Ic. t. 319 (cum ic. eadem Bauhiniana) 
et t. 320 (cum ic. propria). Convolvulus JEgyptius, Vesling- 
Obs. t. 74. Bot. Mag. 699. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi {J. D. Hooker.) Ibid. (Chr. Smith, 
in herb. Mus. Brit, ex cl. J. D. Hooker.) 

154. Ipomoea sagittata, diversifolia, Chois. in DC. Prodr. 9. 
p. 372. Convolvulus diversifolius ! Vahl, MSS. in herb. 

Desf. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) sp. unicum 

sine flore et fructu. 

The leaves of our plant are softly downy and the auricles 
somewhat rounded at the point. It is perhaps distinct; but 
in the absence of flower and fruit it is not possible to dcctd 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 153 

this. The plant of Vahl has no hairs, like those of Desfon- 
taines and Michaux ; but more than two species are probably 
confounded under this name. 

155. Ipomoea muricata, Ker. Bot. Reg. in notulis ad calc. v. 4. 
Convolvulus muricatus, Linn. Mant. p. 44. I. bona-nox, 
var. $ purpurascens, Ker, Bot. reg. t. 290. Calonyction 
speciosum, ft muricatum, Chois. in DC. Prodr. 9. p. 345. 
Notwithstanding the admonitory note of Linnaeus, repeated 

by Ker, this plant is still referred by M. Choisy to his Calo- 
nyction bona-nox, of which the /. muricata, Jacq. is really a 
variety. Not so our plant ; if we rightly refer to this species, 
on account of its annual stem and small capsules, a fragment 
collected by Vogel, and of which there exists a specimen in 
the herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

156. Evolvulus linifolius, Linn. Sp. PI p. 392. Chois. in 
DC. Prodr. 9. p. 449. Convolvulus herbaceus erectus &c. 
P. Br. Jam. p. 152. — Ic. P. Browne, /. c. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. {Mus. reg. Par.) et ex ins. 
S. Jacobi, (Chr. Smith, in herb. Mus. Brit, ex cl. J. D. 
Hooker.) In ins. S. Jacobi, {Darwin.) 

XXXVI. Boragine^e, Juss. 

*W. Pollichia africana, Med. Bot. Beobacht. (1784) p. 248. 
num. 223. Philosophised Bot. pars 1. p. 32. "Cynoglos- 
soides Africana verrucosa et hispida." Isn. act. ac. Par. 
A 71 8) p. 256. Borraginoides angustifolia, flore palles- 
cente, cajruleo. Boerhaav. ind. alt. p. 188. Borrago africana, 
Linn. Sp. PL p. 197. Trichodesma africana, R. Br. Prodr. 
i>. 496. Borago, Chr. Smith, in herb. Mus. Brit, ex cl. 
'• D. Hooker, Borago gruina, ejusd. Tuck. Voy. p. 250.— 
!c. Isnard. I. c. t. 11. Boerhaav. I. c. t. 9. sed sinenumero. 

Hab. I n rupestribus sinus Tarrafal sive Tamaricum ins. 
8. Antonii, {Forbes, n. 17. d. 2 April. 1822, spec, florida et 
fructifera.) In eadem ins. {Th. Vogel, n. 20. sp. floridum.) 
In ins. S. Vincentii ad alt. 500 ped. {Th. Vogel, n. 67. 
Junio, 1841, sp. florida et fructifera.) 

U t Medorum et Persarum ita Botanicorura leges stabiles 



154 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

firmseque servanda; hoc tantum modo inextricabilis fu- 
gienda confusio. Nulla autem jure antecessionis sive ut 
dicitur priorita tis sacriorem fuisse legem necesse est. Hoc 
lege Pollichia Medici, jam diu a celeberrimo Roberto 
Brown deletse, pristini honores reparandi, Solandriana 
delenda. Hoc ill. Brownium effugisse videtur cum Tri- 
chodesmam suam, nunc ex albo eradendam, designavent. 
Oculatus enim Medicus non tantum in opere, cui titulus, 
non plane immeritus, Philosophische Botanik, magno scru- 
tatore citatum, anno 1789 divulgatum (eodem scilicet quo 
in Hort. Kew. suam Solander) sed jam ab anno 1783 in 
observationibus suis (Botanische Beobachtungen,) uti ipse 
advertit pro Boraginibus Indica et Africana constitutam, 
Pollichiam omnium primus juris publici anno 1784 fecerat 
et species fusius descripserat, quod ex libro facile viden- 
dum. Pro Pollichia Sol. Meerburgia campestris scribenda 
quod nomen setate provectius. 

158. Heliotropium hispidum, Forsk. (sub Lithospermo.) 
FL JEg. Arab. p. 38. Heliotropium undulatum, VahU 
8ymb. p. 13. Heliotropium crispum, Desf. ! FL atl. 

159. Heliotropium undulatum, /3 ramosissimum, Lehm. ! ^ s ' 
perifoL 1. p. 57. Ic. et Descr. p. 24. forma elongata macra. 
Schult. Syst. 4. p. 30. et 728. Heliotropium plebeium, 
Chr. Smith, in herb. Mus. Brit, (ex cl. /. D. Hooker.) 
Ic. Desf. /. c. Lehm. L c. t. 40. 

Hab. In rupibus sinus Tarrafal sive Tamaricum wis. 
S. Antonii, (Forbes, n. 21. d. 2. April. 1822. spec. flor. et 
fruct.) In ins. 8. Vincentii (Idem, n. 3.) In rupibus prope 
Portum Praya in ins. £. Jacobi, flores pallide purpurei 
(J. D. Hooker, n. 124. Nov. 1839, spec. flor. et fruct.) 
In cultis 8. Vincentii et 8. Antonii (Th. Vogel, n. 23. 33- 
et 69. Junio, 1841, sp. fl. et fruct.) In ins. 8. Jacobi, 
(Darwin.) 

Flores quanquam hujus speciei pallide aerulescentes scnp- 
serit cl. J. D. Hooker, albos Forskahl et Desfontaines, 
non aliam credemus nostram, nulla enim apparet diffe- 
rentia nisi cocca forsan magis angusta ac rugosiora, sed et 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 155 

hoc variabile, extant enim specimina quae iEgyptiaca ex 
toto referant. 

160. Echium stenosiphon, Webb; caule fruticoso strigoso, 
ramis fuscis pilis aculeatis strigosis foliis strigosissimis 
ovato- vel rhomboideo-rotundatis margine sinuatis acutis 
vel obtusis inferioribus sinuato-lobatis breviter petiolatis 
supenoribus sessilibus, spicis ramosis foliosis basi nudis 
apiee floridis, floribus densis secundis, bractea oblonga 
calycis laciniis oblongis vel linearibus subsequalibus lon- 
giore, corolla hirsuta coerulescente calyce 4-plo vel 5-tuplo 
longiore tubo cylindraceo subarcuato ima basi squamarum 
annulo instructo, fauce vix ampiiato, lobis brevibus ; sta- 
minibus exsertis infra medium tubi insertis, stylo sta- 
minum longitudine apice glabro sub apice usque ad basin 

pilosissimo, ovarii lobis angustis acutis glabris. — Ic. Tab. 
nostra XV. 

Hab. Undique in insula £. Nicolai {Forbes, n. 32. die 29 

Martii, 1822, spec, floridum minus scabrum.) In monte 

Verede, ins. S. Vincentii ultra 1000 ped. alt. frutex bipe- 

dalis ramosus (Th. Vogel, n. 81. Junio, 1841, spec, florida.) 

ab. XV. Fig. 1. flower : — magnified. 

"!• Echium hypertropicum, Webb; caule fruticoso, ramis 
robustis fuscis cicatricibus foliorum notatis, ramulis pilis 
strigosis appressis cinereis, foliis ovato -Ian ceolatis basi 
attenuatis sessilibus utrinque pilis crebris brevibus tenui- 
^s appressis e bullio lato piano prodeuntibus strigoso- 
incanis nervis prominentibus margine planis ciliatis, pani- 
c ula thyrsoidea ramosa, bracteolis oblongis subfalcatis 
calycis longitudine cinereo-hirsutis apice strigosis, floribus 
carneis vel albidis, calycis tubo brevissimo laciniis 4 lineari- 
Janceolatis quinta lanceolata, corolla calyce subduplo lon- 
giore campanulata vix incurva extus pilosiuscula, tubo 
crasso, lobis ovato-lanceolatis acutis, lacinia infima minore, 
staminibus exsertis subincurvis glabris -purpureis(?) stylo 
leviter pil, 



oso. 



H ^b. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 
Affinis est E. giganteo differt tamen foliorum forma et pubes- 
c entia et floris character! bus. Non minus ab E. Descaisnei 



156 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

diversum est cui flores lactei nee coerulescentes ut in Phyt 
Can. (v. 2. p. 49.) falso diximus quod nuper ex specimi- 
nibus, insulse Lancerottee pulchre florescentibus cl. Bour- 
geau cognovimus. 



833 



XXXVII. Labiate, Juss. 

162. Ocymum Basilicum, Linn, (1764, ed. 3.) 2. p> 
Benth. Lab. Gen. et Spec. (1832-36.) p. 4. Basilicum m- 
dicum, Burm. Herb. Amboin. (1747) pars 5. p. 266. Soladi 
Tirtava. Rheed Hort. Malab. (1690) pars 10. p. 171. Ocy- 
mum Americanum, Jacq. Hort. Vind. (1766) 3.— Ic. Burm. 
I. c. t. 93. mediocris. Rheed, I. c. t. 87. mediocris. Jacq. l> 
c. t. 86. bona. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi in valle 8. Dominici, {J. D. Hooker, 

n. 121. November, 1839, spec, fructifera.) 
Hab. haec species in regionibus calidioribus orbis vetens e 
novi sed illic si indigena incertum. Occurrit in oris utns- 
que Lybiee calidioris (ex Benth.) in insula Mauritii (ex 
Benth.) in regionibus Indiae intra Gangem Mace ! v\ ig" 
in insula Taprobana, (ex Benth.), in insula Java Commer- 
son ! in insulis Philippianis Commerson ! ad insulas A 
tillicas in ins. Jamaica, Murray ! in Brasilia, Martius . 
Calycis tubus intus pilosus. Mericarpia oblonga, lee via, H*- 
grescentia, humectata mucilaginosissima. Cotyledones o - 
longae, obtusae, cordatae, radicula parva, crassiuscula. 

163. Ocy mum suave, Willd. Enum. (1809) 2. p. 629. Benth. 
Lab. Gen. et Sp. (1832-36) p. 7. 

Hab. In insula S. Jacobi, {Darwin, n. 276. specimen flo- 

ridum.) 

Legitur haec planta in Senegambia prope urbem Kandoni' > 
Heudelot ! (exsicc. n. 769 in herb. Delessertiano) atque 
inde in insulam Madagascariae, (ex Benth.) in insulam 
Sanctse Maries, • Richard ! (exsicc. n. 23. in herb. Deles- 
sertiano), et in insulam Anjouan, Richard ! (exsicc. n. 239. 
in herb. Delessertiano) procurrit. 

Calycis tubus intus nudus. Mericarpia rotundato-ovata, 
excavato-punctata, fusca, humectata non mucilagmosa. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 157 

Cotyledones mericarpio conformes cordatse, radicula parva 
crassiuscula. 

164. Hyptis spicigera, Lamk, Diet. 3. p. 185. Benth. Lab. 
Gen. et Spec. (1832-36) p. 78. Nepeta maxima, Shane 
Hist, of Jam. (1707) t. 8. bona. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

Uccurrit haec species sed infrequens in vetere orbe et in novo 
in Senegambia per ripas Casamancse, Le Prieur et Per- 
rottet ! in herb. Delessertiano in Madagascaria, (ex Benth.), 
in ms. Lucon, prope Manillam, (ex Benth.); in ins. Antil- 
licis m herb. Desf. ! in ins. Jamaica in uliginosis circa 
nrbem St. Jago de la Vega, (ex Sloane) ; in Peruvia et 
Brasilia, (ex Benth.) 

n nac specie folia floralia parva primum ovata, integra, mox 
«-4 nneari-partita et ab hanc causam bracteolas esse plures 
celeb, Bentham apparuit. Calyx (8 m. metr. longus) tu- 
nulosus, 10-striatus, 5-dentatus ; dentibus tubo dimidio 

evioribus. Corolla apice villosa. Filamenta parum ex- 
serta, exteriora longiora. Stylus inclusus. Stamina in- 
trorsa adaequans. Mericarpia oblongo-ovata, obtusa, ad 
nasin exteriorem cicatricula minuta fungosa notata. Co- 

tyledones ovatae, obtusse, cordatae, radicula parva crassius- 
cula. 

165. Lavandula rotundifolia, Benth. Lab. Gen. et Sp. 

Ha b. Ubique in insula S. Nicolai, (Forbes, n. 33. die 27 

Martii, 1822, sp. florida et fructifera) ; ad medium montem 

v erede, ins. S. Vincentii, (Vogel, n. 77. Junio, 1841, spec. 

fructifera et florida.) In ins. S. Antonii, {Vogel, n. 5.) et 

m herb. Mus. reg. Par. 
ru tex ramis lignosis, glabris, elongatis, basi foliosis. Folia 



Pctiolata, late oblongo-ovata, laciniato-dentata, basi cu- 
neata, glabra, coriacea, rugoso-nervosa ; floralia scariosa, 
°vata, acuta, 5-striata, cinereo-puberula, calyce breviora, 
ln spicara adpressam crassiusculam ramosam disposita. 
Cymulce uniflores. Calyx sub 2-labiatus, tubuloso-ovatus, 
l5 -striatus, 5-dentatus, dentibus ovatis acutis subaequali- 
bl *s, fructiferis recurvis. Corolla calycem sub 2-plum 



158 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

superante ; tubo angusto, pilis reflexis intus piloso, labio 
superiore bifido, inferioris 3-lobi lobo medio multo majore. 
Antherce ciliata?. Stylus glabrescens, lobis stigmatosis 
ovatis latiusculis. Mericarpia atro-purpurascenta, dorso 
basi cicatricula magna notatis, humectata dense mucila- 
ginosa. 
166. Lavandula coronopifolia, Poir. ! Diet. Suppl. (1813) HI- 
p. 308. De Gingins, Hist. Nat. des Lav. (1827) p. I 60 - 
t. 9. bona. Benth. Lab. Gen. et Spec. (1832-36) p. 151. 
Lavandula multifida, Burm.Fl Indie. (1768) ic. 38. {mala) 
Lavandula stricta, Delile ! Fl. Mgypt. (1813) 1. p- 94 
ic. 32. f. 1. (optima.) 
Hab. In ins. S. Antonii, (Vogel, n. 48.); et in collibus et 

declivitatibus in S. Vincentii, {Vogel, n. 24. Junio, 1841.) 
In uEgypto ad sinum arabicum, Delile ! in herb. Mus. Pans. 
In Arabia Petraa, prope montem Sinai, N. Bove ! exsicc. 
n. 59. prope Wadi Hebran, W. Schimper ! exsicc. n. 141. 
* prope Djeddam Botta ! in herb. Mus. Paris. 

This plant certainly is the L. coronopifolia of Poir. and the 
L. stricta of Delile. Although the spikes are more ramified, 
its general appearance agrees with what Delile mentions m nl 
description, u cette espece est principalement caracterisee pa 
ses longs epis lineaires." 

The Baron Gingins de Lassaraz, in his clever * Histoire 
Naturelle des Lavandes," has attached great importance to 
the forms of the lobes of the style ; and I firmly believe 
with this botanist that they form good specific characters. 
167. Lavandula dentata, Linn. Spec. (1764) 11. p- 800, 
Desf. Flor. Atl. (1796) 11. p. 14. Ging. de Laz. Hist. Nat- 
Lav. (1826) p. 138. Benth. Lab. Gen. et Spec. (1832-36) 
p. 148. Webb. Phyt. Can. (1845) p. 57.— Ic. Ging.de Laz- 
/. c. t. v.f. i. (ic. pulchr.) 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 
Occurrit hsec species in Europa per regiones maris intern 
et in plagis rupestribus Africse occidentalis inde per insulas 
Maderensem Fortunatosque usque ad insulas Cap. Viridi 
devenitur. 






SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 159 

Observandum corollam calyce vix longiorem, filaraentis pilo- 
suhs, stylo apice piloso, lobis oblongis, obtusis, meri- 
carpiis oblongis, obtusis, cotyledonibus cordatis, radicula 
parva crassiuscula. 

168. Salvia ^Egyptiaca, Linn. Spec. (1762) p. 33. Desf.Flor. 
Atl (1796) 1. p. 19. ( u bi perperam annua dicitur.) Delile, 
Flor. Mgy V t. illustr. (1812)^. 49. Benth. Lab. Gen. et Sp. 
(1832-36) p. 309. De Noel, in Phytog. Canar. (1845) 2. 
P< 6. Salvia pumila, Benth. I. c. p. 726. Cambess. Voy. de 
Jacguemont, Bot. p. 128.— Ic. Cambess. /. c. t. 133. De 
Noe, I c . bona. 

A B. In insula S. Vincentii, in arenosis (Forbes, specimina 
n - 1. fructifera, 1° die Aprilis, 1822.) In campis siccis 
insulae S. Jacobi frequens, (J. D. Hooker, specimina fruct. 
n - 123. November, 1839.) In insula S. Antonii, (Vogel, 
specimina n. 29.) nee non in vallibus arenosis S. Vincentii, 
(n. 9. Junio, 1841.) 

^ceano Atlantico stirps usque ad Pentapotamidem Indise 
tforealis tractum agri Cachemyriani confinem. Per trans- 
versa 01 Africam Asiamque excurrit inter lat. bor. grad. 22 
et 33 ubique inclusa occurrit. In agro Tunetano interiore 
C1 rca Cafsam (Desf. !) In collibus magnae Syrteos (ex 
v iviano, sub nomine Thymi hirti.) In insula Teneriffse, 
I Webb!) In desertis ^Egypti Inferioris circa Cahiram, 
(Porsk. et Delile) et Suez (Delile!) In Arabia circa 
u jeddam (Schimper ! exsicc. n. 820.) Ad sinum Persicum, 
(Aucher ! exsicc. n. 5216.) In collibus gypsaceis et 
salinis India* Borealis ad Hydaspem Fluraen, circa Pen- 
^adenkhan, ad viam inter Lahore et Cachemyr, (Jacque- 
mont! herb. qu* S. pumila, Benth.) 
169. Micromeria Forbesii, Benth. ! Lab. Gen. et Spec. (1832- 

36 ) p. 376. 
Ha b. In insula S. Nicolai, in saxosis montis Gourdo, (die 
Martii 30, 1822, Forbes, n. 5. spec, florida et fruct.) In 
insula S. Antonii, in rupestribus ubi ex alto desiiit aqua 
(Junio, 1841, Th. Vogel, n. 93. spec, florida et fruct.) 
^i* robusta. Caules diffusi, hirtuli. Folia breviter petio- 



160 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

lata, rotundato-ovata, acuta, integra, utrinque hirtula, su- 






periora elliptica. Cymula pedunculatse, folio breviores, 
bracteolatse ; bracteis linearibus, 3-6 floribus. Calyces tu- 
bulosi, hirtuli, 13-striati, intus ad basin dentium pilosi. 
Corolla extus pilosa, calyce subduplo longior, labium 
superius bifidum, inferius longius, lobis rotundatis, medio 
aliquando eraarginato. Mericarpia oblonga, obtusa, tusca, 
humectata parum mucilaginosa. 

170. Stachys arvensis, Linn. (1764) 1. p. 814. Benth. Lab. 
Gen. et Spec. (1832-36) p. 550.— Ic. Curt. Flor. Lond. 
1817, 1. bona. Reicb. Icon. Bot. (1832) tab. 967. bona. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Viridis, (Mus. reg. Par.) 

171. Leucas Martinicensis, Br. Prod. Flor. Nov. Holl et ins- 
Van Diem. (1810) 1. p. 504. Benth. Lab. Gen. et Spec. 
(1832-36) p. 617. Leucas Schimperi, Hochst. ! exsicc. Ah. 
n. 15.— Ic. Clinopodium Martinicense, Jacq. Stirp. Americ 
Hist. (1763) p. 173. t. 177. /. 75. (calyx solus).) Phlomis 
Caribeea, Jacq. Ic. Plant. Rar. (1781-86) 1. p. U- '• ll0, 
pulch. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) , 

Occurrit heec species ad oras utrisque Africoe calidioris i 
Senegambia prope Bakel (Heudelot! exsicc. n. 121.) 
insula Madagascarise, per provinciam Emirnensem, (Boje ■) 
Ad Adoam, in Abyssinia, (Schimper ! (exsicc. n. 15.) 
regionibus Birmanicis, prope montem Toang Dong, I * 
Benth.) Ad insulas Antillicas, in insula Martinense, 
(Goudot !) In insula Hispaniola, (Poiteau !) Ad plag oS 
Boreales Australesque Americae. Rio Janeiro, (Coram 
son !) etiam in Canada, (herb. Vaillant !) (Herb. Mus. reg- 
Par.) 
Corolla apice incurva, dentes calycis subaequans, labium s 
perius e marginatum, extus et intus hirsutissimum, mien 
vix longius, 3-lobum, lobis lateralibus oblongis trunca i 
emarginatisve, medio majore latioreque bifido. Filafnent 
longe viscoso-pilosa, inclusa. Stylus longitudine stamwum 
introrsorura. Mericarpia oblongo-ovata, obtusa, dors 
superne glandulosa, ceterum lsevia, atro-fusca. Cotyledone 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 161 

oblongae obtusse cordatse, radicula longiuscula crassius- 
cula. 

172. Ajuga Iva, Schreb. Plant. Vert, unilab. Gen. et Spec. 
(1774) p. xxv. Benth. Gen. et Sp. (1832-36) p. 698. Teu- 
crium Iva,' Linn. Spec. (1764)^. 787. Desf. Fl. Atl. (1796) 
11. p. 3.— Ic. Lobel. Plant. Hist. (1576) p. 208. bona. 
Sibth. Flor. Grcec. t. 525. (optima.) 

Hab. In insula S. Vincentii, ad montium basin, (Vogel, 
n. 20. "Junio, 1841, spec, macilenta.) 

Hsec planta in Europa a gradu boreali 45, usque in insulas 
Cap. Viridis. In Gallia, (Maille !) In Dalmatia, (Petter!) 
In Lusitania, (Welwitsch !) In Hispania, (Chaubord !) 
In Graecia, (Despreaux !) In Algeria, (Durieu !) In insulis 
Canariensibus, (Webb !) 

XXXVIII. Verbena ce^e, Juss. 

173. Verbena officinalis, Linn. Sp. PL p. 29.— Ic. Fl. Dan. 
L 628. Engl. Bot. t. 767. Turp. Fl. Med. Savi, Mat. Med. 
Tosc. t. 52, fig. dextra. 

Hab. In valle S. Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, 
n. 120. Nov. 1839, spec, floriferum.) Ad rivulos vallis 
Pico (Brunner, Ergebn. p. 123.) 



XXXIX. Solanace^e, Juss. 



!74. Physalis Alkekengi, Linn. Sp. PL p. 262.— Ic. Matth. 



jrts^ 
Mat. M4d. Tosc. t. 59. 



Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi, (Darurin.) 

!75. Physalis somnifera, Linn. Sp. PL p. 161. Physalis 
flexuosa, ejusd. ibid.— Ic. Matth. (ed. Valgris, 1685) p. 
!071. Clus. Hist. 2. p. 85. Barr. Ic. 149. Cav. Ic 2. 
'. 103. Sibth. Fl. Grate, t. 233. 

Hab. In arvis Gossypii, ins. S. Jacobi, et circa sinum Tar- 
rofal, ins. 8. Antonii, (Forbes, n. 2 et 27. d. 2 et 5 Aprilis, 
*822, spec. flor. et fruct.) Ad radices montium S. Vin- 
centii, et in vallibus, arbustum pedale, (Th. Vogel, n. 29 et 



if 



162 SP1CILEGIA GORGONEA. 

59. Junio, 1841, spec. flor. et fruct.) Circa Porto Praya, 
ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 119. Nov. 1839.) In 
. ins. S. J ago et Brava, (Br miner, in herb, nostr.) 

176. Capsicum frutescens, var. a. Linn. Sp. PL p. 271. Cap- 
sicum frutescens, Willd. 1. p. 1052. Fingerh. Monog.p- 17- 
Brunn. Ergebn. p. 35. — Ic. Rumph. Amb. 5. t. 88. J. 0- 
Fingerh. 1. c. t. 4./. d. 

Hab. In ins. S. Antonii, " suffrutex, ramis ascendentibus vel 
procumbentibus," (Th. Vogel, n. 16. Junio, 1841, spec, 
flor. et fruct.) 

177. Capsicum microcarpum, DC. Cat. Hort. Monsp. p.M- 
(ex specim. Candolleano, herb. Mercier.) Fingerh. Monogr. 
p. 19 — Ic. Fingerh. L c. t. 4./. b. 

Hab. In valle S. Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi. " Flores albi, 
rami sarraentosi arbusculis dependentes." («/. D. Hook > 
n. 116. Nov. 1839, sp. fl. et fr.) 

178. Datura Stramonium, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 225.— Ic Turp. 
Fl. Med. 6. /. 332. 

Hab. In valle S. Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi, J. Dalton Hooker, 

n. 118. Junio, 1839, spec, florida. 

179. Datura Metel, Linn. Sp. PL 256.— Ic. Fuchs. Hist, 
p. 690. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi, (Darwin.) 

180. Lycopersicum cerasiforme, Dunal, Hist, des Solan. 
p. 113. Solanum pomiferum, fructu rotundo parvo molli* 

nunc luteo, nunc rubro, Moris. Hort. H. bles. p. 195.— 1°* 
Dun. I. c. t. 3. B. 
Hab. In valle & Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, 
n. 164. Nov. 1839, spec. flor. et fruct.) In monte Verede, 
ins. S. Vincentii, ab alt. 1000 pedum et superne (Th. Vogeh 
n. 36. Junio, spec. flor. et fruct.) 

181. Solanum nigrum, Linn. Sp. PL p. 266. Koch, Syn. Fl- 

Germ. ed. 2. p. 584. Solanum Guianense, Brunn. ! Ergebn- 

p. 115. von Lamck. — lc. Reichb. PL Crit. t. 954. et 

Solanum pterocaulon, /. 955. 
Hab. In arvis Gossypii, sinus Tarrafal, ins. S. Antonth 
(Forbes, n. 16. d. 2 Apriiis, 1822, spec, florida.) In i" s - 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 163 

S. Antonii, (Th. Vogel, n. 8. Jun. 1841, sp. fl. et fr.) In 

ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 130. November, 1839, 

spec. flor. et fruct.) In umbrosis ins. Boa Vista, (Brunner, 

in herb, nostro spec, vegetum procerum.) 

182. Solanum fuscatum, Jacq. Coll. I. p. 51. — Ic. Jacq. Ic. 
rar. t 42. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi, valle S. Antonii, (J. Dalton Hooker, 
n. 117. Nov. 1839, spec, fructifera,) ibid. Chr. Smith, in 
herb. Mus. Brit. (cl. /. D. Hooker.) 

XL. SCROFULARIXEiE, JuSS. 

§. Campylanthete, Webb, in Ann. Sc. Nat. Seme Ser. 3. p. 33. 
Phyt. Can. 3. p. 125. 

Character tribus reform. 

isdlyx 5-fidus ; laciniis sestivatione imbricatis, subaequalibus, 
2 superioribus paululum majoribus. Corolla tubus infun- 
dibuliformis, laciniis planis, 2 anticis minoribus, restivatione 
interioribus. Stamina 2, postica anticorum vestigio nullo, 
declinata, antheris arete appressis, loculis acutis, conflucn- 
tibus. Stylus clavatus, integer. Capsula coriacea, septi- 
cide bifida, valvis mox bipartitis quadrifida, columna pla- 
centifera tota libera. Semina plurima, plana, campylo- 
fropa, chalaza hiloque approximatis ; testa reticulata, 
a Ppressa, in alam periphericam producta. Embryo peri- 
phericus vel hippocrepidoideus. — Frutices regionis Maca- 
ronesiacae desiccatione nigrescentes ; foliis crebris sparsis, 
wperioribus alternis, scepe crassis. Flores spicati, bracteati, 
pedicellis basi bibr act eolatis.— Campy lantheas nee Salpiglot- 
tideis uti nunc in lucidissima coordinatione reconstituuntur, 
nee Gerardeis ipsis convenientes in tribulum iterum suam 
reducere maluimus. 

18 3. Campylanthus Benthami, Webb. Campylanthus sal- 
soloides, ejusd. Phyt. Can. 3. p. 126. quoad plantam Gor- 
goneam non Roth. 

V »r. a. glaber, foliis filiformibus glabris, calycis laciniis gla- 
bellis ciliatis. Campylanthus glaber, Benth. in DC. Prod. 

m 2 



164 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

10. p. 508 et 596. Eranthemum salsoides, Chr.SmithJ.c. 
p. 251. herb. Mus. Brit.! ex cl J. Bolton Hooker. — Ic. 
Tab. XV. 

Var. £. hirsutus, foliis planis oblongis, superioribus filifornu- 
bus cum ramulis hirsutissimis, calycis laciniis puberulis 
demum glabrescentibus. 

Hab. In rupestribus totius montis Gurdo, ins. S. Nicolai, 
(Forbes, n. 9. var. a; n. 17. planta junior, foliis hirsutis, 
var. floribus albis, sine num., die 30 Martii, 1822, sp. flor. 
et fruct.) Ad apicem montis abrupti vallis S. Dommici, 
ins. S. Jacobi, ad alt. 1200 ad 2000 ped. (/. Dalton Hooker, 
n. 128. Junio, 1839, sp. var. a. florida et fruct.) In i nS - 
S. Antonii, (Th. Vogel, n. 35. b. sp. procera fructifera.) In 
montibus ins. S. Vincentii, ad alt. 800 ped. "Frutex par- 
vus. Caulis digiti crassitie ramis pluribus (ssepe depen- 
dentibus) depressis. Folia crassiuscula, subcarnosa, fructus 
juglandis olent. Flores secundi. Corolla tubus luteus; 
limbus violaceus. Stamina medio corolla? tubo inserta, 
loculo altero superiore, altero inferiore. Stigma perforatum, 
ovarium multiovulatum. 5 ' (Th. Vogel, n. 72. Junio, 1W1* 
spec, macra. var. /3. florida et fructifera.) 

Frutex duriusculus ; ramis tenuibus, albidis, foliorum cica- 
tricibus crebris nodulosis. Folia sparsa, stirpis j union 
(sive forma? (3.) plana, oblongo-spathulata, acuta, basi m 
petiolum attenuata, dense glanduloso-tomentosa : var. a» 
filiformia, elongata, glabra, basi tan turn et in axillis par 
pubescentia. Ramorum apices in forma /3. hirsutissini , 
sed jam ad spicas floriferas glabrescunt. S-pica rectiu - 
culse, 3 vel plures aggregate, foliosa?, secunda?. -Brae 
filiformis, bracteolis basalibus vel sub dimidio pedice 
filiformis gracillimi nutantis sitis. Calyx junior subgla&r - 
tus, laciniis 2 inferioribus longioribus recurvis, glandulos - 
pubescens vel glaber, laciniiis lanceolatis acutis margine m 
varietatibus ambabus ciliatis, corolla? tubo subduplo bre- 
vioribus. Corolla ex cl. Forbes, (in var. a. aliquando alba,) 
ccerulea, secundum cl. Th. Vogel in var. /3. limbus vio- 
laceus, tubus luteus, ex cl. J. Dalton Hooker, (var. «•) 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 165 

carnea, glabra, tubo crassiusculo sequali, medio circiter su- 
perne flexo, laciniis ovato-lanceolatis acutis. Stamina 2, 
sub medio tubi inserta; antheris oblongo-ovatis vel subreni- 
formibus, glanduloso-pubescentibus, loculis junioribus basi 
acutiusculis, divaricatis, superne confluentibus. Capsula 
elongato-ovata, glabra, nervosa, nitidiuscula, apice rotun- 
. data, subcrenata, calyce persistente longiora. Semina ro- 
tundata, vel subreniformia, nigra, ala membranacea alba 
cincta. 

Differt a ft salsoloide, Roth, foliis junioribus ssepe planis, 
hirsutissimis var. a. tenuioribus, spieis rectis, calycis la- 
ciniis lanceolatis, ciliatis glabris vel glabrescentibus, corolla? 
glabrae tubo crassiore, laciniis lanceolatis, antheris lon- 
gioribus, acutioribus, capsula obtusiore calyce longiore, 
seminibus nigris. 

Tab. XVI. Fig. 1. flower; /. 2. anthers; f. 3. germen ; 
/. 4. capsule : — all magnified. 

1B4. Celsia betoniccefolia, Desf. Fl. Atl 2. p. 58. Benth. in 
DC. Prodr. 10. p. 245. Chr. Smith, /. c. p. 251. Celsia 
arborescens, ejusd. in herb. Mus. Brit. 

Hab. Ad apicem montis abrupti, alt. 2000 ped. in valle 
S. Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi 9 (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 128. 
November, 1839, spec, glabra vegeta fructifera.) In di- 
midio superiore Montes Verede, ins. S. Vince?itii, (I7i. 
Vogel, n. 82. Junio, 1841, spec, deusta glutinoso-tomen- 
tosa florida et fructifera.) 

1^5. Linaria dichondrcefolia, Benth.; ramis rectiusculis ri- 
gidis albido-tomentosis, foliis utrinque dense pubescen- 
tibus albidis demum desicc. nigrescentibus inferioribus 
rhomboideo-cordatis superioribus rotundato-cordatis vel 
basi truncatis, petiolo tenui, pedunculis filiformibus de- 
curvis petiolo longioribus, calycis laciniis lineari-lanceo- 
latis linearibusque acutis tomentosis, corolla calyce sub- 
duplo longiore pubescente labio sup. 2-lobo inferiore elon- 
gato laciniis ovatis obtusis, calcare brevi recurvo, capsula 
ovata calyce sublongiore pubescente duriuscula ab apice 
usque ad medium valvatim dehiscente.— Linaria dichon- 
dreefolia, Benth. in DC. /'rodr. 10. p. 270. 



166 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

Hab. In declivibus umbrosis, ins. S. Nicolai, {Forbes, n. 16. 
die 27 Martii, 1822, sp. fructifera et florida.) In ins. St. 
Vincentii, (Th. Vogel, n. 13, 15, et 16, Junio, 1841, sp. 

fruct.) 
186. Linaria Brunneri, Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10. p. 270. L. 

alsinsefolia, Brunn. Ergebn. p. 84. non Spreng. 
Var. a. vera; ramis elongatis rectiusculis rigid ulis, pilis densis 
longis patulis pilosis, foliis nigricantibus lanato-hirtis de- 
mum glabris, inferioribus rotundatis acutis basi subcor- 
datis aliquando subsagittatis petiolis gracillimis, supenon- 
bus ovatis lanceolatisque basi cordatis vel rotundatis o - 
solete crenatis, pedunculis filiformibus, calycis laciniis oD- 
longo-lanceolatis acutis hirtis, corolla calyce duplo longiore, 
labio superiore bifido, inferiore latiusculo 3-fido, lacinus 
ovatis, calcare brevi sacciformi leviter incurvo, capsua 
ovato-rotundata duriuscula pilosa calyce longiore ab apice 
usque ad medium valvatim dehiscente, seminibus oblongo- 
rotundatis, angulatis tuberculatis. 
Var. ft. p arret ariafolia ; ramis filiformibus pilis deflexis aen- 
siuscule pilosis, foliis tenuibus viridibus desiccatione su - 
nigrescentibus pubescentibus demum glabris ciliatis m 
rioribus rhomboideo-rotundatis acutis basi cordatis seep 
auriculatis vel subsagittatis, superioribus ovato-rotundatis 
basi truncatis vel subcordatis eroso-crenatis, sumniis w- 
tegris, calycis laciniis linearibus acutis, corolla calyce su - 
duplo longiore, labio superiore 2-fido, inferiore 3-ndo 
angusto elongato laciniis lanceolatis, calcare brevi angusto 
uncinatim recurvo, capsula magis chartacea. 
Hab. In declivibus umbrosis et in rupestribus ad sinu 
Tarrafal, ins. S. Antonii, (Forbes, n. 22. d. 22 April. 1822, 
et n. 15. d. 2 April, sp. fl. et fruct.) Vulgaris prsesertim 
in rupibus ins. 8. Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 126. Nov. 
1839, sp. fl. et fr.) In ins. S. Vincentii, (TJi. Vogel, n ; 9, 
10, 11, 12 et 14. Junio, 1839, sp. fl. et fruct.) In » lS ' 
8. Antonii, Th. Vogel, (p. 26. sp. nor. et fruct.) In inS ' 
S. Jacobi, (Darwin.) In insulis Salis et S. Jacobi, (Brunner, 

in herb, nostro.) 
187. Scrofularia argula, Hort. Kew. p. 302. Flujt. Can. 3. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 167 

/>. 131. Auch. exsicc. 5057. S. peregrina, var. ? Wydl. 
Scrof.p. 28. Walp. Repert. 3. p. 106. 
188. Doratanthera linearis, Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10. p. 347. 
Anticharis Arabica, Hochst. in Sched. Kotsch. PL Nub. 
exsicc. n. 90 ! non Endl 

Hab. In ins. S. Antonii, (Th. Fi#e/, n. 53. Junio, 1841, spec, 
unicum adustum fructiferum.) 

XLI. Orobanche^e, 

Ao9. Phelypsea Brunneri, Webb ; scapo simplicissimo Ion- 
gissimo, florum squamis bractealibus oblongis navicula- 
nbus in apicem longe attenuates laceris acutis calycem 
excedentibus, bracteolis linearibus, calycis dentibus Ian- 
ceolatis acutis, corollis magnis luteis arcuato-tubulosis, 
fauce ampliata, lobis subaequalibus acutis, genitalibus sub- 
exsertis, filamentis basi cum corollee tubo pilosis, antheris 

• - 

sagittatis parce pilosis. Phelypsea lutea, Brunner ! Ergebn. 

p. 100, pro parte, non Desf. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) et in ins. Salis, 

(Brunner.) 

The above description is taken principally from Brunner's 
specimen. With this plant he sent at the same time what 
he believed perhaps to be a younger specimen of the same, 
but which is quite distinct, perhaps from N. Boro in Senegal, 
of which we subjoin a description.* 

Phelypsea Hespervgo, Webb ; scapo simplicissimo juniore obtuso brac- 
tearum appendicibus exsertis comato, bracteis calyce longioribus — basi 
lineari-lanceolatis apice in appendicem crassum linearem protensis, 
bracteolis sublinearibus, calyce fisso lobo axili lineari posteriore basin 
corolla? amplectente 4-dentato, dentibus lanceolatis margine subscariosis 
acutis, corolla tubulosa tubo elongato calycem bis vel ter excedente 
leviter arcuato cylindraceo fauce augusta vix dilatata glaberrima, lobis 
superioribus lanceolatis basi ovatis cucullatis, lateralibus lanceolatis 
acutis, inferiore longiore angustiore lingulata acuta, staminibus cum 
corollas tubi basi glabris, antheris sagittatis calvis, stylo glaberrimo, 
stigmate lato cyathiformi. Phelypcea lutea, Brunn. ! L c. pro parte ex 
specimine ab indefesso inventore cum planta anteriore misso : non 
Desf. 



168 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 



XLII. AcANTHACEjE, JuSS. 

190. Dicliptera verticillaris, Juss. ; in Ann. Mus. 9. p> 268, 
(excl. synon. prater Lamck. omnibus, ex scheda Jussieeana 
autographa herb. Desf.) Justicia verticillaris, Lamck. Bl 
p. 40 (ex autopsia facta herb. Lamck. a celeb, a L. oe 
Jussieu, non Linn. fil. nee Vahl, excl. syn. et patria Prom. 
Bon. Sp.) 
Hab. In valle S. Dominici ins. 8. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, 
n. 122. Nov. 1839, spec, florida et fruct.) 
It appears that Lamarck confounded a specimen of our 
plant, which he had received from Sierra Leone, with the 
Justicia verticillaris, Linn. fil. On this erroneous /. verto- 
cillaris the illustrious Jussieu founded his Dicliptera ver- 
ticillaris, as is evident from the following note, in his own 
handwriting, attached to a specimen of our present plan 
from the West Indies in the herb. Desf., verbatim as follows: 
" Justicia verticillaris, Lam. ill., sic in herb. Lam., specimen 
ex Sierra Leone. — Dicliptera verticillaris, 3." As the tru 
J. verticillaris, L. fil. belongs to another genus, the name 
equally applicable to our species may remain. But shou 
it be thought necessary to change it, the plant might be 
called D. Jussiaei. 

191. Peristrophe bicalyculata, Nees ab Esenb. Dianthera 
bicalyculata, Retz. Act. Holm. 1775. p. 297. Dianthera 
Malabarica, Linn. fil. Suppl. p. 85. (ex cl. Syn. Rheed.) 
Dianthera paniculata, Forsk. Fl. AEg. Arab. p. 7. Justicia 
ligulata, Lamck. III. p. 40. Cav. Ic. 1. p. 52. Justicia Mala- 
barica, Chr. Smith, herb. Mus. Brit, (ex cl. J. D. Hooker.) 
Ic. Retz, t. c. t. 9. Lamck. ///. t. 12. /. 2. Cav. /. c. t. 71. 

Hab. In vallibus ins. £. Jacobi non infrequens (J. D. Hooker, 
n. 171. Nov. 1839, spec. flor. et fruct.) 

192. Dicliptera umbellata, Juss. /. c. Justicia umbellata* 
Vahl, Enum. 1 . p. 1 1 1 . 

Hab. In arvis ins. Brava, (Brunner, Ergebn. p. 60.) 

The fragments of two other species of Acanthacca are 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 169 

found in the herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mm. reg. Par.) but not in 
a state to be described. 

XLIII. pRIMULACEiE, JuSS. 

193. Samolus Valerandi, Linn. Sp. PI I. p. 243.— Ic. Ga?rtn. 

1. t. 30. Lamck. ///. 2. t. 101. Ft. Dan. t. 198. Engl. Bot. 

t. 703. Schkuhr, Handb. t. 40. 
Hab. In ins. S. Vincentii aquosis montanis ab alt. 500 ped. 

(Th. Vogel, n. 83. Junio, 1841. spec. flor. et fruct.) in ins. 



wrwin 



194. Anagallis ccerulea, Schreb. Spic. FL lips. p. 5. Chr. Smith, 

I c p. 252 !— Ic. Engl. Bot. t. 1823. 
Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi, (Chr. Smith, in herb. Mus. Brit. 

ex cl. J. D. Hooker.) 

XLIV. SAPOTE.E, JuSS. 

A ^5. Sapota marginata, Dne. ; ramulis glabratis novellis to- 
mentosis, foliis obovatis obtusis supra glabris subtus petio- 
usque tomentosis marginatis coriaceis dein glabratis, flori- 
bus axillaribus paucis glabris, pediceilis petiolum superan- 
tibus, foliolis calycinis rotundatis glabris, corolla? laciniis 
calycem param superantibus rotundatis ciliolatis, squamis 
hgulatis obtusis, filaraentis dilatatis, ovario superne piloso 
6-Ioculare, loculis uniovulatis. (Decaisne, MSS. nobiscum 
benevole comm.)— Ic. nostra Tab. XIII. 

«ab. Hujusce arboris individua duo tantum viva ad ped. 
20 alt. accedentia, scopulo ad apicem montis abrupti alt. 
circiter 2000 ped. vallis S. Dominici protecta, in ins. 
S' Jacobi. Fructus junior ramique succo albo lactescente 
scatent. Flores pauci. (J. D. Hooker, n. 114. Nov. 1839. 
s p. fructus juniores et florem unicum gerentia.) 
Tab. XIII. Fig. 1. flower; /. 2. portion of corolla, stamens 

and scales;/. 3. hair case to it. 

XLV. Plumbagine^e, Juss. 

196. Plumbago occidental, Sweet, Hort. sub. p. 428. Plum- 
bago Zeylanica, var. Hornem. Hort. hafn. l.p. 190. Plum- 
bago Zeylanica, £. Roem. et Schult. Syst. *. p. 4. 



170 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

Hab. In collibus vallis S. Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi haud 
frequens, flores candidi (J. D. Hooker, n. 181, Nov. 1839. 
spec. flor. et fruct.) 

197. Plumbago scandens, Linn. Sp. PL p. 215.— Ic. Sloane, 
Hist, of Jam. 1. t. 133./. 1. Jacq. Stirp. Am. t. 13. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

198. Statice Brunneri, Webb; foliis rosulatis rotundatis 
obcordatisque in petiolum attenuatis, scapo erecto aphyllo, 
ramulis secundis elongatis ramis abortivis pungentibus 
adnatis creberrime papillaris, bracteis exterioribus rotun- 
dato-ovatis interioribus oblongis vel rotundato-oblongis 
dorso hirsuto-pubescentibus, calycis tubo hirsuto. Statice 
pectinata, Brunner, Ergebn. non Hort. Kew. 

Hab. In ins. Salis lapidosis (Brunner, in schedis herb. 

nostri.) 

This plant is certainly nearly allied to S. pectinata, Hort. 
Kew. ; its inflorescence, however, is very different, its abor- 
tive branchlets recalling^ though in a slighter degree, the 
S. articulata, Lois. The papillated branches and the broad 
bracteal scales give it something the Jook of S. pruinosa, 
Del., in place of the light appearance of S. pectinata, Hort. 
Kew. 

199. Statice Jovi-barba, Webb: caule lignoso brevi, fohis 
dense imbricato-rosulatis oblongo-spathulatis margine ad. 
apicem undulatis basi attenuatis infimis breviter petiolatis 
amplexicaulibus coriaceis glabris, scapo e foliorum rosula 
protruso gracili ancipite glabra apice subulato, spiculis 
secundis eleganter recurvis, bracteis exterioribus ovatis 
acutis interioribus elongato-lanceolatis acutis glabris, brac- 
teola hyalina 1-nervi obliqua, calyce profunde 5-partito, 
laciniis lineari-lanceolatis acutis, tubo gracili 5-costato 
glabro, corolla zygopetala versus apicem campanulata bre- 
viter 5-fida, antheris ovatis papillaris, stylis apice clavatis 
stigmatoso-papillosis. 

Hab. Copiosa in rupibus raontis Verede ab alt. 1500 ped. 
usque ad apicem nee non in aliis montibus ins. S. Vin- 
centii (77*. Vogel, n. 30. Junio, 1841, spec, florida.) 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 171 



XLVI. Plantagine,e, Juss. 

200. Plantago major, Linn. Sp. PL p. 163.— Ic. FL Dan. 
461. Engl. Bot. t. 1558. Schkuhr, Handb. t. 23. 

Hab. In aquosis Montis Verede, ins. S. Vincentii ad alt. 
1500 ped. et in ins. S. Antonii (Th. Vogel, n. 28 et 34. 
Junio, 1841, sp. flor. et fruct.) 

201. Plantago Psyllium, Linn. Sp. PL p. 167.— Ic. Sibth. 
PL Grcec. t. 149. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

XLVII. Nyctagine/e, Juss. 

202. Boerhaavia erecta, Vahl, Enum. 1. p. 284. — Ic. Jacq. 
Hort. Vind. 1. t. 5. 6. 

Hab. In vallibus arenosis ins. S. Vincentii, boreee et Favonio 
conversis (Th. Vogel, n. 21. Junio, 1841. sp. mancum sine 
"ore et fructu sed hue referendum.) 

203. Boerhaavia paniculata, Lamck. ///. 1. p. 10. 1 

In B oerhaaviarum cognitione incerti multum adest; CEdipo 
suo egent nee hie synonymiano ullam adducere ausus sim. 
Planta nostra eadem est certo ac species Lamarckiana indi- 
cata, ex specimine herbarii Desf. ab ipso cum Lamarckii 
planta collate A Boerhaavia erecta, cui fructu glaber folia 
Punctata foliis impunctatis et fructu pilis glandulosis vestito 
differt. Hinc videtur Poiretium (Encycl. 5. p. 53) has 
plantas mutuo confudisse. Plantse nostrse valde affinis 
est B . procumbens , Roxb., sed hujusce fructus magis elon- 
gatus pilis albidis vix viscosis hirtus, ex spec. herb. 
Lambert. 

Hab. In ins. S. Antonii: caules plures procumbentes, suf- 
frutescentes, 3-pedales, flores rubri (Th. Vogel, n. 24. 
Junio, 1841. sp. fl. et fruct.) 

204. Boerhaavia dichotoma, Vahl, Enum. 1. p. 290. Valeriana 
scandens, Forsk. Fl. ^Eg. Ar. p. 12. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

205. Boerhaavia repens, Linn. Sp. PL p. 5 ? Del. FL d'Eg. 



172 SPIC1LEGIA GORGONEA. 

p. 2. Cent, des pi. cPAfr. p. 93. Vis. FL d'Eg. et Nub. p. 4 
Boerhaavia vulvarifolia, Poir. Encycl 5. p. 55. Boerhaavia 
suberosa, Chr. Smith y L c. p. 249. Herb. Mm. Brit, (ex cl. 

J. D. Hooker.) — Ic. Del. L c. t. 3./. 1, 
Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi prope Porto Praya locis umbrosis 
vulgaris et in rupestribus (J. D. Hooker, n. 167. Nov. 
1839, spec. flor. et fructif.) 



XLVIII. Amarantace^e, Juss. 

206. Alternanthera sessilis, R. Br. Prodr. 1. p. 417. Hle- 
cebrum sessile, Linn. Mant. p. 345.— I c. Pluk. Phytogr. 
t. 133./. 2. Burm. Zeyl. t. 4. Rumph. Amb. 6. /. 15./ 1- 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (Darivin.) 

207. Achyranthes argentea, Willd. Sp. PI. 1. P- 119L 
Achyranthes aspera, a. Sicula, Linn. Webby Phytog. Can. 
p. 194. Achyranthes virgata, Poir I Encycl. SuppL 2. p* 10- 
— Ic. Bocc. PL Par. t. 9. Lamck. ///. t. 168./ 1. Sibth. 
Fl. Grcec. t. 244. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi vulgatissima (J. D. Hooker, n. 170. 
Nov. 1839. spec, fructifera, gracilia, caule albido, iou ls 
tenuibus pilosis vix appressis nee sericeis.) 

208. Achyranthes aspera, Willd. Sp. PL I. p. 1191. Achy- 
ranthes aspera, ft. indica, Linn. Sp. PL p. 295. Achyranthes 
obtusifolia, Lamck. Encycl. 1. p. 545. Achyranthes crispa, 
Poir ! Encycl. SuppL 2. p. 10.— Ic. Pluk. Phytogr. t. 10. 

/. 4. Burm. Zeylan. t. 5./ 3. 
Hab. In collibus, ins. S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, n. 169. ^ oV - 

1839. spec. flor. et fruct.) Ibid. (Brunner, 1. c.) 

209. Mtusl Javanica y Juss. Gen. p. 88. ^Erua, Forsk. FL Mg> 
Ar. p. 170. Illecebrum Javanicum, Linn. Syst. ed. Murr. 
p. 266. Achyranthes, Chr. Smith, in herb. Mus. Brit, (ex 
cl. /. D. Hooker.) 

This is a very variable plant, the forms it assumes may be 
thus characterised. 
Var. a. Forskalii, foliis oblomns vel ovatis obtusis, spica 



SPICJLEGIA GORGONEA. 173 

crassiuscula, floribus majoribus, perigonii laciniis lanceo- 
latis acutis. — Hue spectat varietas latifolia Vahl et 
AS. Mgyptiaca, Gmel.— Habitat in ^Egypto, Senegalia et 
ins. Gorgoneis. 
riar. ft, Bovei, foliis lineari-lanceolatis utrinque albescen- 
tibus, spica tenuiore, floribus minoribus rotundatis spisse 
janatis, perigonii laciniis ovatis seepe obtusis. — Habitat 
m Arabise monte Sinai (Bove), Kenne in desertis, {Sieber.) 
Ine flowers of our specimens, as well as of those collected 
by Perrottet, Heudelot and Brunner in Senegal, are some- 
what less woolly than those of the Egyptian plant, and the 

leaves are always oblong; but I can perceive no specific diffe- 
rence. 

*1ab. In rupestribus sinus Tarrafal ins. S. Antonii (Forbes, 
n. 25). In ins. S. Jacobi prope Portum Pray a (J. Dalton 
Hooker, n. 107. Nov. 1839.) In ins. 8. Vincentii rupes- 
tribus (Th. Vogel, n. 79.) 

^10. Lestiboudesia trigyna, R. Br. Celosia trigyna, Linn. 
Mant. p. 212.— Ic. Jacq. Hort. Vindob. 3. /. 15. 

Hab. I n valle & Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker, 
n. 108. Junio, 1839, spec. flor. et fruct.) 

21 1. Amaranthus gracilis, Desf., Tabl de VEcole Bot. ed. 1. 
(1804)^.43. Poir.EncycL Suppl. 1.^.312. Webb, Phyt. 
Can. 3. p. 191. Amaranthus viridis, Linn. Sp. PL 2. p. 1407. 
quoad syn. Sloanii et Pisonis. Chenop. caudatum, Jacq. 
Coll. 2. p. 325. Amaranthus oleraceus, Lamck. Encycl. 1. 
P. 116. 

Hab. I n va n e S. Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi, (J. D. Hooker, 

n - 109. Nov. 1839, spec, fructifera.) In eadem ins. (Dar- 

nin) in ins. S. Antonii usque ad apicem montis Verede 

(Th. Vogel, n. 12. 13 et 87. Junio, 1841, spec, fructifera et 
flor.) 

212. Amaranthus spinosus, Linn. Sp. PL p. 1407. — Ic. Herm. 
#. Lugd. Bot. t. 33. 

'Iab. In ins. Boa Vista (Brunner, 1. c.) 



174 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 



XLIX. Chenopodie;e, DC 

213. Chenopodium murale, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 318. Moq- 
Tandon, Monog. p. 32.— Ic. Curt. FL Lond. t. 20. Engl 
Bot. t. 1722. 

Hab. In ins. 8. Jacobi, {J. D alt on Hooker, n. 110. Nov. 1839. 

_ r , _.. v ~. , n ins * 

S. Vincentii, (Th. Vogel, n. 86. Junio, 1841, sp. fructifera 
sicca.) 

214. Ambrina ambrosioides, Spach, Suites a Buff. 6. p. 297. 
Moq. Tandon, Monog. p. 40. Chenopodium ambrosioides, 
Linn. Sp. PL p. 320.— Ic. Barrel, t. 1185. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalion Hooker, n. 111. Nov. 
1849, spec, florida.) In eadem. ins. (C. Darwin.) 

215. Suseda maritima, Moq. Tandon, Monogr. p. 127. Che- 
nopodium maritimum, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 321. — Ic. Ft* Dan. 
t. 489. Engl. Bot. t. 633. 

Hab. In ins. S. Antonii, (Th. Vogel, sine num. Jun. 1841. 

spec, florida et queedam fruct.) 



L. Polygon e^e, Juss. 

216. Persicaria serrulata, Webb et Moq. Tandon, Phytog- 
Can. 3. 219. Polygonum serrulatum, LaGasc. Nov. Gen. 
Sp. p. 14. 

Hab. In valle S. Dominici, ins. 8. Jacobi, {J. Dalton Hooker, 
n. 104. Nov. 1839, spec, fructiferum.) In eadem insula, 
(C. Darwin.) " Rumicem quendam quern maximum voca 
in ins. S. Jacobi, ad rivulos vallis Pico vidit Brunner. 
(Ergebn. p. 110.) 



LI. EUPHORBIACEiE, JuSS. 

i 

217. Dalechampia Senegalensis, A. L. ; caule volubili p" - 
bescente substriato, stipulis ovato-lanceolatis hirsutis acutis 
integerrimis, foliis fere ad basin 3-lobis, lobis lanceolati* 
acutis margine argute denticulatis, subtus grosse nervoso- 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 175 

reticularis pube spissa utrinque tomentosis inferioribus 
ssepe lobulatis, involucri foliolis rotundato-ovatis apice 
breviter 3-lobato-dentatis dentibus ovato-lanceolatis denti- 
culatis utrinque tomentosis grosse 5-nerviis, appendiculis 
stipulaceis 4 lanceolatis acutis tomentosis, florum mascu- 
lorum involucello longe pedunculato cyathiformi truncato 
grosse crenulato, floribus masculis pedicellatis, pedicello 
nore longiore glanduloso basi bracteato, bractea lanceolata 
acuta, antherarum subsessilium fasciculo longe stipitato 
calycis lacinias lanceolatas excedente, florum fem. invo- 
lucelli diphylli foliolis late ovatis fimbriatis, floris inter- 
medii longius pedicellati calycis 9-laciniati lateralium 6- 
lacmiatorum laciniis lanceolatis pinnatis, pinnis glanduloso- 
hirsutis, ovario orbiculari-depresso cum stylo glanduloso- 
hirto, stigmate obtuso obsolete triangularis florum pedicellis 
cum calycis laciniis papposis longe accretis, capsula orbi- 
culari-trigona depressa hirta. 

Nostra* valde affinis est Dalechampia papposa, Endl. (Atakt.) 
s ^d foliis dentatis aliisque notis distincta, sed affinior 
Dalechampia quaedam Nubica quam ad Montem Arasch- 
Kool legit sedulissimus Kotscby (d. 30 Sept. 1839) quam- 
que sub num. 84 fautoribus suis misit associatio itin. 
ad jecto in Schedis nomine D. Cordofana, Hochst, sed 
nullibi a cl. viro descriptam invenio. Differt involucro 
longiore florum femineorura (quos unicos vidi) involucello 
latiore calycibus multo magis hirsuto-papposis ovarioque 
strigosiore sed ulterius examinanda et forsan vix diversa. 

Hab - In ins. S. Jacotri, (Darwin,) et in herb. ins. Prom. Vir. 
{Mus. reg. Par.) Specimina sua habuit celeb. Jussiajus 
a b Adansonio et a cl. Geoffroy, anno 1788. 

2l8 - Phylkntbus scabrellus, Webb; caule annuo diffuso, 
ramulis debilibus 4-gonis angulis pilis dentiformibus sca- 
bri s, stipulis apice filiformibus basi lanceolatis, foliis bre- 
vissime petiolatis ovatis vel suborbiculatis pallidis subtus 
scabrellis mox glabris, margine obsolete denticulatis, nervis 
ev anidis, floribus in axillis foliorum solitary's erectiusculis, 
^ycis laciniis srepe 5 ovatis vel lanccolato-ovatis late 



176 SPICILEGIA GORGONE\. 

scariosis medio dorso tantum herbaceis, ovario disco 
obsolete subcrenato stipato, capsula complanata glaberrima 
lucida. — Phyllantbus, (n. 987), Schimper eocsicc. Arab. 
Associationis itin. 1837, in arena prope Djeddam, et hujus 
videtur esse var. glabrescens. Phyllanthus, (n. 89), Kotsch. 
It. Nub. a Monte Arasch-Kool. 
Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Balton Hooker, n. 105. spec, 
fructiferum.) In ins. S. Antonii, (Th. Vogel, n. 17. Junio, 
1841, spec, macrum adustum.) Estat quoque in herb. 
Mus. reg. Par, cum priore in Senegambia ab indefessis 
Perrottet et Leprieur lectus. 

219. Phyllanthus Thonningii, Schum. ! Beskriv. Af. Guin. PI- 
p. 192. Phyllanthus virgatus, Vahl MSS. in herb. Ms. / 
caule lignoso, ramis virgatis 4-gonis glabris, stipulis basi 
dilatatis apice acutis, foliis breviter petiolatis oblongo- 
lanceolatis apice latioribus apiculatis basi subattenuatis 
margine minutissime denticulatis subtus subglaucescen- 
tibus nervosis, floribus in axillis foliorum solitariis pen- 
dulis, calycis laciniis saepissime 6 apice orbiculatis basi 
attenuatis glabris margine scarioso angusto cinctis, ovan 
glandulis 5-6 oblongis stipato, capsula pomiformi glabra. 

Hab. In ins. £. Jacobi, (J. Balton Hooker, n. 103 et 107. 
Nov. 1839, specimina floribus femineis et fructibus onusta.) 

220. Euphorbia Chamasyce, Linn. Sp. PL p. 652.— Ic. Clus. 



Hist. 2. p. 187. 



Tamarice, 



(Th. Vogel, n. 57. Junio, 1841, spec, fruct.) 

221. Euphorbia For ska Hi, Gay, in Phytog. Can: 3. ined. 
Euphorbia thymifolia, Forsk. FL Mg.-Ar. p. 94. Del. i W 
JEg. HI. p. 63. non alior. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Balton Hooker, n. 105. Nov. 
1839, sp. fl. et fruct.) In eadem ins. (Darwin.) In herb. 
Mus. reg. Par. spec, florida et fructifera. Frequens in 
ins. S. Antonii, (Th. Vogel, n. 17.) et in rupibus S. Vin- 
centii, ad alt. circiter 500 ped. (Th. Vogel, n. 18. Junio, 1841; 
spec, fruct.) 

222. Euphorbia hypericifolia, Linn. var. pusilla, glaberrima, 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 177 

prostrata, foliis integerrimis vel obsolete serrulatis, capsulis 
glabra. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) specimen 
unicura, ubi vulgo ex scheda vocatur " TerbinaP 

223. Euphorbia Brasiliensis, Lamck, Encycl. vol. 2. p. 423. 

Euphorbia hypericifolia, Linn. var. (excl. Gay, in schedis 
herb. nostr.J 

Hab. In herb. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) forma gracilis, foliis 
parvis vix serrulatis, capsulis hirtulis. 

224. Euphorbia scordifolia, J acq. Coll. p. 113. Willd. Sp. PL 
vol. 2. p. 896. Euphorbia tomentosa, Pers. Enchir. 2. 
P- 13.— Ic. Jacq. Ic. rar. 9. t. 476. 

«ab. In herb. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) spec, florida. 

225. Euphorbia Tuckeyana, Steud. Nomencl. Bot. p. 615. 
(nomen sine descript.) E. arborea, Chr. Smith, in Tuck. 
*°y* p. 251, (nomen sine descript.) Herb. Mus. Brit. ! (excl. 
•*• a). Hooker) ; arboreseens, ramis crassis fuscis cica- 
tncibus fol. not., foliis ad apicem ramorum oblongis vel 
oblongo-lanceolatis obtusiusculis vel subacuminatis mar- 
gine membranaceis obsolete sinuatis, basi in petiolutn 
attenuates vel subsessilibus glabris rloralibus amplis ob- 
cordato- vel tetragono-ovatis, involucri campanulato-tubu- 
losi limbo 4-fldo laciniis oblongis apice biridis glandulis 
quadratis ad angulos brevissime 2-dentatis vel sublunatis 
oidentatis, starninum bracteis (perianthii masculi rudi- 
rnentis) basi inter se connatis, laciniis fjliformibus pecti- 
"ato-dentatis, ovario ovato, capsula triquetro-pomiformi vel 
elongato-ovato, semine fusco marmorato, epistomio me- 
diocre pileato. 

Hab. p CT totam ins. S. Vincentii communis ab alt. 200 ped. 
usque ad montium cacumina et alt. 2500 ped. frutex 
ssepius 2-3-pedalis sed aliquando arbor 6-pedalis, rami 
glabri, sub apice foliis circa 20 vestiti. (Th. Vogel, n. 122. 
Junio, 1841, spec. flor. et fruct.) nee non in alia scheda 
specimina vidimus non aliter diversa sed brevioribus invo- 
lucri squamis apice lunatis et conspicue dentatis. Ad basin 
Montis cujusdam abrupti valiia 8. Domiaici, ins. S. Jacobi, 



N 



178 SPICTLEGIA GORGONEA. 

frutex 5-8-pedalis, succo lacteo scatens; larvam perpulchram 
Sphingis Euphorbia* ? quse foliis hujus speciei vescebatur 
observavi, (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 115. Nov. 1839, spec. 
fructifera.) In herb. Mus. reg. Par. specimen floridura. 
Christian Smith says of this species in his journal, L c. 
p. 243 : u I found at last an Euphorbia, which bore so near a 
resemblance to E. piscatoria, as scarcely to be distinguished 
from it." Again, p. 27, in Tuckey's Journal, he says : "At 
the height of about 1600 feet I at length found the hills and 
small valleys covered with large bushes of a Tithymalus re- 
sembling E. piscatoria, but the identity difficult to be esta- 
blished." 

226. Ricinus communis, Linn. ; Sp. PI. p. 1430. — Ic. Lob. 
Hist. p. 392. Blackw. herb. t. 148. Turp. FL Med. t. 298. 
Schkuhr, Handb. t. 312. Nees ab Es. Gen. germ. 2. t. 38. 

Has. In ins. S. Jacobi, (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 74. Nov. 1839, 
spec, fruct.) 

227. Dalechampia Cordafana, Hochst. in Kotsch. exsicc. It- 
Nub, n. 84 I Dalechampia inedita Senegalensis, A. de Jus 8 - 
Euphorb. p. 56, D. tripartita, R. Br. in Salt, Abyss. ? 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi, {Darwin, n. 287 et 288, sp. flor. et 

fruct.) 

Our specimens of this singular plant would resemble en- 
tirely the D. papposa, Endl. (Atakt. t. 20 et 21.) were its 
leaves not always dentate. I can see no difference whatever 
between this and Kotschy^s plant : it is therefore a native of 
either Ethiopia. 

LII. Moreje, Endl. 

228. Ficus Lichtensteinii, Link, Enum. Hort. Ber. 2. p. 45L # 
Hab. In vallibus ins. S. Nicolai, (Forbes, n. 20. d. 29 Martii, 

1822, sp. fructifera.) 

The young fruit of our species is turbinate, but when rip e 
lemon-shaped, or nearly round (globuliform), about the size 
of a small playing marble. The plant corresponds perfectly 
with F. Lichtensteinii formerly cultivated at the Jardin du 
Roi at Paris, and which probably came from Berlin, as it is 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 179 

named thus without doubt by Desfontaines in his herbarium. 
Sprengel unites the species with Ficus Capensis, Thunb. 

LIII. Urtice^e, Juss. 

229. Forskahlia procridifolia, Webb ; ramis lignosis pilis 
patulis strigosis, foliis lanceolatis acutissimis basi atte- 
nuate scabris supra viridibus subtus cinereo-tomentosis 
subtriplinerviis nervis ascendentibus margine argute ser- 
rato-dentatis dentibus spinosis, bracteis lanceolatis scariosis, 
involucro amplo turbinato tubo parce piloso, laciniis ob- 
'ongis acutis nudis, antheris rotundatis, stylis pilosissjmis 
longe exsertis, fructu elliptico subconvexo basi in pedi- 
cellum brevem attenuato. 

230. Forskahlia Candida, Chr. Smith ! I.e. etherb. Mus. Brit, 
(ex cl. J. D. Hooker) non Linn. til. 

*™ plant is nearly allied to Forsk. tenacissima, L., from 

which it differs in the shape and sharper teeth of its leaves, its 

ar ger and more decidedly funnel-shaped involucrum, by its 

styles much longer and more hairy, and by the shape of its fruit. 

*1ab. In petrosis et in declivibus aridis vallium ins. S. Ni- 

colai (Forbes, n. 19 et 39. d. 27 et 29 Martii, 1822, sp. 

fructifera.) Circa Portum Praya, ins. S. Jacobi (J. Dalton 

Hooker, n . 113.) Specimina vix dum florida. In ins. 

S. Antonii (Th. Vogel n. 51.) et in ins. S. Vincentii frutex 

dumosus ssepe 2-pedalis {Th. Vogel, n. 71. Junio, 1841, 

spec, fructifera et florida.) 

231. Forskahlia viridis, Ehrenb.; caule basi lignoso, ramis 
Pilis ascendentibus hirtis vel glabrescentibus, foliis ovato- 
lanceolatis basi attenuatis subscabris utrinque viridibus vel 
tomento cinereo sordide albidis triplinerviis nervis divari- 
catis margine vix revolutis crenato-dentatis dentibus saepe 
irregularibus vel subobsoletis, involucro turbinato apice 
dilatato tubo ad angulos piloso, laciniis late ovatis foliaceis 
obtusis vel obtusiusculis, stylo breviusculo pubescente, 
fructu ovali. Forskahlia viridis, Ehrenb. ex hort. Berol. 

D esf. Cat. Hort. Par: ed. 3. p. 347. 
Hab. In vallibus altioribus circa Portum Praya, ins. S. J*' 

n 2 



180 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 



dum 



cobiy {J. D. Hooker, n. 113. Nov. 1839, spec, vix 
florida.) In herb. Mus. reg. Par. spec, florida. 

LIV. ORCHIDEiE, JuSS. 

232. Habenaria Petromedusa, Webb ; petalis 3 exterioribus 
ovato-lanceolatis 3-nerviis acutis, 2 interioribus profunde 
2-partitis exteriorum fere longitudine lacinia supenore 
oblonga paullulum breviore, inferiore setaceo, labello pe- 
talis exterioribus par urn longiore usque ad medium 3-nclo 
laciniis filiformibus medio breviore lateralibus divergen- 
tibus, calcare germine breviore filiform i basi gracilhmo 
apicem versus sub latiore supra labellum incurvo, anthera 
rotundata incurva subtus in cornua 2 horizontalia pro- 
ducta appendicibus 2 ipsa excedentibus (antheris abortivis; 
horizontaliter porrectis apice deflexis crassis glandulosis 
subtensa, germine gracili in pedicellum longum desinente. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap, Vir. {Mus. reg. Par.) 

Radix Caulis sesquipedalis, erectus, gracilis, fohosus. 

1 Folia ovato-lanceolata, diverge ntia, 4 poll, longa, li P oll j 
lata. Spica tenuis, sub-3-pollicaris, floribus circiter 1» 
laxis. Bractea lineares, germine 4 lin. long, metiente 
multo breviores. Petala exteriora circiter \\ lin. longa, 
| lin. lata. 

This may perhaps be identical with the species described 
by Swartz in Persoon's Synopsis as Orchis ichneumonea 
{Habenaria ichneumonea, Lindl.) found by Afzelius at Sierra 
Leone ; but it is not possible to decide this from his short 
description. 

Two other Orchideous plants, apparently of the Epiden- 
drous tribe, occur in the Portuguese collection, but unfor- 
tunately without flower or fruit. 

LV. ASPARAGINE.E, JliSS. 

233. Asparagus scoparius, Lowe, Prim. Mad. p. 11. ^s- 
paragus plocamoides, Webb, in Steud. Nomencl. p. 130. A. 
stipularis, Brum. Ergebn. p. 20 ? 

Hab. Fruticulus facie et magnitudine A. officinalis, Linn. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 181 

Ad apices monticulorum circa Porto Praya et montis 
abrupti in valle S. Dominici, ins. S. Jacobi : cortex argen- 
teus, (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 10. 2 Nov. 1839, spec, sine 
nore et fructu, pedicellis solis superstitibus.) 
This species is common in Teneriffe, on dry rocks, in the 

lower, or African region, where it acquires the height of 
* eet » or more. It differs from A. officinalis in having very 

numerous fasciculated flowers. 
Asparagus ? 

A parte media usque ad apicem montis Verede, ins. S. Vin- 
centu : frutescens, ramis longis divaricatis dependentibus 
reclinatis, (Th. Vogel, n. 4. Junio, 1841, spec, foliis fere 
destituta sine fl. et fruct.) 
I he young branches of this plant are green and striated, 

uke those of A. amarus, but the leaves are more aciculated 

and the bracteae subtended by a stronger and longer prickle. 
There exists in the herb. Mus. Par. a single specimen of 

a s Pecies of Smilax very nearly allied to S. Canariensis, Willd., 

but evidently differing from it. 

LVI. JlJNCE^E, JUSS. 

^34. Juncus acutus, Lamck. EncycL 3. p. 268. Juncus acutus, 
<*• Linn. Sp. PL p. 463.— Ic. Engl Bot. 1614. 

Hab. In aquosis sub apice montis Verede, ins. S. Vincentii. 
(Th. Vogel, n. 42. Junio, 1841, spec, fructifera.) 

LVII. COMMELYNEiE, R. Br. 

235. Commelyna canescens, Vahl, Enum. 2. p. 73. Roem. et 
Schult. Syst. 1. p. 535. Mant. 1. p. 338. Kunth, Enum. 
4. p. 50. 

Hab. In valle S. Dominici ins. S. Jacobi (J. Balton Hooker, 
n. 101. Nov. 1839, spec, flor.) 

LVIII. Naiades, Juss. 

236. Potamogeton ^//ws, L. Sp. PI. p. 184. Smith, Fl. Brit. 
P. 95.— Ic. Engl. Bot. t. 215. EL Dan. t. 1451. Nees ab 

Esenb. fluvial, t. 4. /. 9. et seq. 
Hab. I n i ns . S. Jacobi (Darwin, spec. flor. et fructifera.) 



182 * SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 



LIX. CYPERACEiE, JUSS. 

237. Cyperus alopecuroides , Rottb. Descr. et Ic. p. 38. /. 8. /. 2. 
Kunth, Enum. 2. p. 19. 

Hab, In valle S. Dominici ins. S. Jacobi Cyperum hunc 
unicum stirpemque aquaticam unicam inveni (/. D. Hooker, 
n. 100. Nov. 1839, spec, fructifera.) 

238. Cyperus mucronatus, Rottb. /3. albidus, Vahl, Emm. 2. 

p. 348. Kunth, Enum. p. 17. Cyperus leevigatus, Linn. Mant. 

p. 179. Rottb. Gram. p. 19. C. lateralis, Forsk. Fl. Mg>- 

Arab. p. 13. Cyperus monostachyus, Link in Buch, Beschr. 

Can. Ins. p. 138. — Ic. Rottb. /. c. t. 16./. 1. 

Hab. In monte Verede ins. S. Vincentii ad alt. 500 et 600 
ped. (Th. Vogel, n. 113) et ad rivulos ins. S. Antonii (id- 
n. 64; 75 et 99. Junio, 1841, spec. nor. et fruct.) 

239. Cyperus Mgyptiacus, Glox. Obs. p. 20. Kunth, Enum. 
2. p. 48. Schcenus mucronatus, Linn. Sp. PI- P- ^3. 
Scheuchz. Gram. p. 367. — Ic. Glox. /. c. t. 3. Scheuchz. /. c 
t. 8. /. 1. Mert. et Koch, Deutschl. FL 1. p. 450. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. Mus. reg. Par. 

240. Cyprus articulatus, Linn. Sp. PL p. 66. Kunth, Enum. 
2. p. 53.— Ic. Sloan. Hist. Jam. 1. f. 81./. 1. 

Hab. In rivulis ins. S. Nicolai, die 27 Martii, 1822, (Forbes, 
n. 38. spec, floriferum.) 

241. Cladium Mariscus, R. Br. Prodr. p. 236. Schcenus 
Mariscus, Linn. Sp. PL p. 62. Cladium Germanicum, 
Schrad. FL Germ. 1. p. 75. — Ic. Schrad. /. c. t. 5./ fc 
FL Dan. t. 1202. Engl. Bot. t. 950. 

Hab. Ab austrum ins. £. Vincentii in palude ad alt. circiter 
500 ped. {Th. Vogel, n. 26. Junio, 1841, spec, nor.) 

LX. GRAMlNEiE,* JUSS. 

242. Setaria verticillata, Palis, de Beauv. Agrost. p. 51. P^' 

• Graminum Viridensium nomenclationera et descriptiones benevo- 
lentiaj debemus cl. atque amicissirai agrostographi Philippi Parhitore, 
Florentini. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 183 

FL Pal 1. p. 37. et in Webb Phyt. Can. ined. Panicum 
verticillatum, Lin. Sp. PL 82. Desf. FL All. 1. p. 57.— 
Ic. Hort. Gram. Aust. 2. p. 11. tab. 13. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 97. November, 
1839.) In ins. S. Antonii [Th. Vogel, n. 59. Junio, 1841.) 

Obs. Variat foliis omnino glabris (specim. ex S. Jacobi) vel 
pilosis (specim. ex ins. S. Antonii.) 

243. Pennisetum cenchroides, Rich, in Pers. Syn. 1. p. 72. 
Kunth, Enum. pi. I. p. 162. Pari. PL Nova, p. 42. et in 
Webb, Phyt. Conor, ined. et in FL Pal, 1 . p. 34. Pennisetum 
distylum, Guss. Index Semin. H. R. Bocc. anno 1826. p. 8. 
et FL sice. Prodr. SuppL 1. p. 12. et Syn, FL sice. 1. p. 115. 
Pari. Ft. Panorm. 1. p. 71. Bert. FL ItaL 1. p. 593. 
Cenchrus ciliaris, Linn. ! mant. 320. Desf. ! FL Atl. 2. 
P- 387 ex eorum herbariis. — Ic. Gieseckelc. t. 23. ex Kunth, 
p hyt. Can. Ic. ined. 

Hab. In insula S. Antonii {Th. Vogel, Junio, 1841.) 

J-te identitate Penniseti distyli, Guss. cum Cenchro ciliari, 
Linn, confer quod scripsi in Plant. Nov. et in FL Palerm. 

*44. Pennisetum lanuginomm> Hochst. in Flora Botan. Zeit. 
ann. 1844. p. 252. var. a. 

Hab. Graminum species copiosissima pabulum optimum et 
semper viride prsebet cum reliqua calore usta. (/. Dalton 
Hooker, n. 95. November, 1839.) 

In specimine ex insula Sancti Jacobi, quod possideo, culmus 
superne non basi ramosus et folia villosula, sed spica, in- 
volucrum et spicularum partes cum descriptione et spe- 
cimine Hochstetteriano ad amussim conveniunt. 

•445. Pennisetum myurus, Pari.; panicula spiciformi densi- 
flora elongata subulata, spiculis solitariis, involucri setis 
exterioribus paucis, interioribus basi plumoso sublanatis, 
earum altera spiculos subduplo superante, culmis apice 
ramosis, vaginisque glaberrimis, foliis late linearibus superne 
scabris. 

Hab. In insula S. Jacobi copiosa (J. Dalton Hooker, n. 92. 
November, 1839.) 

Radix deest. . . .Culmus erectus, teres, striatus, glaberrimus, 



184 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 



apice ramosus, vestitus. Vagina laxae, striata?, glabrae, 
internodio fere dimidio breviores. Ligulce loco setarum 
series. Folia late linearia, 2-3 lineas lata, acuminata, 
striata, plana, in pagina superiore et margine scabra. Par 
nicula spiciformis, terminalis, densiflora, elongata, 2-3£ 
poll, longa, subulata, subgracilis, multiflora, rufescens. 
Rachis subflexuosa, angulata, ad angulos sub lente ciliato- 
scabros denticulata. Spicuke approximate, alternse, sessiles, 
solitarise. Involucri sete exteriores paucee, breves, mse- 
quales, scabrse, interiores basi plumoso-lanatse, longitudine 
valde ineequales, maxima parte spicula longiores, altera 
omnium longior, spicula solitaria intra involucrum breviter 
pedicellata, basi lanugine alba tecta, biflora. Valva caly- 
cinee valde insequales, inferior spicula tertia parte minor, 
ovata, acuta, enervis, superior spiculam longitudine su- 
perans, oblongo-lanceolata, apice acuminata et mucronato- 
aristata, hyalino-albida, puberula, quinquenervis, nervis 
obsolete purpurascentibus, a basi ad apicem protractis, 
nervo carinali puberulo et apicem versus ciliato-scabro. 
Flosculus inferior neuter, ejus valvse inaequales, inferior 
major oblonga, obtusa, apice lacera, hyalino-albida, puoe- 
rula, quinquenervis, carina ciliolato-scabra; superior hneari- 
lanceolata, acuta, apice aristulata, margine ciliolata. F* os ~ 
cull su periods hermaphroditi valvse cartilaginese nitidse, 
Jeeves, inferior superiorem angustiorem amplectens. Sta- 
mina 3. Styli 2, stigmatibus exsertis, phimosis, purpu- 
rascentibus. 

A Penniseto lanuyinoso precipue differt panicula subgracin* 
densiflora, magis elongata et subulata, spiculis approxi- 
mates minoribus, solitariis, baud ternis, setis interioribus 
brevioribus nee dense lanatis, valva calycina superiore 
apice mucronato-aristata, aliisque notis. 

246. Pennisetum cil'iatum. Pari. ; panicula spiciformi densi- 
flora elongata, spiculis solitariis, flosculo inferior* neutro, 
involucri setis exterioribus paucis brevibus setaceis, inte- 
rioribus setaceis basi phimosis, omnibus spicula loiigiori- 
bus, altera longissima, culmo ramoso ad nodos pubescenti- 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 185 

tomentoso, foliis linearibus, supra scabris, basin versos 
longiuscule villoso-ciliatis. 

Hab. In insula S. Vincentii ad dimidium montis Verede (7%. 
Vogel, n. 112. Junio, 1841.) 

Kadix fibrosa, fibris crassiusculis, rufescentibus, subpubescen- 
tibus. Culmus erectus et subascendens, 1 1 2 pedalis, teres, 
striatus, glaber, ad nodos pubescenti-tomentosus, totus ves- 
titusj ramosus. Vagina laxiusculae, striata?, glabra?, internodio 
subduplo longiores. Folia linearia, l£-2 lin.lata, acuminata, 
elongata, striata, plana, subtus levia, margine et pagina supe- 
nore scabra, basin versus longiuscule villoso-ciliata. Ligula 
sennlinearis, ciliato-lacera. Panicula spiciformis, densiflora, 
A i-o pollices longa, subgracilis, acutiuscula, basi vagina 
loin supremi involucrata, pallida (ex sicco). Rachis glabra, 
denticulata. Spicule so)itaria? s parva?, alterna?, sessiles, bi- 
nora?. Involucri seta? exteriores paucse, setacea?, sub lente 
scabnuscula?, spicula breviores vel subsequales, seta? inte- 
riors setacea?, sub vitro scabriuscula?, basi plumosa?, lon- 
gitudine valde ina?quales, inferior minor, lineari-oblonga, 
acuta, hyalino-membranacea, enervis, margine apicem versus 
s ^b lente subciliolato, superior spicula longitudine sub- 
^qualis, oblongo-lanceolata, acuta, submucronata, hyalino- 
membranacea, puberula, quinquenervis, nervo carinali sca- 
briusculo. Flosculi neutri valde insequales, valvula inferior 
major oblongo-lanceolata, apice obtuse subemarginata, in 
medio emarginatura? mucronata, hyalino-membranacea, pu- 
berula, obsolete subquinquenervis, nervo carinali apicem 
versus sub lente scabriusculo, superior minor et angustior, 
acuta, margine scabriusculo. Flosculi superiors herma- 



Phroditi valva? cartilaginea?, nitida?, inferiore majore su- 

Periorem amplectente. Styli connati, stigmatibus plumosis, 

elongatis, fuscis. 
247. Digitaria setigera, Roth, Nov. Sp. 37. Roem. etSchultes, 

Syst. Veg. 2. p. 474. 
"ab. I n i nsula 8m Jacobi (/. jr). Hooker, n. 87. November, 

1H39.) 
**8. Panicum Daltoni, Pari.; spicis simplicibus oblongis 



186 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

obtusis, spiculis muticis, racheos ramis margine superne 
sub spicularum insertione setosis, foliis glabris planis 
margine cartilagineo eleganter serrulato-scabris, culmo 
ramoso vaginisque glabris. 
Hab. In insula S. Jacobi (/. Dalton Hooker, n. 83. Nov. 

1839. 
Radix fibrosa, fibris albidis, villosulis. Culmus ascendens, 
ramosus, pedalis et ultra, glaber, levis, striatus, superne 
aliquo tactu nudus. Vagina compressae, striata?, laxa?, 
glabrae. LAgula nulla. Folia late linearia, 2-2£ lin. lata, 
acuminata, plana, striata, glabra, levia, margine cartilagineo 
eleganter serrulato-scabra. Panicula terminalis, subgracilis, 
2-3 pollicaris, subsecunda, fere ut in Panico Colono, Linn- 
Rachis rlexuosa, striata, externe convexo-obtusangula, in- 
terne ad spiculos excipiendos canaliculata, glabra, margine 
precipue scabra. Ejus rami alterni spicarum axem enor* 
mantes, flexuosi, subcompressi, margine ciliato-scabri, etsuo 
spicularum insertione 1-2 setas albas, rigidas, spiculam sub- 
sequantes gerentes. Spicce altemae, simplices, erecta?, racni 
subapproximatse, oblongge, obtusae, superiores breviores e 
viridi-purpurascentes. Spicuke ovatae, unilaterales, mutica?. 
Valva calycince valde inaequales, inferior minima, cor- 
dato-ovata, acuta, trinervis, nervis viridibus, scabris, 
superior major, ovato-concava, quinquenervis, nervis va- 
lidis, viridibus, scabris. Flosculi hermaphroditi valva? earn- 
lagineae, glabrae, nitidae, inferior major ovata, acuta 
periorem angustiorem longitudinaliterque striatam a* 11 * 
plectens. Flosculi neutri valvse corollinse inaequales, infeno 
major ovata, acuta, quinquenervis, nervis scabris, viridibus, 
superior hyalino-membranacea, minor, obtusa. 
Hab. Affine Panico Colono, Linn., sed foliis margine cartila- 
gineo serrulato-scabris, spicis brevioribus, ramisque racheos 
setosis, aliisque notis satis superque distinctum. I n ner * 
bario Musaei Britannici planta haec ex India Orientali extat 
sub nomine Panici Cruris-Corvi ut Panicum Crus-Corvi ex 
herbario Linneano inspectione mihi a Panico Crure-GalU 



, su- 



ix diversum videtur et sicut hujus varietatetn teneo. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 187 

- 

249. Panicum rachitrichum, Hochst. in Flor. Bot. Zeit. 1844, 
p. 254. 

Hab. In insula S. Jacobin vallibus circa oppidum Porto 
Pray a (J. D. Hooker, n. 83, November, 1839.) 

250. Paspalum scrobiculatum, Linn. Mant. 1. p. 29. Roem. et 
Schultes, Syst. Veg. 2. p. 296. Kunth, Enum. PL I p. 53. 

Hab. In insula S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker.) 

251. Aristida Adscensionis, Linn. Sp. PL 121. Kunth, Enum. 
PL 1. p. 160. Pari. PL Nova, p. 44. et in Webb, Phyt. 
Canar, ined. et FL Palerm. 1 p. 59. — Ic. Aristida cceru- 
lescens, Besf. FL Atl. t. 21. /. 2. 

Hab. In ins S. Jacobi, circa Porto Pray a, copiosa. Gramen 
fragile, culmi dirupti et aristae glomos efformant qui cruri- 
bus ambulantium adhaerent lsedantque (J. D. Hooker, n. 91. 
November, 1839.) 

252. Agrostis stolonifera, L. ! Sp. PL 93. Guss. FL Sic. Prodr. 
I.jo. 57. Pari. FL Palerm. 1. p. 66. Agrostis verticillata, 
VilL Hist, des PL du Dauph. 2. p. 74. Guss. FL Sic. Syn. 
\.p. 134. Bert. FL Ital. I p. 408.— Ic. Trin. Sp. Gram. 

fasc. 3. 

Hab. In insula S. Vincentii (Th. Vogel, Junio, 1841.) 
Confer observationes nostras in FL Pal. I. c. 

253. Sporobolus insularis, Pari. ; panicula spiciformi cylin- 
dracea conferta continua, ramis adpresso-erectis superiori- 
bus brevissimis, spiculis oblongis, valvis calycinis acutius- 
culis inferiore paleis breviore superiore subsequali, foliis 
Hnearibus subulatis rigidis glabris, ligula brevissima trun- 
cata ad angulos pilorum fasciculo munita, vaginis glabris 
margine superiore piloso-ciliatis, culmo ramoso rigido 
tereti. 

Hab. In insula S. Vincentii in altioribus montis Verede 
(Th. Vogel, n. 97. Junio, 1841.) 

Radix .... fibris albidis, villoso-lanatis, Culmi coespitosi, 
erecti, subpedales, teretes, striati, glabri, penitus vestiti. 
Folia linearia, subulata, acuminata, rigida, striata, glabra, 
margine scabriuscula. Vagina striatce, glabrae, margine 
superne villoso-ciliatse, vagina suprema panicula* basin 



4 



188 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

involucvante. Ligula brevissima, truncata, ad extremi- 
tates pilorum fasciculo munita. Panicula spiciforrnis, cy- 
lindracea, conferta, continua, 4-5 pollices longa, ejus rami 
adpresso-erecti, superiores brevissimi. Rachis valde striata, 
glabra, Spiculce parvse, pallide flavse, oblongse, uniflorse. 
Valva calycinse acutiusculse, oblongse, carinatse, carina sub 
lente scabriuscula, albo-membranaceae, glabrae, longitudine 
insequales, inferior corolla brevior, superior subsequalis. 
Valva corollinse albo-membranacese, glabrae, acutiusculse* 
inferior uninervis, subcarinata, superior bicarinata. 
Sporobolo Capensi, quem ex Capite Bona? Spei possideo, 
affinis, sed differt culmo tereti, ligulis vaginisque ad mar- 
gines superne pilosis, panicula minus elongata, haud basi 
interrupta, valvis calycinis acutiusculis non acutatis. 

254. Cynodon Dactylon, Pers. Syn. 1.^.85. Pari. FL Pa norm. 
p. 124. et in Webb, Phyt. Canar. ined. et FL Pal 1. P- 88 * 
Ten. FL Nap. 3. p. 70. Bert. Fi. Ital 1. p. 112. Panicum 
Dactylon, Linn. Sp. PL 85. Sibth. et Smith, FL Grac. Prodr. 
1. p. 40. Paspalon Dactylon, DC. Fl. Franc. 3. p. I 5 - 
Digitaria Dactylon, Scop. FL Cam. 1. p. 52. Vis. FL Dalm. 
1.^.54. Cynodon linearis, Willd. Enum. 30. Panicum 
lineare, Burm. Ind. 26. /. 10.— Ic. Sibth. et Smith, FL 
Grcec. t. 60. Host, Gram. Austr. 2. p. 15. /. 18. 

Hab. In insula S. Antonii (Tk. Vogel, Junio, 1841.) 

255. Eleusine Indica, Gsertn. /. c. Kunth, /. c. Humb. et 
Kunth, Nov. Gen. p. 165. Pari, in Webb, Phyt. Canar.ined- 
Cynosurus Indicus, Linn., Willd. I. c. — Ic. Trin. Ic. t. 7u 



Th 



pulchella 



cula stricta, ramis brevibus erecto-patentibus, spiculis 4-b- 
floris, valvis calycinis acutis corollinaque inferiore trinervi 
apice obtusiuscula cum acumine, carina sub lente ciliolato- 
scabris, valva corollina superiore longe pectinato-ciliata* 
culmo brevi gracili, foliis plan is glabris ligula vaginisq^ 
margine longe piloso-ciliatis. 
Hab. In insula S. Jacobi, valle S. Dominici (J. D. Hooker, 
n. 81. November, 1839.) 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 189 

Radix fibrosa, fibris tenuibus, albidis, pubcscentibus. Culmus 
gracilis, teres, striatus, glaber, simplex, erectus, 4-5-polli- 
caris, totus vestitus. Folia linearia, 1-1 \ lineam lata, 2 
pollices fere longa, acuminata, plana, glabra, levia, margine 
scabriuscula, striata. Vagince laxse, internodio longiores, 
stnatee, margine piloso-ciliatse. Ligula loco pilorum series, 
ad margines longiorum. Panicula spiciformis, laxiuscula, 
stricta, subbipollicaris, basi subinterrupta. Rachis glabra, 
teres, ejus rami filiformes, breves, erecto-patentes vel subad- 
pressi, sub lente scabriusculi. Spicule 4-6-florse,ovatae,parva3. 
Valves calyci7ue2 ysubzequales, membranacese,albidae,concav8e, 
cannatse, carina viridi sub vitro ciliato-scabra, a pice acuta, 
nosculo proximo breviores. Valvce corottince membra- 
nacea?, albidae, parum insequales, inferior major, lanceolato- 
oblonga, obtusiuscula cum mucronulo, trinervis, nervis 
vmdibus, nervo carinali sub lente ciliolato-scabro : su- 
penor ovata, obtusa, bicarinata, carinis pilis longis pecti- 
nato-ciliatis. 

257. Saccharum Tenerifa, Lin. fil. Suppl. p. 106. Sibth. et 

Smith, FL Gra>c. p. 39. t. 53. Biv. Sic. PL manip. 4. p. 5. 

*- 1. Guss. FL Sic. Prodr. 1. p. 137. et Syn. FL Sic. 1. 

P- 159. Bert. FL Ital. 1. p. 328. Pari, in Webb, Phyt. Can. 

tned. Panicum Teneriffse, Brown, Prodr. I. p. 39. Kunth, 

Enum. PL 1. p. 98. Panicum villosum, Presl, Cyp. et 

Gram. Sic. p. 18. Tricholsena micrantha, Schrad. in Schultes, 

Syst. Veg. Mant. 2. p. 163.— Ic. Biv. /. c. Sibth. et Smith, 
I. c. 

Hab. In ins. S. Jacobi rupestribus (J. D. Hooker, n. 84. 
Junio, 1839.) In ins. S. Vincentii {Th. Vogel, n. 98. 
Junio, 1841.) In ins. S. Antonii {id.) 

258. Andropogon hirtum, Linn. Sp. PL 1482. Sibth. et Smith, 
FL Grcec. Prodr. 1. p. 48. Desf. FL All. 2. p. 378. Pari. 
FL Palerm. \. p. 269.— Ic. Host, Gram. Austr. 4. /. 1. 

Hab. In insula S. Vincentii rupibus excelsioribus {Th. Vogel, 
n- 108. Junio, 1839.) 

259. Andropogon foveolatum, Delil. FL dZgypt. 16. /. 8. /. 2. 
Kunth, Enum. PL p. 490.— Ic. Delil. /. c 



190 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 



Hab. In insula S. Antonii (Th. VogeL) 

260. Andropogon, sp. ? 

Hab. In ins. S. Antonii (Th. Vogel, n. 636. Junio, 1839.) 

261. Andropogon, sp. ? 

Hab. In ins. S. Jagi (Th. Vogel, n. 63.) 

Mala specimina habeo unde harum duarum plantarum 

diagnosin facere vel descriptionem adumbrare haud 

possum. 

262. Heteropogon contort um, Roem. et Schultes, Syst.Veg.*>> 
p. 836. Nees ab Esenb. in Linnaa, p. 284. Andropogon 

contortum, L. Sp. PI. 1480. Brown, Prodr. 1. p. 401. 
Hab. In insula S. Jacobi montosis., ad altitudinem 800 pedum 
cujus inter culmos crassos siccosque errant seque abscon- 
dunt (J. D. Hooker, n. 89. November, 1839.) * 

263. Heteropogon, sp. ? 

Hab. In insula S. Jacobi ad apicem colli um (J. I>> Hooker, 

n. 90. November, 1839.) 
Stirpem nee genus ob speciminis imperfectione determmare 

exacte nequeo. 

Monachyron, Pari. Gen. Nov. Andropogoneis aff. ? 

Spicules triflorse, flosculo inferiore neutro, univalvi, medio ner- 
maphrodito, superioreque masculo, bivalvi. Valva calyciM 
unica, a floribus remota, linearis, membranacea, mutica, 
flosculis valde brevior. Flosculi inferioris valva corolla 
unica, concavo-carinata, apice bifida, e sinu aristata, arista 
setacea, subulata, recta, arefactione subflexuosa. Flosculi 
medii valvae corollinse 2, subsequales, membranacese, mutica?, 
concavo-carinatse, apice obtuse bifida?. Stamina 3. ^V l 
breves. Stigmata aspergilliformia ? Caryopsis . . • • ? ** los ~ 
culi superioris valvae corollina3 2, subsequales, inferior valvam 
corollinam flosculi inferioris aemulans, superior bicannata, 
apice subbifida. 

Genus ab spicularum structura, qua? mea sententia difficu- 
lissime explicanda, certe singularis et ab omnibus Gra- 
minum generibus omnino distinctum. — Nomen ex gluma 
calycina unica poyog una et ajevpov gluma desumpsi. An valva 
corollina flosculis inferioris ut valvam alteram calycinatn 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 191 

sit habenda et spicula? biflorse unde genus ad Avenaceas sit 
referendum ? 
264. Monachyron villosum, Pari. 
Hab. In insula S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker.) 4 

Radix fibrosa, fibris tenuibus, puberulis. Culmi erecti, sub- 
pedales, graciles, basi geniculati, ramosi, teretes, superne 
aliquo tractu nudi ibique pube horizontali alba velutini. 
Folia anguste linearia, 1-1 ^ lin. lata, acuminata, longiuscula, 
striata, inferne levia, superne pilis brevibus adpressis sub 
lente munita. Vagina laxse, valide striata?, pilosse, pilis 
brevibus velutinis, aliis longioribus crassioribus inter- 



mixes. IAgulce loco pilorum series. Panicula ramosa, 
2-2£ poll, longa, acutiuscula, ramis subgeminis, rarao altero 
breviore, capillaribus, flexuosis. Spicules solitariae, tri- 
norse, flosculo inferiore neutro univalvi, intermedio her 
maphrodito bivalvi, superiore masculo bivaivi, pedicel- 
latae, pedicellis apice incrassatis villosisque. Valva ca- 
lycina unica bracteseformis, membranacea, linearis, obtusa, 
basi piloso-barbata, apice sub vitro scabra. Flosculi infe- 
rioris valva corollina unica, membranacea, oblongo-lanceo- 
lata, apice acute bifida, exquisite quinquenervis, nervo 
carinali in aristam setaceam, subulatam, scabram, arefac- 
tione flexuosam, valva ipsa subeequalem terminato, dorso 
undique pilis albis vestita. Flosculi medii valva? corollinse 
2, flosculo inferiore dimidio breviores, inter se subsequales, 
niembranacese, concavo-carinatae, carina a medio ad apicem 
glandulis nigris minutis praesertim in valva superiore 
munita?, apice obtuse vel truncato-bifida?, valva inferior 
latiuscula, quinquenervis, valvam inferiorem genitaliaque 
amplectens. Slamina 3, antheris linearibus, luteis, utrin- 
que emarginatis, grandibus. Styli breves. Stigmata as- 
pergilliformia ex apice floris egredientia. Caryopsidem 
non vidi. Flosculi superioris valva? corollina? ina?quales, 
inferior valvam corollinam flosculi inferioris eemulans sed 
paullo angustior, superior brevior, linearis, bicarinata, 
carinis apicem versus longiuscule ciliato-villosis, apice sub- 
bifida. Stamina 1-2, 



192 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 



LXI. Equisetace^e. 



265. Equisetum pallidum, Bory ! Exp. de Moree, Bot. p. 282. 
Equisetum ephedroides, ejusd. Fl. du Pelop. p. 66. — Ic. 

■ 

Bory, Exped. de Mor. Bot. t. 35. FL du Pelop. t. 37. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 



LXII. Filices. 

* 

266. Ophioglossum reticulatum, Linn. Sp. PL p* 151o« 
Ophioglossum cordatum et reticulatum, Plum. fil. p- 141.— 
Ic. Plum. /. c. /. 164. Lamck, ///. t. 864./. 2. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

267. Cystopteris odorata, Presl, Tent. p. 93. Aspidium odo- 
ratum, Bory ! in Willd. Sp. PL 5, p. 286. 

Hab. In declivibus siccis umbros. ins. S. Nicolai (d' e 
29 Martii, 1822. Forbes, n. 23. spec, sorophora.) Ad 
occidentem et meridiem ins. S. Vincentii ad alt. 600 ped. 
(Th. Vogel) apicem versus monticuli cujusdam in vaUe 
S. Dominici ins. S. Jacobi (J. D. Hooker.) 

268. Pteris ensifolia, Desf. Atl. 2. p. 401. Bory, Fl. P el 
p. 68. Pteris longifolia, Guss. Syn. Fl. Sic. 2. pars 2. 
p. 657, an Linn. ? a qua secundum cl. Bory. 1. c. differt. 
Ic. Alp. Exot. p. 66. Bocc. Mus. t. 46. Bory, I. c. t. 39. 

Hab. In declivibus umbrosis humidis ins. S. Nicolai {Forbes, 
p. 24. d. 30, Mart. 1822.) In ins. S. Antonii (Th. Voget). 

269. Adiantum Capillus Veneris, Linn. Sp. PL p. 1558.— Ic* 
Matth. (Valgris 1565) ;;. 1201. Cam. epit. p. 924. Engl 
Bot. t. 320. Turp. Fl. Med. t. 94. 

Hab. In ins. S. Antonii et S. Nicolai (Forbes n. 14 et 25.) 

270. Adiantum Capillus Gorgonis, Webb ; stipite tereti tete 
purpurascente pilis mollibus subpaleaceis fulvis hirtulo, 
rachide apice nudiuscula seepe radicante, fronde pinnata, 
pinnis remotiusculis subsessilibus subflabeilato-3-angula- 
ribus sulcato-lineatis pilosis, margine inferiore a basi leviter 
incurvo, interiore a rachide dimoto subincurvo, margine 
superiore profunde 3-4-laciniato, sinubus latis divaricatis 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 193 

laciniis oblongis apice latioribus rotundatis, crenatis, indu- 
siis latis quadratis hirtis. 
Hab. In muris Sacchari agrorum villium insulae 8. Nicolai 
{Forbes, n. 21. d. 30 Martii, 1822.) In sylvis Euphorbia 
et alibi passim in ins. S. Nicolai (Forbes, 3. d, 30 Martii, 
1822) ad apicem Montis Verede, ins. S. Vincentii (Th. 

Vogel, n. 5. Junio, 1841.) In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. 
reg. Par.) 

Though this species comes near the Adiantum caudatum, 
wnn., and A. hirsutum, Bory, the shape and the incisures of 
the leaves, as well as of the indusia, are very distinct. It 
™ay perhaps be the plant called A. incisum by Forskahl, 
(Fl. Mg. Arab. p. 187) but it does not agree with the short 
description he gives of that species. 

^'2. Asplenium polydactylon, Webb ; stipitis robusti per 
totam longitudinem paleacei nervo medio tereti marginibus 
revolutis, fronde ad apicem stipitis a basi digitato-radiata 
sexies dichotoma, dichotomia sum ma brevi eequali pinnis 
hnearibus latiusculis planiusculis apice 2-3-dentatis, den- 
tibus 2-apiculatis. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 
A nostra B. radiatum, Presl, quod verum quoque Asplenium 
nee Blechnum, differt stipitibus debilibus filiformibus basi 
nudis, fronde quater raro quinties dichotoma, pinnis angustis 
seepe longitudine ineequalibus, apice acutis vel irregulariter 
ad latera dentatis. 

Our comparison has been established with a plant brought 
by Commerson from the Mauritius in the herbarium of Des- 
fontaines, and ticketed " Asplenium radiatum y Sp. PI. 308," 
ln the handwriting of Willdenow, which agrees perfectly with 
the figure of Vahl. To which, or whether to either of these, 
the synonymy of Forskahl should be appended, appears doubt- 
ful, unless Vahl had himself seen the plant of that author. 
273. Asplenium palmatum, Lamck. Encycl. 2. 302. Swartz, 

Syn.p. 75.— Ic. Pluk. Phytogr. t. 287./. 4. 
Hab. Ad arborum radices in declivibus umbrosis ins. S. Ni- 
colai, (Forbes, d. 3 Martii, 1822.) 



194 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 

274. Asplenium Canariense, Willd. Sp. PL h.p. 336. A. gemi- 
naria, Bory, lies Fort. p. 313. 

Hab. In ins. S. Vincentii (Th. Vogel.) In herb. ins. Cap. 
Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

275. Aspidium molle, Swartz, Syn. p. 49. Willd. Sp. PL 5. 
p. 246. Link, Fil. Spec. p. 100. Brunner, Ergebn. p. 20 
Ic. Jacq. Ic. Rar. 3. /. 640. Schkuhr, Crypt. Germ. t. 34. b. 

Hab. In umbrosis humidis ins. S. Nicolai [Forbes, n. 22. 
die 30 Martii, 1822.) 

276. Aspidium elongatum, Swartz, Syn. p. 55. Polypodium 
elongatum, Hort. Kew. 3. p. 465. Nephrodium elongatum, 
Lowe Nov. Fl. Mad. p. 5. 

Hab. In declivibus umbrosis ins. S. Nicolai (Forbes, n. 27, 

die 29 Martii, 1822.) 

A species of Nephrodium occurs in the herbarium of the 
Cape de Verd islands of the Paris Museum, but without son, 
and scarcely therefore determinable. 

277. Nothochlama Maranta, R. Br. Prod. p. 146. N. subcordata, 
Desv. Journ. 3. p. 92. Encycl. Suppl.4>.p. 110. Acrostichum 
Maranta, Linn. Sp. PL p. 1527. A. subcordatum, Cav. Anal, 
de Cienc. Nat. 4. p. 97. A. Canariense, Willd. Sp. PL 5. 
p. 121 / (ex spec. herb. Desf. a viro celeberrimo notato.) 
Pteris Canariensis, Presl, Syn. p. 145. Ic. Schkuhr, Crypt. 
Gewachst. t. 4. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

278. Nothochkena lanuginosa, Desv. Encycl. SuppL 4. p. H°- 
Acrostichum velleum, Hort. Keio. ed. 1.3./?. 457. Acros- 
tichum lanuginosum, Desf. Fl. Atl. 2. p. 400.— Ic Desf 
/. c. t. 256. Schkuhr, Crypt. Germ. 1. /. 1. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir, (Mus. reg. Par.) 

LXII. Musci.* 

279. Notarisia crispata, Montag. in Webb et Berth. FL Can. 
Sect. ult. p. 14. N. Capensis, Hampe in Linnaa. Ortho- 

• I am indebted to my learned collaborator and excellent frier) , 
Dr. Montagne, for the following list of the few Cellular plants con- 
tained in the collections from the Cape de Verd Islands. — P.B.W. 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 195 

trichum ? crispatum, Hook, et Grev. Edinb. Journ. of Sc. 
1.^.115. Coll. n. 119. 



Hab. In summo Monte Verede ad altitudinem 400 hexap. 
supra mare lecta, ins. S. Vincentii, (Th. Vogel) 

280. Macromitrium, sp ? 

Specimina sterilia, cum priori mixta inveni. (Th. Vogel). 
M. Nepalensi quoad habitum simile at foliorum forma 
diversum, vix vero determinandum. 

* 

LXIII. Hepatic^. 

281. Marchantia papillata, Raddi. — Nees ab Esenb. Hep. Eur. 
4. p. 109. Syn. Hepat. p. 258. 

Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mm. reg. Par.) 

282. Frullania nervosa, Montag. /. c. p. 55. Nees, Lindg. 
et Gottsche, Syn. Hepat. p. 439. 

Hab. Cum prioribus et eisdem immixta. 

Ubs. Specimen, licet singulum adsit, hancce speciem in 

plantis Canariensibus olim describendis conditam genui- 

nam esse pulchre et abunde confirmans. 

LXIV. Fungi. 

^83. Coniothecium anisosporum, Montag. MS. ; acervulis 
minutis hemisphsericis confluentibus erumpentibus atris, 
sporis conglomeratis magnitudine variis fusco-atris e glo- 
boso-oblongis angulatis impellucidis, episporio papuloso. 

Hab. Ad corticem arborum. (Th. Vogel.) 

Pustule minutse, vix ± millim. diametro metientes, aterrimae, 
sphaeriam quamdam mentientes, sparste aut tandum con-: 
fluentes. Spores sub epidermide candicante conglobate 
et conglutinatae, quoad magnitudinem multum vanantes, 
ad ^ millim. crassas, globosae, oblongas, angulatee, 
opacee, episporio papuloso vestitse, corticem haud cons- 

purcantes. 
Ab omnibus speciebus hucusque cognitis haec episporio papu- 
loso differre videtur. 

o 2 




196 SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 



LXV. Lichenes, Linn. 

284. Evernia flavicans, Fries, Lack. Eur. Borrera, Ach. 
Hab. In ins. S. Vincentii lecta, (Th. Vogel, n. 117 et 118.) 

285. Ramalina usneoides, Montag. Crypt. Bras, nee non in 
Explor. Sclent. Alger, cum icone. Alectoria usneoides, 
Ach. 

Hab. In arboribus S. Vincentii. 

286. Ramalina scopulorum, Ach. 

Hab. In rupibus basalticis ins. S. Vincentii ad altitud. 
250 hexapod. supra mare lecta. (Th. Vogel, n. 115.) 

287. Roccella tinctoria, Ach. 

Hab. Ad rupes cum priori (Collect, n. 116.) 

288. Parmelia leucomela, Fries, Inch. Eur. Borrera, Ach. 
Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. (Mus. reg. Par.) 

LXVI. Alg^e, Linn. 

281. Sargassum Jissifolium, Ag. Syst.Alg. l.p. 303. Montag. 

/. c. p. 132 cum descriptione. Fucus fissifolius, Mert. in 

Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, t. 5. p. 180. 
Hab. In mari Atlantico prope Cap. Vir. (/. D. Hooker). 

290. Cystoseira Abies-marina, Ag. Spec. Alg. l.p- 54. Montag. 
/. c. p. 137. 

Hab. In littore Ins. Cap. Vir. (J. D. Hooker.) 

291. Galaxaura umbellata, Lamx. 

Hbb. In oris insulse S. Vincentii inter maris rejectamenta, 

(Th. Vogel.) 

292. Galaxaura fragilis, Lamx. 

Hab. In littore ins. S. Antonii, cum priore rejecta. 

293. Liagora decussata, .Montag. MS. ; fronde calce incrus- 
tata filiformi tereti virgato-ramosa, ramis oppositis, ramulis 

g # 

decussatis subulatis erectis apice nudo vinoso-lilacinis. 
Hab. Ins. S. Vincentii, ad oras rejecta. (Legit el. Forbes.) 
Alga maxime spectabilis et inter omnes hujusce generis 
species pulcherrima. Frons basi scuto parvulo rupibus 
affixa, albo-incrustata, filiformis, setam porcinam, si de- 
nudata, crassa, cum crusta vero sat crassa et fragilissima 



SPICILEGIA GORGONEA. 197 

qua obducta est pennara passerinam adsequans, sensim 
attenuata, spithamsea, a basi ramosa. Rami ut plurimura 
oppositi, longissimi, virgati, ramulis instructi brevibus, 
bilinearibus, decussatis ! subulatis, erectis, inferne ut et 
frons calce porosa incrustatis albis, apice nudo lilacinis vel 
hoc colore quem Galli vocant lie de vin tinctis. Totius 
frondis nee non ramorum primariorum circurascriptio gene- 
ralis lanceolata, ita ut planta taxiformis dici potuisset 
Structura omnino generis. Sporarum glomeruli inter fila 
nioniliformia horizon taliter irradiantia nidulantes et in 
ramulis laterales, sphserici, -r§-o millim. crassi. Sporce 
minimae, obovatse, inter paraphyses e nucleo centrali quo- 
quo versus irradiantes, dichotomas, articulatas obvise. 

Species, si qua, genuina nee cum ulla alia confundenda. 

293. Alsidium triangulares I. Agarah, in Linncea 15,/?. 28. 

Hab. In ins. Cap. Vir. {Forbes.) 




FLORA NIGRITIANA; 



OR, A 



CATALOGUE OF THE PLANTS 



OF THE 



RIVER NIGER, THE ISLAND OF FERNANDO PO, 



AND ADJACENT PARTS OF 



WESTERN TROPICAL AFRICA, 



FROM THE COLLECTIONS OF 



Dr. Th. VOGEL. 



TO WHICH ARE ADDED THOSE OF 



MR. G. DON AND OTHER TRAVELLERS 



BY 



JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, M.D., R.N., F.R.S., L.S., &c. 



AND 



GEORGE BENTHAM, ESQ. 



/ 



PREFACE 



The following pages contain a complete enumeration of all 
the plants collected by the late Dr. Vogel and his companions 
at Sierra Leone and other parts of the Guinea Coast, on the 
River Niger and its branches, and in the Island of Fernando 
*<>, and of those gathered by Mr. George Don, chiefly at Sierra 
Leone and in the Island of St. Thomas, when collecting for the 
Horticultural Society. It had been wished to include also all 
other collections from the same country to which access could 
had, but it was found that the work would thus have been 
extended beyond the prescribed limits, both as to bulk and 
Utte; it has therefore been confined to the above-mentioned 
enumeration, with the occasional addition of a few others of 
Peculiar interest, from the Hookerian Herbarium. At the same 
tnne, all other species hitherto published from Western Tropical 
Africa, including Senegambia, are mentioned by name, and 
wnerever unpublished species have been found in the Herbaria 
w W. Hooker or of Mr. Bentham, they have been alluded to 
under their respective genera, and the geographical range of 
^ch species is given as far as known wherever they extend 
beyond the region here in question. The geographical botanist 
Wl H thus find a Flora as complete for his purpose as the 
Materials could furnish. 

The. manuscript, as far as the Leguminoscs inclusive, was 
prepared, with such exceptions as are specially indicated by 
n otes, by Dr. Joseph Dalton Hooker previously to his departure 
*°r India. This manuscript has been revised by Mr. Bentham, 
w ho has prepared for press the remainder of the natural Orders. 
*n this, however, he has been guided by a considerable number 
°f analyses made by Dr. Hooker, and some memoranda made 
by Dr. Planchon in the Hookerian Herbarium. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



I. Ranunculace^:. 

1. Clematis grandiflora, DC. Syst. Veg. 1. p. 151.— C. chlo- 
rantha, Lindl Bot. Reg, t. 1234.— Sierra Leone, Don. 
The west coast of Africa offers a striking instance of the 
scarcity of Ranunculacea in all hot, damp and low climates ; 
lor there it is represented by a solitary genus, and of this genus 
one other species only is known as an inhabitant, the C. hirsuta, 
Guill. and Perr., from the Cape de Verd. It is probable that, 
as in Tropical Asia, the genus affects hilly localities, for no 
species occur in any of the collections made on the flat and 
humid coasts south of Sierra Leone. 



II. DlLLENIACEiE. 



!• Tetracera scabra, Hook. fil. ; ramis pedunculis foliisque 
subter prsecipue scaberulis, his petiolatis obovatis obtusis basi 
angustatis super glaberrimis albo-punctatis subter nervis pilo- 
sis, marginibus integerrimis tenuiter recurvis, paniculis race- 
mosis multifloris, pedicellis villosis, sepalis rotundatis pube- 
scentibus ciliatis.— Nun River, Vogel; Niger, below Abdh, 
Ansell. 
Frutex volubilis. Rami asperi. Folia 3-5 unc. longa, 1J-2J 
lata, super (siccitate) saturate fusca subnitida, subter pallida ; 

. juniora subspathulata utrinque scaberula ; seniora punctulata, 
punctis demum concavis. Sepala extus rubescentia. Petala, 
staminaqw albida. Ovaria in omnibus quos examinavimus 



204 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

floribus tria, quorum duo semper abortiri videntur. Ovula 
pauca. T. Senegalensi proxima, differt ramis foliisque subter 
asperis, floribus minoribus, sepalisque rotundatis et pubes- 
centibus. 

In the presence of several species of Tetracera, Tropical 
Western Africa partakes of the botanical features both of the 
east coast of South America and Intertropical Asia. The species 
are confined to the hottest, dampest and most shaded forests of 
all these regions. All of the African species are more nearly 
allied to those of the New than of the Old World. 

2. Tetracera Senegalensis, DC. Prodr. v. 1. p. 68. Guill. et 
Perr. Fl. Seneg. p. 2.— T. obovata, DC. et Guill et Perr. 
I. c. — Senegambia, Sierra Leone and the Bight of Benin, 
Afzelius, Don, &c. 

Apparently a very common species north of the Equator, but 
not occurring in the collections of the Niger Expedition. 

3. Tetracera alnifolia, Willd. ; DC. Prodr. v. I. p. 68.— Sene- 
gambia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, Smeathman, Afzelius, 
Don, &c. 

The only other species of this order known as W. African, is 
T. rugosa, Guill. and Perr., a name unnecessarily changed by 
Steudel to T. Guillemini, on the supposition that there was 
already a 21 rugosa, H.B.K., which we cannot find to have been 
anywhere described. 



III. AnONACEjE. 

1. Anona muricata, Linn. (Sour-sop). — Sierra Leone (cult.), 
Vogel. 

2. Anona squamosa, Linn. (Sweet-sop). — Sierra Leone (cult.), 
Vogel. 

A plant now equally and universally diffused over the tropics ol 
both the New and Old World, and to which St. Hilaire, with some 
shew of probability, assigns the E. Indies as its native place. 
It is particularly abundant about Portuguese colonies, and its 
Brazilian name of "Ata" is considered by that author as all 
but conclusive in favour of its Asiatic origin. On the other 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 205 

hand, it is unknown on the continent of Asia except as a culti- 
vated plant, and there universally regarded as a colonist from 
the W. Indies. It is not, however, the less valued on account 
of its foreign origin, for we read of it as, in seasons of famine, 
proving the staff of life to the Hindoos, whilst its acrid seeds 
are used to clean vermin from the body, for which purpose they 

are powdered and mixed with the flour of Cajana or Ervum 
Lens. 

3. Anona cherimolia, Mill.; DC. Prodr. v. 1. p. 85. — A. tri- 
petala, Ait. (Cherimolia.)— Cape de Verds and W. Africa, 

(cult.) 

A very abundant plant, and quite naturalized in the Cape de 
Verd Islands. In a dried state it is with difficulty distinguished 
from the preceding, and chiefly by the more pubescent leaves. 
This plant is an undoubted native of the New World. 

4. Anona palustris, L. Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4226, {Alligator 
apple.)— Grand Bassa Cove, VogeL 

Not alluded to by Vogel as in a state of cultivation, though 
we cannot doubt that such was the case. It is a native of the 
"est Indies, and common along the Brazilian coasts. Its fruit 
is hardly edible, and certainly not palatable. Hitherto it has 
not been introduced into Asia, though it is one of the few 
species of this genus that has flowered and ripened its fruit in 
England. 

5 - Anona Senegalensis, Pers. DC. /. c. GuilL et Perr. Fl. 

P> 5. Deless., Ic. Set. 1. p. 23, t. 86. — A. arenaria, Sc/ium. 

et Thonn. Beskr. p. 257. — Senegambia, SierraLcone, Bight of 

Benin, Congo River, Perrottet, Afzelius, Don, Christ. Smith. 

Doubts have been thrown upon the Asiatic and even African 
origin of any of the species of Anona, from the fact of none 
having been hitherto found in Asia, and from those species 
which that continent shares with Africa being assuredly natives 
of the New World. The number of stations, however, assigned 
to A. Senegalensis, from between localities so widely apart as 
the Congo and Sierra Leone, is in favour of the genus being 
African, as is the fact that neither this nor A. glauca and chry- 



206 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

socarpa have been found in any part of America. We are 
inclined to cite Anona as an instance of the greater affinity 
existing between W. Africa and E. America, than the latter 
shares with any other part of the Old World. 
6. Anona glauca y Thonn. et Schum. Beskr. p. 259. GuilL et 
Perr. Fl. Seneg. 1. p. 5. — Senegambia and Cape Coast Castle, 
Brunner and Brass (in Mus. Brit.) 
A seventh species is A. ckrysocarpa. Guill. et Perr. 
It is singular that the Anona reticulata (Bullock's heart, 
of the West Indies) is nowhere mentioned as cultivated in 
Tropical Africa; it is a far from unpalatable fruit, and very 
abundantly spread over the East and West Indies. 

The Monodora myristica, Dun. (Calabash nutmeg), does not 
exist in any of our W. African collections, but is probably a native 
of the continent of Africa. It is always quoted as an inhabitant 
of Jamaica, where, according to Mc. Fadyen, (Flora of Jamaica, 
p. 12), but one tree of it exists, and where the generally-received 
opinion is, that it was introduced from the continent of South 
America. Mr. Brown, on the other hand, argues for its African 
origin, and the probability of its having been carried by the 
negroes to Jamaica. 

1. Hablitzia ^Ethiopica, Alph. DC. Mem. Anon. p. 31 .—West 
coast of Africa, from Senegambia to the Bight of Benin. 
It was with considerable anxiety that this, the " Guinea" or 
" Malaghata pepper," was sought for, but in vain, amongst the 
collections of the Niger Expedition, for it is a plant of which 
we know but little botanically ; though its seeds were an article 
of export for upwards of two centuries, and were once highly 
prized as a condiment, it is now never seen and seldom 
heard of, except by the curious. 

So important an article of commerce was it, that the name oi 
" Grain Coast" was given to a long tract of land in the Bight oi 
Benin, and the establishment of the towns of Grand Bassa and 
Cape Palmas was due to its importance. Up to the close of the 
18th century, the Guinea pepper was in great request ; when 
the still more aromatic and pungent grain of the Eastern 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 207 

Archipelago drove the milder condiment from the table and 

market. 

It was a plant very early known to the Arab physicians ; 
Serapim calls it " fulfill alsuaden," that is, Pepper of the Black 
people, whence our name of ^Ethiopian pepper. The French, 
" Grain de Zelim," is derived from the Arabic name of " Azelim," 
given to it by Avicenna. 

Alphonse De Candolle cites this genus as confined to Western 

Africa and the Western Indies. The only other African species is 

H, undulata, A. DC, (Xylopia undulata, Pal. Beauv.) from 
Benin. 

1. Coelocline parviflora, A. DC. /. c. Uvaria parviflora, A. Rich. 

in Fl. Seneg. p. 9, /. 3, /. l.—Senegambia, Perrottet ; 

Quorra, Vogel. 
* lores plerumque solitarii, axillares, J-£ unc. longi. Sepala 

3, late ovata, acuta. Petala linearia, sepalis quintuplo lon- 
. giora. Ovaria 4. 

A very similar species, or probably variety of this, from the 
^°ngo River, {Christ. Smith), has the leaves narrower and 
sharper at the base ; whilst a third, also in the British Museum, 
and gathered by Smeathman, has villous and hairy ramuli, with 
longer and still more acuminate leaves. The flowers and fruit 
°1 all are very similar. To these three species, as many other 
W. African ones may be added ; C. acutiflora, A. DC, C. po- 
lycarpa, A. DC, and C. oxypetala, A. DC, all from Sierra 
Leone. 

1- Artabotrys macrophylla, Hook, fil.; glabra, foliis amplis late 
ovatis v. elliptico-oblongis utrinque rotundatis et apice abrupte 
acuminatis subcoriaceis super nitidis, pedunculis oppositifoliis 
laterahbusve uncinatis ramosis multifloris, pedicellis brevis- 
simis crassis, sepahs e basi lata acuminatis, petalis ovato- 
lanceolatis calyce duplo longioribus. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Arbor parva, apice ramosa. Rami diam. pennse anserinse, teretes; 
cortice atro, striato. Folia brevissime petiolata, fere pedalia, 
8-10 unc. lata, subcoriacea, super splendentia, subter pallida, 
opaca, costa muricata, venis prominulis. Panicula 2 unc. 
longa, lignosa ; pedunculo primario caule continuo et ejusdem 



208 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

diametro, statim ramoso ; ramo altero uncinato-recurvo, ramulis 

brevibus multifloris bracteatis pube scent ibus ; bracteis ovatis v. 

obovatis, extus velutinis. Pedicelli vix 2 lin. longi, infra florem 

incrassati ; floribus pro planta parvis. Sepala crassa, patentia, 

3-4 lin. longa, basi 3 lin. lata, tumida, extus velutina, in acumen 

lineare recurvum producta. Petala 6, coriacea, inter se 

subsequalia, extus velutina, basi dilatata et intus lamina car- 

nosa aucta, supra laminam paullo constricta ed divergentia. 

Stamina numerosa, multiseriata. Ovaria plurima. 

The specimens are imperfect, but the inflorescence as well as 

the flowers, in so far as we have been able to ascertain their 

structure, sufficiently indicate their close affinity to the genus 

Artabotrys, of which the species hitherto described are all from 

the East Indian Archipelago, or from the south-eastern parts ol 

the Asiatic continent. 

1. Uvaria? Vogelii, Hook. fil. • glabra, foliis breviter petiolatis 
anguste obovali-oblongis breviter acuminatis margine subun- 
dulatis basi rotundato-subcordatis subter glaucis, pedicellis 
unifloris solitariis geminisve, calyce obtuse repando-trilobo, 
petalis ovatis obtusis crassis exterioribus latis calyce duplo 
longioribus interioribus oblongis minoribus, staminibus glan- 
dulosis, carpellis (v. carpellorum articulis ?) breviter stipitatis 
oblongis monospermis. (Tab. XVII.)— On the Quorra, at 
"Sterling," Vogel. 
Rami validi ; ramuli horizontals, patentes, dein erecti, elongati 
et hinc inde semel in spiram torti, unde verosimihter scan- 
dentes, epidermide atra, punctis albis conspersa. Folia sub- 
membranacea, 3-6 unc. longa. \\ unc. lata, petiolo 2 lin. 
longo, super in sicco nitidula, subter pallidiora glaucescentia 
v. rubescentia. Pedicelli semiunciam longi, fructiferi in 
parte inferiore denudata ramulorum siti, ad axillas foliorum 
delapsorum. Flores quorum fragmenta tantum adsunt, parvi. 
Calycis lobi brevissimi, obtusi. Petala exteriora, (forte non- 
dum perfecte accreta), li lin. longa, crassa, glabra, *strva- 
tione verosimiliter anguste imbricata. Stamina pauca, (sub- 
definita ?) ; filamentum breve, crassum ; connectivum ^' d ' 
mento subaequale et sicut illius apex, glandulis conspcrsum, 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 209 

subquadratus ; loculi oblongi marginales. Carpella (v. car- 
pellorum moniliformium articuli inferiores ?) circa 6, 3 J-4 lin. 
longa, siccitate nigra, lsevia et glabra, oblonga, obtusa cum 
mucrone parvo, sed ex speciniinibus haud patet si mucro e 
styli reliquiis superest, vel stipitem indicat articulorum supe- 
riorum arbortientium seu delapsorum. Pericarp ium tenuiter 
carnosum, semini arete adhserens. Semen in carpello (seu 
articulo) unicum, loculum arete implens, exarillatum, raphe 
completa percursum. Testa tenuiter coriacea, integumentum 
mterius membranaceum, cum exteriore conferruminatum, intus 
productum in plicas numerosas transversales parallelas, cum 
illas albuminis alternantes et juxta raphin plica angusta 
verticali inter se connexas. Albumen corneum, ruminatum, 
laminas format horizontales numerosas cum plicis integumenti 
alternantes, et irregulariter inter se connexas, lamina verticali 
fere continua raphi opposita ad peripheriam tamen haud 
attingente; lamina altera verticali cum priore ad angulam 
rectam disposita hinc inde laminas duo v. plures connectente. 
"Plate XVII. Fig. 1. flower; /. 2. one of the outer petals; 
/• 3. stamen ; /. 4. vertical, and /. 5. transverse section of 
the carpel and seed, (in which, however, by an error of the 
artist, the vertical plates of the albumen are represented as 
continuous with the pericarp) ; /. 6. portion of the surface 
of the connectivum showing the glands ; all magnified, espe- 
cially the last* 

* The sketch made by Dr. Hooker of the only tolerably complete 
flower that he could find, shows that the number of stamens is much 
'ewer than in most Uvarice ; this circumstance, together with the 
form of the anthers and the apparently monospermous carpels, induced 
Dr. Planchon to suggest that this plant should constitute a distinct 
genus, under the name of Clethrospermum, allied to Oxandra. The 
state of the flower examined was such, however, that it was not pos- 
sible to ascertain whether the number of stamens was really definite, 
Q or yet to investigate the structure of the pistils ; and although the 
carpels look as if they were complete and constantly monospermous, 
yet precisely the same appearance is often assumed by the moniliferous 
fruits of some Uvarim, when reduced by accident or by abortion to a single 
articulation, and it is therefore impossible, without further materials, 

P 



210 FLORA NTGRITIANA. 

2. Uvaria gracilis, Hook. fil. ; glabra, ramulis gracilibus ul- 
timis pubescentibus, foliis breviter petiolatis submembra- 
naceis obovato-lanceolatis longe et obtuse acuminatis basi 
subangustatis et juxta petiolum obscure cordatis subter pal- 

- lide glaucis venis rubris, pedunculis axillaribus solitariis, 
sepalis patulis obovatis obtusis, carpellis glaberrimis breve 
cylindraeeis hevibus subglaucescentibus longe stipitatis (an 
nunc moniliformibus ?) toro parvo capitato insertis mono- 
spermis. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

Rami crassit. pennse corvinse, parce ramulosi ; coi*tice cinereo, 
striato, nunc albo-punctato. Folia 3 unc. longa, 1J lata, 
ima basi emarginata v. cordata, supra medium gradatim 
latiora, deinde angustata, apice subobtusa v. acuminata, super 
pallide viridia vix nitentia, subter alba, glauca ; petiolo 2 
lin. Ion go. Pedicellus fructus uncialis. Lobi calycini \ unc. 
longi, coriacei, persistentes. Torus parvus, lj &*• ^ at v a P* ce 
planus. Carpella parva, patentia, | unc. longa, pedicello 
sequilongo suffulta, utrinque obtusa, apiculata. 
Specimens rather imperfect, but belonging to a very distinct 

species. Some of the carpels are distinctly monospermous, while 

others appear to be the lowest loculus of a moniliform carpel. 

Seeds very aromatic. 

3. Uvaria globosa, Hook. fil. ; ramis gracilibus, ramulis velu- 
tinis, foliis breviter petiolatis oblongo-ellipticis lanceolatisve 
basi rotundatis apice angustatis utrinque nitidis ad venas 
subter prsecipue pubescentibus marginibus tenuiter recurvis, 
floribus axillaribus solitariis v. binis brevissime pedicellatis 

to give any character to distinguish this species from Uvaria, as generally 
extended to include Unona, or even from those species of true Uvariee, 
which Blume includes in his group Ambiguce, The vertical laminae of the 
seed are by mistake described by Dr. Planchon as folds of the integu- 
ment almost meeting in the axis ; when in fact they are the continuous 
portions of the albumen itself, by which the horizontal plates are more 
or less connected together. They are continuous with each other, occa- 
sionally forming a cross in the centre, and extend nearly to the circum- 
ference, the most complete of them being opposite to the raphis, from 
whence a narrow vertical fold of the integument projects into a slight 
furrow in the albumen.— (G. H.) 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 211 

velutinis, carpellis 3-4 breviter stipitatis globosis dense fer- 
rugineo-pubescentibus toro capitato insertis, seminibus bise- 
riatis. — Accra ; VogeL 
Rami graciles, teretes, ramulosi, crassitie pennse anatinae ; cor- 
tice atro tenuiter striato albo-punctato ; ramulis patentibus, 
ascendentibus, pube rufa velutinis. Folia 2-4-uncialia, f-1 
unc. lata, forma varia, pleraque lanceolata, rarius ovalia v. 
oblonga, e basi semper rotundata, ad f longit. sensim latiora, 
deinde angustata, suramo apice acuminata v. obtusa, utrinque 
siccitate luride rufo-fusca; petiolo 1 lin. longo. Pedunculi 
1-2-flori, 1 lin. longi, validi, velutini. Flores parvi, extus 
dense sericei, pilis rnfis nitidis. Sepala late ovato-triangu- 
laria, basi connexa, 2 lin. longa. Petala (in flore manco 
observata) exteriora late ovata obtusa, calyce paullo lon- 
giora, sestivatione verosimiliter imbricata, interiora haud visa. 
stamina haud numerosa, lineari-clavata ; antherse filamento 
seqmlongse, connectivo incrassato, loculis linearibus lateralibus. 
Carpella pauca, singula 3-4 lin. diametro, stipite linea bre- 
viori, rufo-velutina, vertice obtusissima v. depressa et notata 
cicatrice styli. Semina 4-7, horizontalia, laminis endocarpii 
separata, exarillata, mutua pressione variis modis verticaliter 
compressa, testa nitida coriacea, integumento interiore more 
plerumque Anonacearum intra plicas albuminis producto, 
costa verticali interiore vix in laminam producta. 
This species is evidently congener with several of the Eastern 
vvaria retained in the genus by those who confine it within the 
narrowest limits, although the stamens appear to be less numerous 
than they usually are. It is very nearly allied to, if not identical 
^th an undescribed Cape Coast specimen, which has rather 
broader, less acuminated leaves, almost cordate at the base, and 
somewhat larger flowers. 

Four other West African species of Uvaria are enumerated ; 
two by DC, U. macrocarpa and U. ovata; and two by Schu- 
macher, U. cordata and U. cylindrica, which may belong to 
some of the above or following species. There are further, four 
undescribed in the British Museum, two of them from Sierra 
Leone, one from the Congo River, and the fourth from Cape 

p 2 



212 FLORA. NIGRITIANA. 

Coast Castle, making in all eleven species of this or closely allied 
genera. The difficulty, however, of ascertaining even the 
generic characters is very great, without the presence of very 
good specimens, both of the flower and fruit ; the relation 
between the carpological and floral characters not having yet 
been sufficiently made out by the monographists who have 
studied the Anonaceat.* 

Another West African genus of Anonacece, Hexalobus, A.D.C . 
including two species, completes the Order as existing on that 
coast, which thus enumerates upwards of twenty native species, 
a very large proportion for a Flora so little known, and so 
defective in number of species. In the predominance of 
Anonacece, this Flora resembles that of the islands of the Indian 
Archipelago, to which the whole coast is related more markedly 
in its botany, than to the continent of America. 

IV. MENISPERMACEiE.f 

Gen. Nov. Jateorhiza — Fl. dioici. — Masc. Sepala 6, ovata, 
biseriata, exteriora paulo minora, sestivatione imbricata. Petala 
6, ovata, sepalis breviora, apice truncata, lateribus intronexis 
stamina tegentibus. Stamina 6, petalis opposita : filamenta 
crassa, apice arete refracta, et in connectivum amplum car- 

* The aestivation of the corolla especially has been little attended to, 
and is likely to afford valuable auxiliary characters. In most general 
works, as in Endlicher's " Genera" and Lindley's " Vegetable Kingdom," 
the petals are said to be valvate in each series ; and although, in the most 
recent work on the subject, Martius and Endlicher's " Flora Brasiliensis," 
the imbricate aestivation of the petals of Duguetia is noticed, yet even in 
that work the valvate aestivation is included, as well in the ordinal cha- 
racter, as in the generic character of Guatteria ; whereas in most, if ^ ot 
all species of true Guatterite, Uvarice, UnontB, and some others, the petals 
will be found more or less to overlay each other in the bud, as readily 
indicated by the rounded form of their apex. In Anona, and all others where 
they are truly valvate, that arrangement naturally occasions them to 
terminate in a point, at least in the young state.— (G. B.) 

t The MS. of this order has been entirely drawn up by Mr. Miers, 
from whose able pen we may shortly hope for a complete monograph, 
where the species, here only alluded to, will be fully described. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 213 



nosum terminata: anthera extrorsae, dorso affixse, 4-lobae, 
2-valvse, rima traDSversali hiantes. Ovaria rudiment aria 3, 
centralia, punctiformia. — Fl. fcem. Sepala ut in masc. Petala 
6, cuneato-obovata, crassiuscula, apice emarginata, lateribus 
lntroflexis stamina volventibus. Stamina sterilia 0, petalis 
dimidio breviora : filamenta tenuiora, compressa, lobo rotun- 
dato apiculata. Ovaria 3, libera, erecta, oblonga, gibba, 
extus dense glanduloso-pilosa, supra gynophoram sub-3- 
gonam imposita, 1-locularia, ovulo unico funiculo brevi angulo 
interno supra medium appenso. Stylus brevis, crassus, sub- 
excentricus. Stigma 3-partitum, laciniis 2-3-fidis, reflexis. 
Drupce 3, abortu pauciores, ovatse, carnosa?, 1-spermse. Nux 
ovata, dorso convexa, tuberculata, pilis fibrillosis densissime 
plexis induta, ventre lsevis, concava. Semen loculo con- 
forme, meniscoideum. Embryo intra albumen carnosum 
quasi 2-laminare fere rectus, lamello exteriori simplici, 
tenui, interiori crassiori, et in rugis plurimis transversalibus 
profunde ruminatis, testa tenui in plicis insinuata, cotyledo- 
nibus membranaceo-foliaceis, spathulato-oblongis, lateraliter 
divaricatis, et in locellis sejunctis utrinque positis, r adieu la 
supera, brevi, tereti, ad apicem spectanti, centrifuga. — Suf- 
frutices Africae tropicse debiles, volubiles, setis rigidis, vel 
pilis setosis vestitce ; folia alterna, magna, petiolata, cordata, 
rotundata, palmatim 3-5-7-loba ; racemi axillares, elongati, 
pedicellis laxis, S-7-floris, floribus vagis, pro ordine 
majusculis, bracteatis, sessilibus, bracteis longissime setoso- 
ciliatis. 
Jateorhiza strigosa, Miers. Cocculus ? macranthus, Hook.fil. in 
Hook. Ic. PL 759 (Tab. nostr. XVIII) ; foliis rotundato-3-lo- 
batis, basi profunde inciso-cordatis, lobis 3-angularibus acutis 
mucronatis auriculis basalibus rotundatis, marginibus parallelis 
fere approximatis, submembranaceis reticulatis supra nitidis 
subtus pallidioribus 7-nervibus nervis utrinque setoso-stngosis, 
setis adpressis rigidis rufulis longiusculis, margine dense 
setoso-ciliatis ; petiolo striato auriculis basalibus duplo Ion- 
giore arete setoso-strigoso ; raccmo axillari. — Clan nee Cove, 
Fernando Po, Vogd : Congo, Tuekey in Herb, Mu* Brit. 



214 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

This is very distinct from the two other well-known species ;* 
and I have retained for it the more appropriate specific name of 
strigosdy previously given by me to the Congo specimen : this 
point, however, would certainly have been ceded in favour 
of the distinguished author of the Flora Antarctica, did not 
the name of macrantha convey a very incorrect idea of the 
species, for its flowers, when expanded, are scarcely more than 
2 lines in diameter, and although large for the order, they are 
not greater than those of J. palmata, or the flowers of some 
other genera, and are assuredly diminutive when compared 
with those of plants in general. The leaves, from the insertion of 
the petiole, to the summit of the middle lobe, are 7£ inches long, 
the lateral lobes measure 6 inches, the depth of the basal lobes 
is 2i inches, so that the total length is 9£ inches, their extreme 
breadth being 9 inches, and the length of the petiole 5| inches. 
Plate XVIII. Fig. 1. Masc. flower, forced open ; / 2. three of 
the six stamens ; /. 3. female flower ; /. 4. one of the petals 
of the female flower, with three sterile filaments ; f. 5. ovaria 
and styles. 
1 . Cissampelos Vogelii, Miers ; ramulis demum glabris ; folus 
$ palatis, $ subpeltatis, cordatis deltoideo-obovatis apice 
obtusiusculis emarginatis sinu mucronatis, supra sparse pubes- 
centibus, subtus griseo-glaucis et pubescentibus 5-7-nervibus, 
petiolo tomentoso saepe refracto limbo fere aequilongo; ra- 
cemis # ternis petiolo 4-plo brevioribus, $ axillaribus solitanis 
rarius binis scorpioideo-flexuosis gracilibus folio longioribus, 
floribus pedicellatis 7-9 fasciculatis folio reconditis, sepalo 
oblongo extus piloso, petalo obcordato minimo ovarioque 
glabris. — On the Quorra River ; Vogel. 

A very distinct species : the leaves of the male plant are 
larger than those of the female, being 2^ inches long, including 
the basal lobes, and 2 J inches from the petiole at the sinus, they 
are 2£ inches broad, the petiole being 1£ to 2 inches long, and 
its insertion half a line within the margin. The female infio- 

* 1. Jateorhiza palmata, Miers, (Cocculus palmatus, DC Hook. Bot. 
Mag. tab. 2970-2971) ;— and 2. J. Columba, Miers, C. palmatus, Wall. Cat. 
n. 4953, (in hort. Bot. Calcutta cult.) 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 215 



rescence consists of axillary, slender, lax, scorpioid spikes, 2\ 

inches long, with very small bracteiform mucronate leaflets, each 

enclasping about 7 minute pubescent flowers. 

2. Cissampelos comata, Miers ; foliis suborbicularibus cordatis 

apice emarginatis mucronatis, petiolo sub-brevi, race- 

mulis 3-4 in axillis junioribus fasciculatis dichotome divisis, 

pedicellis capillaceis, petalo glabro margine crenato, anthera 

8-loba. — On the Quorra ; Vogel ? 

The specimen consists only of a floriferous branchlet about 
10 inches long, with a single basal leaf of the parent stem, 
about 1 \ in diameter, on a short petiole only \ of an inch ; the 
axils of the floriferous branch exhibit leaflets of similar form, 
the lower ones being half an inch diameter and expanded, di- 
minishing upwards to the size of 2 lines ; there are generally 
« capillary racemules about 1 inch long ; the sepals are pilose 

outside, the petals quite glabrous Is it the female of C. Vo- 

gelii ? — but the shape of its leaves does not accord with the suppo- 
sition. 

The other Tropical W. African species of Cissampelos are C. 
Owariensis, Beauv., from Cape Coast and Oware, C. mucronata, 
A. Rich., extending across from Senegambia to Abyssinia and 
the Island of Bourbon, and three unpublished species, of which 
two from Congo, are in the British Museum, and one from 
Senegambia in the Hookerian herbarium. 

The Cocculus Cebatha, DC, (which includes C. Leceba, epiba- 
to'ium and ellipticus, DC), mentioned under the first of these 
n ames above, (Spicil. Gorgon, p. 97), extending from Senegambia, 
and Cape Verd, to Egypt, Abyssinia and Arabia ; and Tinospora 
Bakut, Miers, or Cocculus Bakis, A.Rich., found also both in Se- 
ne gambia and Abyssinia and a new species of my genus Holopeira, 
(founded on Cocculus villosa, DC, and its allies), complete the 
ust of Tropical W. African Menispermacece, (J. Miers.) 



V. Nymph^eace^j. 



*• Nymphaea ccerulea, Savigny; DC. Prodr. \. p. 11^.— Sene- 
gambia, Perrottet ; Cape Coast, Don. 



216 FLORA N1GRITIANA. 

- 

The limited accommodation under which Dr. Vogel suffered, 
probably prevented him from preserving the species of this 
genus, which appears to abound in Western Tropical Africa. 
Three other species inhabit Senegambia, N. rufescens, micrantha 
and abbreviata (all of Guill. and Perr.) ; whilst a fourth 
abounds along the coast, N. dentata, Schum. and Thonn. (N. Lo- 
tus, Pal. de Beauv.) ; and two additional ones, iV. maculata 
and N. Gitineensis, Schum. and Thonn., have been described 
from Guinea. 

VI. PaPAVERACEjE, 

The widely diffused Argemone Mexicana is included by 
Guillemin and Perrottet in the Flora of Senegambia.. 



VII. Crucifer^e, 



An Order as impatient of hot, low and humid climates as are 
the Ranunculacea. One species of Nasturtium is enumerated 
by De Candolle as a West African plant. Cruciferce in general 
appear to be in a great measure represented by the following order. 

VIII. Capparide^:. 

1. Ritchiea erecta, Hook, fil.; (Tab. XIX et XX.) fruticosa, 
erecta, ramosa, ramis verrucosis, foliis patulis longe petiolatis 
3-foliolatis, foliolis oblongo-lanceolatis breviter acuminatis basi 
angustatis integerrimis, racemo terminali multifloro, sepalis 
lanceolatis acuminatis, petalis lineari-ligulatis, staminibus 
numerosis calyce longioribus, antheris parvis. — Fernando 
Po, Vogel. 

Frutex glaberrimus. Petioli teretes, 3-4-unciaIes, stricti. Fo- 
liola petiolo sequilonga vel longiora, nunc 6-8 unc. longa, 
breviter petiolata. Racemus terminalis, 2-3-uncialis, cicatri- 
cosus ; pedicellis £ unc. longis, erectis, basi utrinque bracteo- 
latis. Sepala J-pollicaria, acuminata, marginibus puberuhs. 
Petala anguste linearia filamentaque albida. Anthera parva?, 
nigrescentes. 
A very handsome species, and quite distinct from the following 

in the erect, branching and not climbing habit, the much longer 



petals. 



differently 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 217 

2. Ritchiea fragrans, Br. App. Clapperton, p. 225. — Sierra 

Leone, Afzelius, Don. 

From Brown's observations in the paper referred to, it appears 

that there are other African species of the same genus known to 
him. 

* 

1. Capparis linear if olia, Hook. fil. ; glaberrima, caule gracili 
scandente ? tereti parce ramoso, stipulis aculeiformibus mi- 
nutis vix recurvis, foliis breviter petiolatis lineari-oblongis 
muticis subcoriaceis arete conduplicatis integerrimis aveniis, 
pedunculis multinoris axillaribus solitariis folio sequilongis 
brevioribusve patentibus interdum raniosis, floribus parvis 
corymbosis pedicellatis, alabastris globosis, sepalis ovalibus 
concavis, petalis calycem vix superantibus obovatis, stamini- 
bus circa 15, petalis sequilongis toro brevissimo insertis. — 
Sierra Leone, Forbes. 

Laulis crassitie pennse corvinse, subflexuosus; internodiis |-1 
unc. longis. Petioli 2 lin. longi. Folia 2-pollicaria, 4 unc. 
lata, siccitate viridia. Pedunculi patentes, in axillis foliorum 
omnium solitarii, horizontales, teretes, glaberrimi. Flores 
5-8 apicem versus pedunculi, circiter 4 lin. diametro. An' 
therm majuscube. — An planta dioica ? 
This is a remarkably distinct species. 

2. Capparis erythrocarpa, Isert. Berl. Nat. 9, p. 339, /. 9. DC. 
Prodr. I. p. 246.— An C. Afzelii, DC. L c. ?— Accra, Vogel ; 
Guinea. 

The descriptions in DC. Prod, do not serve to distinguish 
C. erythrocarpa from C. Afzelii, though the latter agrees best 
with Vogel's plant, simply from its meagreness. The apices of 
the leaves are obtuse in this specimen. 

There are several other published W. African species of Cap- 
Paris, some of which extend over a remarkably wide range, 
Xl3 " ' C. polymorpha, A. Rich, from Senegambia and Abyssinia; 
C corymbosa, Lam., from Senegambia and Sennaar ; C. tomen- 
tosa, Lam., from Senegal and Delagoa Bay {Forbes) ; C.puberula, 
DC, from Cape Coast, {Brass) ; and Gambia, {Don) ; C. Brassii, 
DC, and C. fascicularis , DC, both from Cape Coast {Brass) ; 
0. Thonningii } Schum. and C. reflexa, Schum., both from 



218 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

Guinea ; but possibly these may be the same as some of those 
previously named, though very imperfectly described. 
1. Mserua Currori, Hook. fil. ; glaberrima, caule tereti, cortice 
pallido albo-punctato, foliis ad apices ramulorum sparsis bre- 
viter petiolatis oblongo-obovatis obtusis apiculatis basi angus- 
tatis integerrimis aveniis subcoriaceis, corymbis axillanbus 
terminalibusque paucifloris, pedicellis flore brevioribus, calyce 
basi anguste-cylindraceo, corona petaloidea subbipartita. 
Elephants' Bay, Dr. Curror. 
Rami crassitie pennse anserinse, hinc inde tumidi ; cortice laevi, 
pallide rufa, punctis albidis aspersa; ramulis cicatricosis. 
Folia uncialia, plana, siccitate subcoriacea, (an carnosula.), 
obtusa v. emarginata, apicula acuta, costa vix prominula. 
Pedicelli 3 lin. longi. Alabastra J-uncialia. Calycis tubus 
segmentis acutis longior. 

A very curious species, but the specimens are far from good. 
There are four other W. African species of Mterua, viz. M. An- 
golensis and M. Senegalensis, from Angola and Senegal, M> 
rigida, Br., common to Senegal and Central Africa, and an un- 
described species found both in Sennaar and Senegal. 

1. Cleome pentaphylla, Linn. Sp. PL 938.— Sierra Leone, Vogel, 
and elsewhere along the coast, abundant. 

2. Cleome Guineensis, Hook. fil. ; caule erecto simplici v. e basi 
ramoso sparse piloso folioso, foliis 3-foliolatis, floralibus breve 
petiolatis, foliolis ellipticis utrinque acutis integerrimis pilo- 
siusculis ciliatis, pedicellis axillaribus gracillimis glanduloso- 
pilosis, sepalis lineari-lanceolatis, petalis anguste spathulatis, 
staminibus 6 toro brevi insertis, capsulis stipitatis linearibus, 
stylo gracili, valvis glaberrimis reticulatim venosis, seminibus 
rufis biseriatis orbiculatis profunde transversim sulcatis 
Gynandropsis triphylla, DC. in part. ? — Sierra Leone, Cape 
Coast, Grand Bassa and Stirling, Vogel; Senegal and 
Guinea. 

Herba bipedalis. Caulis sulcatus, superne hispidulus. Folia 
inter se conformia ; foliolis f -pollicaribus, petiolo a?quilongis, 
latitudine variis. Flores 4 lin. longi, petalis pallide purpureis, 
ovario staminibusque inclusis. Pedicellus fructifer \ unc. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 219 

longus. Siliqua suberecta, 1^ unc. longa, valvis planis £ unc. 
latis. 

3. Cleome foliosa, Hook. fil. ; caule prostrato basi lignoso, ramis 
erectis foliosis petiolis pedunculisque dense glanduloso-pube- 
scentibus, foliis 5-foliolatis supremis 3-foliolatis, foliolis bre- 
vissime petiolulatis late obovatis obtusis apiculatisve utrinque 
pubescentibus integerrimis subcoriaceis, floribus in axillis 
supremis pedunculatis, sepalis anguste lineari-lanceolatis glan- 
dulosis, petalis late obovato-spathulatis, toro brevissimo, sta- 
minibus 6 basi monadelphis, thecapboro valido glanduloso, 
siliquis stipitatis linearibus in stylum crassiusculum obtusum 
angustatis. — Elephant's Bay, (South of the Line), Dr. 
Qurror. 

taulis basi lignosus, cortice pallido. Rami pedales, stricti, 
parce ramosi, foliosi, teretes, striati. Folia inter se conformia, 
petiolis ^ unc. longis. Foliola petiolis sequilonga. Pedunculi 
$ unc. longi. Sepala submembranacea, J-pollicaria. Petala 
(sicca) pallide rufo-purpurea, calyce duplo longiora. Stamina 

* 

vix exserta. Capsulce 2-pollicares, vix 2 lin. lata?, pedicello 

i unc. suffultse ; valvis paulo concavis. Semina perplurima, 

immatura minuta, rufa. 

A species closely resembling Polanisia viscosa (an abundant 
tropical, and even African plant, though not in Herb. Vogel), 
out differing in the obsolete torus and pedicellate capsules. 
Foliage resembling C. pentaphylla. 

The other W. African species of Cleome, are C. monophylla, 
Linn., and ft angustifolia, Forsk., from Senegambia, and ft 
acuta, Schum., from Guinea. 

There are also two other West African genera of Capparidece, 
which, however, appear confined to the dryer and more desert 
latitudes of the North Tropic, and these range from Western 
Asia westward ; these are Cadaba, of which ft farinosa is corn- 
toon to Senegal, Sennaar and Arabia, and Boscia, containing 
two species, B. Senegalensis, A. Rich., and B. angustifolia, 
A. Rich, both Senegambian plants. The Streblocarpus angusti- 
folia of Senegal, and Cratceva Guineensis, Schum. et Thonn., 
from Guinea, together with Strcemia trifoliata, Schum. et 



220 FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 

Thonn. (probably the same plant as Cadaba farinosa, complete 
the list of W. African Capparidea known ; the Calycandra 
pinnata of A. Richard being a leguminous plant. 



IX. Flacourtiane^e. 

1 . Flacourtia Vogelii, Hook. fil. ; arborea, dioica, ramis nunc 
spinescentibus, foliis alternis petiolatis elliptico-lanceolatis 
apice angustatis obtusis serratis nitidis transverse reticulata, 
racemis axillaribus brevibus puberulis petiolo paulo longion- 
bus 6-8-floris, floribus 4-meris, sepalis late ovatis obtusis 
ciliatis, stigmatibus 5-6. — Niger River, at Abob, Vogel. 
Rami validi, teretes, cortice rufo-brunneo, punctis albidis no- 
tato; ramulis sub lente puberulis. Folia 3-4 unc. longa, 1$ 
lata, basi subacuta, apice obtusa, obtuse serrata, utnnque 
nitida ; petiolo | unc. longo, glabro v. puberulo. Peduncuh 
erect i. Fl. $ pedicellati ; pedicello 1-2 lin. longo calyce basi 
intruso. Ovarium sub 6-loculare. Fructus carnosus, ruber. 
Closely resembling the Indian F. sapida, but the leaves are 
longer, narrower, more beautifully shining, reticulated and regu- 
larly serrated, and the female flowers are very different. There 
is a new species of this genus from Senegal in the Hookenan 
Herb. ; and two others from Guinea, F. edulis, Schum., and 
F. flavescens, Willd., are described by Thonning. 

1. Oncoba glauca, Hook. fil. — Ventenatia glauca, Pal de Beauv. 
FL Ow. et Ben. 1. p. 29. t. 17.— Fernando Po, Vogel; 
Benin, PaL de Beauv. 

The identity of the genera Oncoba, Forsk., Heptaca, Lour., 
Ventenatia, Pal. de Beauv., Lundia, Thonn. et Schum., and 
Xylotheca, Hochst., is shown by Dr. Planchon in the sixth vol. 
of the London Journal of Botany, p. 295, where also he has 
given the distinctive characters of the several species. Among 
them, a second W. African species is the O. spinosa, Forsk., 
extending apparently from Senegambia to the Yemen. 

2. Bixa Orellana, Linn.— Grand Bassa, Vogel; Sierra Leone 
and Accra, Don. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 221 



X. VlOLARIiE. 

1. Ionidium thesiifolium, DC. Prod. 1. p. 309.— I. rhabdo- 
spermum, Hochst. in Herb. Vn. Itin.— Senegal, Heudelot ; 
Accra, Vogel, Don. 

Var. /3. chenopodiifolia, Guill. et Perr Senegal, Heudelot ; 

Cape Coast, Von. Also a native of Upper Egypt. 

2. Ionidium suffruticosum, Ging. in DC. Prod. 1. p. 311.— 
Accra, Vogel, Don. 

A protean plant, and probably only a large var. of the pre- 
ceding, owing its stature to the more humid atmosphere of the 
l^ght of Benin. /. linifolium, DC, is probably another variety, 
as well as 7. enneaspermum, Vent., and Viola Guineensis and 

"• lanceifolia, Schum. et Thonn. The species has a very wide 

range, extending through Nubia and Upper Egypt to Eastern 

Tropical Africa, Madagascar, East India and Tropical Australia. 

kome American species are hardly to be distinguished from 

the African, except by their smooth, not striated seeds.* The 

wo Oware species of Ceranthera, described by Palisot de 
ISeauvois, and two other Senegal ones (in Herb. Hook.) com- 
plete the small catalogue of known W. African Violarice. 



XI. SAUVAGESIACEiE. 



!• Sauvagesia erect a, Linn. — Sierra Leone, Vogel, Don ; Senegal, 
and abundant throughout Tropical America. 



XII. PoLYGALE^. 

*• Polygala armaria, Willd. Sp. 3. p. 880.— On the Quorra, 

Vogel and Ansell ; Guinea. 

Allied to the P. Vahliana {ol East India), but the foliage is 
ve ry different. Flowers about 20, deflexed, densely imbricated 
^to a sort of strobilus. 

* This appears, however, to be a constant, and therefore important 
character.— (G. B.) 



222 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

2. Polygala nutans. Hook. fil. ; annua, pubescens, caule erecto 
parce ramoso, foliis oppDsitis patulis subsessilibus linearibus 
v. lineari-lanceolatis obtusis utrinque pilosis, racemis axillari- 
bus erectis 8-10-floris foliis dimidio brevioribus, floribus im- 
bricatis deflexo-nutantibus, sepalis ext. liberis int. late elliptico- 
ovatis hirsutis ciliatisque capsula pilosa breviter oblonga pro- 
funde emarginata ^ longioribus, carina dorso longe cristata.— 
Accra, VogeL 

Caulis gracilis, 6-uncialis, patentim pubescens. Folia uncialia, 
2-4 lin. lata. Racemi i una longi. Flores albidi v. vi- 
rescentes, 2-3 lin. longi, alis obtusis. 

Also an Abyssinian plant, and closely allied to P. erioptera 
and P. arenaria. The flowers are similar in all, but are not so 
densely imbricated in this as in the latter, from which it further 
differs in the narrower foliage ; a variable character however. 

3. Polygala rarifolia, DC. Prod. 1. p. 332.— Sierra Leone, 
Don. 

Buffrutex bipedalis, glaberrima. Rami stricti, graciles, diam. 
. pennse corvinse, virgati, nudi, profunde sulcati, cortice vindi. 
Folia per-pauca. Racemi axillares, sed e lapsu foliorum quasi 
ramei, unciales, stricti, erecti, multiflori. Flores lactei, majus- 
culi, \ unc. longi, breviter pedicellati ; sepalis parvis, concavis, 
2 anticis coalitis, apicibus liberis, interioribus liberis, oblongis, 
subcoriaceis, valde concavis; carina cristata. Stigma peta- 
loideum, concavum ; bracteolis florahbus 3, minimis. 

4. Polygala Donii, Hook. fil. ; caule subereeto, gracili, puberulo, 
foliis plurimis alternis linearibus utrinque angustatis sub- 
acutis v. obtusis obscure puberulis 1-nervibus marginibus vox 
recurvis, racemis terminahbus gracilibus multifloris, pedi- 
cellisbasi 3-bracteolatis, floribus majusculis nutantibus, sepalis 
ext. liberis, alis oblique obovato-rotundatis basi angustatis 
ciliatis capsula quadrata emarginata pilosa duplo longioribus, 
carina dorso cristata. — Sierra Leone ? Don. 

Caulis in exempl. solitario simplex, 5-uncialis, teres. Folia omnia 
conformia, erect a, pollicaria, 2 lin. lata, obscure puberula, 
subter uni-costata; internodiis \ unc. longis. Racemi 3, 



FLORA NIGRIT1ANA. 223 

terminates, intermedio 2-unciali 20-floro, lateralibus abbre- 
viatis. Florum pedicelli gracillimi. Ake 3 lin. longse, ciliatae. 
Capsula subquadrata, angulis rctundatis. 
Apparently a very distinct species, easily recognized by the 
form of the alts. 

5. Polygala Guineensis, Willd. Sp. 3, p. 882 P. multiflora, 

Poir. Diet. 5. p. 497? — Accra, Ansell. 
Herba bipedalis, di-trichotome ramosa. Rami gracillimi, erecti, 

virgati. Folia 1^-2 unc. longa, filiformia, vix J lin. lata, 

subflexuosa, erecta, viridia. Racemi terminales, erecti, 4-5 
unc. longi. Flores secundi, parvi, bracteolis setaceis valde 

caducis suffulti, pedicellati, patentes v. nutantes, ccerulei, 

pedicellis 1 lin. longis, subclavatis. Sepala 2 exteriora coalita, 

apicibus liberis. Alee obovatse, glaberrimse, concavse, 1£ lin. 

longae. Carina longe cristata. Capsula obovato-quadrata, 

glaberrima, apice biloba. 

A remarkably distinct, and singularly slender species. 
The remaining W. African species known to me are, 1 P. 
erioptera, DC, a species common to Senegal, Egypt and Arabia : 
it is probably identical with P. triflora and linear if olia , Roth, 
(non auct.) in which the leaves are sharp ; in all the carina is 
crested, though P. triflora is placed erroneously in the group 
"carina nuda." 2. P. paniculata, Lin. var. Africana, DC, 
from Senegal, a species widely diffused in America, some 
specimens from the Plata River have the flowers as small as 
the African, but white, and it is possibly further identical with 
the P. capillaris, E. Meyer, from South Africa; and, lastly, 
3 - P. obtusata, Guill. et Perr., from Senegal, which completes 
the list of W. African Polygala. 

h Lophostylis oblongifolia, Hochst. in Ratisb. Flora, 1842, n. 
15.— On the Quorra, Vogel, who describes it as a middle- 
sized tree ; Senegal. 

Dr. VogePs specimen is imperfect, and in fruit only, but I 
think referable to this species, which has a wide range, being 
found also in Abyssinia. The propriety of separating this 
from Securidaca is perhaps doubtful. 



1 

a 



224 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

1. Carpolobia lutea, Don, Gen. Syst. 1. p. 370. — Sierra Leone, 
Don; Senegambia, Heudelot. 

Rami graciles, virgati, puberuli, teretes, flexuosi, patentes. Folia 
alterna, subdisticha, breve petiolata, obovata, in acumen elon- 
gatum apice obtusum angustata, glaberrima, integerrima, 
submembranacea, reticulatim venosa, viridia, 2-4 unc. longa. 
Racemi axillares, solitarii, breves, 2-5-flori, infra folia orti 
et iis tecti, graciles, £ unc. longi, pubescentes. Flores erecti, 
unc. longi, brevissime pedicellati ; pedicellis basi bracteolatis. 
Sepala 5, ciliata; 3 longioribus ovato-lanceolatis, obtusis, 
ceteris oblongis. Petala calyce ter longiora, in tubum fissum 
basi coalita ; 4 subsequalia, oblongo-spathulata, venosa ; qumto 
carinaeformi, duplo majore. Stamina 5 ; filamentis ad me- 
dium monadelphis. Stylus gracilis; stigmate parvo, capi- 
tato. 

A very handsome plant, ill described by its discoverer. 
The calyx and corolla are both irregular, and formed of five 
pieces, of which one of the latter resembles the ala of a papil- 
ionaceous flower. This explains the structure of the flower of 
those Polygalce in which two of the petals are wanting, or only 
represented (as in P. Donii) by a lobe at the base of the two 
smaller petals. 

2. Carpolobia alba, Don, 1. c. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

The two other species described by Don are leguminous 
plants, which will be noticed hereafter under Baphia and Brac- 
teolaria.* 



XIII. DroseracEjE. 



There 



--.**^i^ w*vs VTtv u|_»\sXsAVfcj VM. X/f UOC/ tt. XI Villi VI • J.IV/LHV/C4A «■ " " ' 

preserved in the British Museum, J>. Burmanni, Vahl, and 
D. Inc&ca, Linn. They are both from Sierra Leone {Afzelius), 
and are also natives of India. To the D. Indica, Dr. Plan- 

• See my observations and generic character of Carpolobia, in Hook. 
Journ. Bot. v. 4. p. 104.— (G. B.) 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 225 

chon refers also the D. minor of Thonn. and Schum. from 
Guinea. 



XIV. Frankeniace^e. 



The Frankenia pulverulenta extends as far south as Senegal 



•rulatis 



XV. Caryophyllejs. 

1. Mollugo nudicaulis, Lam.— M. bellidifolia, 'Ser. in DC. 

Prodr. 1. p. 391.— Cape Coast, Don; on the Quorra, 

Vogel; Senegal. 

Common to the W. Indian Islands, and also to Egypt, Mada- 
gascar and the East Indies. 

Three other species, M. cervina, Ser., M. verticillata, Linn., 
and M. denticulata, Guill. et Perr., are W. African. 

XVI. LlNE^E. 

i- Hugonia Planchoni, Hook. fil. (Tab. XXVII.) ; ramis 
petiolisque ferrugineo-pubescentibus, foliis lanceolato-oblongis 

cu3pidatis utrinque acutis remotiuscule se 
nitidis rigide chartaceis pulchre reticulato-venosis, stipulis 
oracteisque pinnatipartitis laciniis subulatis, cymis axillaribus 
brevibus 3-5-floris, sty lis staminibus longioribus — Sierra 
Leone, Afzelius, Vogel ; Accra, Vogel. 
A most distinct and handsome species. 
Frutex scandens. Cirrhi in parte inferiore ramulorum alterni, 
nunc nulli. Ramuli angulati, ramique subteretes cicatricibus 
stipularum albis notati. Folia sat confer ta, alterna, 3-5 ^ 
poll, longa, 10-20 lin. lata, petiolo vix 2 lin. longo. Stipu/a 
ob lacinias subulatas conspicuae, bracteis conformes. Sepa- 
lorum pars in alabastro externa subsericeo-rufescens, parte 
tecta glabra nitida. Petala flava (ex Vogel) anguste v. latius- 
cule cuneata, staminibus stylisque longiora. Bacca sicca, glo- 
bosa, Piso subsequalis, mucronata, calyci subsequalis.* 

* The above character and description were drawn up by Dr. Planch on. 

Q 



226 FLORA NIGRIT1ANA. 

Plate XXVII. — Fig. 1. flower, slightly magnified; f. 2. 
petal ; /. 3. stamens and pistil; /. 4. fruit ; /. 5. transverse 
section of the same ; the three last magnified. 
A second West Tropical African species, the H. Afzelii, Br., 

from Sierra Leone, has been described by Planchon in the Lond. 

Journ. Bot. v. 7. p. 525. 



XVII. Malvaceae. 

1. Malachra capitata, Linn. — Congo Kiver, Christ. Smith. 

Another species, M. hispida, Guill. et Perr., is confined to 
Senegal. 
1. Urena lobata, Linn. — U. diversifolia, Schum. et Thonii. 

Beskr.p. 308.— U. virgata, Guill . et Perr. ? FL Seneg. p. 48. 

A most abundant W. African plant, of which I think I can 
recognize the following varieties : 
a. Caule griseo, pilis stellatis sparsis aspero, foliis integris 3-5- 

lobisve subter petioloque cano-pubescentibus, calyce hispido. 
Fernando Po, Nun and Quorra Rivers, Vogel ; Sierra 

Leone, Don. 

The common East and West Indian form of the plant. 
#. Foliis super pilis sparsis fulvis obsitis subter canis vix pilo- 
sis, calyce dense hispido lobis elongatis. — On the Nun, Vogel 
y . Undique pilis patentibus in caulem stellatis obsita, calyce 

dense hispido. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Very similar to a Philippine Island state of the plant. 
3. Foliis profunde 3-lobis, lobo intermedio lineari-elongato, late- 

ralibus oblongis subacutis. — Cape Coast, Vogel. 

Similar to a Brazilian variety. 
c. Foliis minoribus naccidis pilis stellatis patulis pubescentibus, 

calyce hirsuto. — Scnegambia, Heudelot. 

Identical with cultivated specimens from the West Indies and 
indigenous East Indian ones. 

Guillemin and Perrottet describe two other Urena ; U. obtu- 
sata and U. virgata, whose claims to specific distinction appear 
doubtful to me. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 227 

1. Paritium tiliaceum, Linn. Hibiscus Guineensis, DC, Prod. 

5, p. 454, non Don. — Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Nun River, 
Vogel 

2. Paritium quinquelobum, Hook. fil. ; ramis puberulis, petiolis 
elongatis pubescentibus pedunculis foliisque super punctis 

• • • # 

minimis aspens, foliis late cordato-rotundatis coriaceis 3-cus- 
pidatis v. dense 3-lobis suberoso-dentatis super puberulis 
subter ad nervos stellatim pilosis, floribus in racemum sub- 
spicatum axillarem folio sequilongum dispositis, involucelli 
ioholis calyce brevioribus, calyce capsulam vix superante. — 
Hibiscus quinquelobus, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 1. p. 482.— 
Sierra Leone, Don. 
Hamuli ultimi herbacei, teretes, crassitie pennse anserinae, striati, 
pube sparsa sinlplici v. stellata. Folia 5 unc. longa, 7 lata, 
basi profunde cordata, sinu lato v. contracto. Peditnculus 
axillaris, strictus, 9 unc. longus, basi nudus, superne ramosus, 
ramis abbreviatis. Pedicelli brevissimi, 2 lin. longi, basi 
bracteolati, bracteolis nunc foliaceis. Calyx 5 lin. longus, 
cano-pubescens ; involucelli foliolis subulatis. Corolla (pur- 
purea?) \\ unc. longa. 

There are three other W. African Paritia : P. virgatum, 
Guill. et Perr., P. sterculia>folium, G. et P., and a third unde- 
served species — all from Senegal. 
L Abelmoschus esculentus, Wight etArn. — Hibiscus esculentus, 

Linn.— W. Africa, (cult.) 
2. Abelmoschus moschatus, Mcench. — Hibiscus Abelmoschus, 

Linn. — Grand Bassa, Vogel ; Senegal. 
!• Hibiscus vitifolius, Linn. ; ft. caule patentim piloso, foliis ca- 
lyceque pilis fulvis stellatis. — H. strigosus, Sckum. et Thonn. 



> 



Beskr. p. 314— Cape Coast, Vogel. 

This differs from the usual East Indian state of the plant, in 
fte greater villosity and many stellate seta?, or hairs, which, 
together with* the toothing of the leaves, are very variable 
characters. In some varieties, the whole plant is merely hoary. 
2. Hibiscus physaloides, Guill. et Perr., Fl. Seneg.p. 52 — H. ad- 

scendens, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 1. p. 482.— St. Thomas, 

Q2 



228 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



Don; Valley of St. Domingo, St. Yago, Cape de Verds, 
J. D. Hooker* 

3. Hibiscus asper, Hook. fil. ; caule erecto superne angulato 
suffruticoso tuberculis minimis sub-aculeato, foliis patentibus 
longe petiolatis petiolo scabrido palmatim 7-partitis utrinque 
asperulis, lobis linearibus acutis obtusisve integris v. sinuato- 
dentatis, floribus axillaribus solitariis breviter pedunculatis, 
involucelli laciniis subulatis calycem pilosum sequantibus 
Sierra Leone, Miss Turner, (in Herb. Hook.) 

Statura, habitusque H. cannabina, sed major, caule inermi, 

foliisque 7-lobis. Flores \\ unc. diam. 

A very fine species. The petioles and lacinise of the leaf are 
3-5 inches long. 

4. Hibiscus Guineensis, G.Don, Gard, Diet. l\p.4&l,nonDC; 
caule herbaceo inermi piloso (pilis furcatis), foliis sublonge 
petiolatis late rotundato-cordatis superioribus 3 cseteris 5-lobis 
obtuse serratis utrinque sed subter prsecipue pilosis lobis 
acutis acuminatisve, pedunculis brevibus clavatis axillaribus 
v. in racemum dispositis hispido-pilosis, involucelli foliolis 
lineari- subulatis calycem capsulamque sequantibus, calycis 
segmentis appresse pilosis ovato-subulatis sinu obtuso, corolla 
ampla, capsula ovato-globosa acuminata hispido-strigosa, se- 
minibus angulatis vix tuberculatis. — St. Thomas, Don. 

The above description closely accords with Wight and Ar- 
nott's (Prodr. Flor. Pen. Ind. Or. p. 49) character of Wallich's 
H. lunarifolius ; and indeed the only distinction I can trace 
between this and original specimens of the E. Indian plant is, 
that in the latter, the calyx and involucellum are considerably 



Guineensis 



organ . 

Hibiscus 



— ^ — — — ___ _ -^p- .4^_^» w ^f^ ^pa^h 1_i^ A ^^ r^-m* ^— — 

of Senegal, and a fifth species, from the same country, H verru- 
cosus, Guill. et Perr., is described in the Flora Senegambise. 
5. Hibiscus Surattensis, Linn.— Accra and St. Thomas, Don. / 
Senegal. Also an E. Indian species. 

* Omitted above, p. 107. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 229 

The H. diversifolius (Hibiscus, Jacq., H. scaber, Mich.), a 
N. American species, is a native of Senegal, as is also H. rostel- 
latus, Guill. et Perr. ; and four species, H. versicolor, H. 
tnumfettoifolius, H. congener, and H. obtusatus, are described 
by Schumacher from Guinea. 

I he old genus, Hibiscus, is a very important one in W. Africa, 

there being, besides the above-enumerated species : one of Bom- 

oycella : Hibiscus clandestinus , Cav., from Senegal ; three of 

Cremontia, all natives of Senegal : H Senegalensis, Cav., H. tu- 

bulosus, Cav. (also an E. Indian plant), and H. ribesiifolius, Guill. 

et Perr. ; one sp. of Fugosia : F. digit at a, Pers. ; and three of 

Pavonia : P. Zeylanica, Willd., P. triloba and P. hirsuta, Guill. 
et Perr. 

1. Gossypium Barbadense, L. — G. punctatum et G. prostratum, 
Schum. et Thonn. Beskr.,p. 310, 311.— Fernando Po and 
Cape Palmas, Vogel, (near habitations). 
v ar. . hirsutum, ramis molliter et patentim pilosis, seminibus 
obovatis fusco-castaneis glabriusculis, ubique v. basi gossy- 
pmis, gossypio albo. — Sierra Leone, Miss Turner, (in Herb. 
Hook.) ; Accra, Don. 

Dr. VogePs specimens being in flower only, I cannot deter- 
mine the variety to which it may belong. Don's specimens 

differ from Miss Turner's only in the seeds being cottony all 
over. 

1- Wissadula rostrata. — Sida rostrata, Schum.et Thonn., Beskr. 
p. 306— S. stellata, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 1. p. 499.— Abutilon 
laxiflorum, Guill. et Perr., Ft. Seneg. p. 66.— A. parviflorum, 
A. St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid. 1. p. 201.— Sida periplocifolia, 
£. caribaea, DC. Prodr. 1. p. 468 —Abutilon periplocifolium, 
Don, Webb, supra, p. 108.— Cape Coast, Vogel, Thonning ; 
St. Thomas, Don. ; Senegal. 

^ar. /?. foliis subrugosis. — Accra, Vogel. 
A common West Indian plant, closely allied to W. hirsuta, 

Presl, but apparently differing, as well in the absence of the 

n gid hairs characteristic of that species, as by the fruit, of 



ie carpels 

The Cevl 



periplocifolia 



230 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

■ 

tinct. It has been called W. Zeylanica by Medik, the founder 
of the genus Wissadula, but ought perhaps to retain the Lin- 
naean specific name. 

1. Abutilon Asiaticum, G. Don, (Sida, Linn.) Accra, Vogel. ; 

Senegal. 

Common to both the East and West Indies. 

2. Abutilon Indicum, G. Don, (Sida, Linn.)— an S. glauca, 
Cav. Ic.l. t.ll ?— S. grandiflora, G. Don, Gard. Diet 1. 
p. 501. — St. Thomas, Don. 

Equally common in the Eastern and Western hemispheres. 

Five other species are recorded by Guill. et Perr. as natives ol 
Senegal, viz. : A. ramosum, tortuosum, macropodum, sparman- 
nioides, and fruticosum, and the Sida Guineensis, Schum. et 
Thonn., is probably also an Abutilon. 

1. Sida rhombifolia, Linn.— S. retusa, G. Don, Gard. Diet. I. 
p. 492.— S. rugosa, Schum. Thonn. Beskr.,p. 304 />— Senegal ; 
Nun River, and Ebu, Vogel ; St. Thomas, Don. 

The majority of the specimens of this plant which I have 
examined, have shortly bicuspidate carpells. It is a native ot 
both the E and W. Indies. 

2. Sida linifolia, Cav.— S. linearifolia, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. 
p. 303. -Senegal ; Sierra Leone, Cape Coast, Accra, and 
Quorra River, Vogel, Don, &c. 

A West Indian plant, varying much in stature and the breadth 
of the leaves. 

3. Sida cordifolia, linn.— S. althjeifolia, Sw.—S. Africana, Pal- 
Beauv. 2. p. 87. /. 116.— S. decagyna, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. 
p. 307 ? — Senegal to Benin, Vogel, and others. 

Var. foliis minoribua. S. cordifolia, L. ?— St. Thomas and Ac- 
cra, Don. 

A very common species in the warmer regions of both hemi- 
spheres. 

4. Sida urens. Linn. — S. sessiliflora. G. Don. Gard. Diet. !• 



p. 491, et S. debilis, G. Don, I. c. ?— Senegal, St. Thomas, 

Don. 

Also both an East and West Indian plant. The West African 
specimens are very slender, and the carpels shortly 2-cus- 
pidate. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 231 

5. Sida stipulata, Cav. diss. 1. p. 22. t. 23. /. 10.— -S. prostrata, 

G. Don, Gard. Diet. 1. p. 490.— Sierra Leone, Vogel, 
Don. 

These specimens have slender aristae to the carpels. The 
species is a native of both the East and West Indies, and is con- 
sidered by Dr. Planchon as a mere variety of S. acuta. 

6. Sida retusa, Linn.— St. Thomas, Don. 

Ihe leaves of these specimens are either obtuse or acute, and 
scarcely retuse, as is frequently the case with East Indian speci- 
mens, where it occurs as far east as the Phillippine Islands. 
The carpels terminate in a subulate point. Dr. Planchon con- 
siders it a mere variety of S. rhombifolia. 

7. Sida acuta, Burm., Cav. diss. 1. p. 15. t. 2./. 3.— S. ovata, 
G. Don, Gard. Diet. 1. p. 492.— Cape Coast, Vogel ; St. 
Thomas, Don. 

Certainly identical with the East Indian species of this name. 
Don's specimens have luxuriant foliage. 

8. Sida Vogelii, Hook. fil. ; gracilis, erecta, glaberrima, caule 
virgatim ramoso, foliis petiolatis lineari-lanceolatis acutis 
maequaliter subacute serratis basi rotundatis, stipulis glaber- 
rimis petiolum superantibus, pedunculis axillaribus solitariis 
(rarius binis) unifloris gracilibus medio articulatis petiolis ter 
longioribus, calyce glaberrimo segmentis acuminatis, carpellis 
subsenis 2-rostratis.— Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Suffrutex 2-3-pedalis, ramosus. Caulis crassitie pennse cor- 
vmse. Stipuke majusculae, petiolum gracilem -f unc. longum 
superantes. Folia utrinque glaberrima, l£-2 unc. longa, 
4-5 lin. lata, submembranacea. Pedunculi graciles, erecti. 
Carpella dorso rugosa, rostris paulo divaricatis. 
I believe this to be a very distinct species, more similar to the 
N. American S. Elliottii than to any other. It differs from 
& spinosa and all its varieties in wanting the spine, and in the 
lo »g peduncles ; from S. stipulata, (which it otherwise much 
resembles), in the stipules ; from S. acuta, by the same charac- 
ters, and from S. rhombifolia in the smooth leaves, which are 
not hoary. 

There are four other W. African Sida, all from Senegal ; 



232 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



S. grewioides, Guill. et Perr., S. spinosa, L., S. canescens, Lav., 
and a possibly undescribed species. 

The above, with two plants belonging to other genera of 
Malvacece, viz., Lagunea ternata, Cav., and Bastardia angulata, 
Guill. et Perr., complete the catalogue of W. African Mal- 



vacece. 



XVIII. BombacejE. 

1. Adansonia digit ata, Linn.— Cape Verd to Congo, various 
travellers, Vogel, Don, &c. 

2. Bombax Buonopozense, Pal. Beauv. Fl. Ow. et Ben. 2. 
p. 42. t. 83 ? glaberrimum, foliis palmatis longe petiolatis, 
foliolis anguste elliptico-lanceolatis membranaceis utrmque 
angustatis acuminatis apicem versus remote ciliato-serratis.— 
Station uncertain in VogeVs collection ; Sierra Leone, Miss 
Turner. 

The flowers of B. Buonopozense are contained in Herb. Hook.,, 
and to that plant the leaves preserved by Vogel may belong, 
though there are probably other W. African species of the 
genus. 

3. Eriodendron anfractuosum, DC. Prodr. 1- p» 4?79. An 
Bombax Guineense, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 302. "~ 
Congo River, Christ. Smith. A common East Indian tree 



XIX. Sterculiace^l 

1. Sterculia tragacantha, Lindl., Bot. Reg., t. 1353. — S. pu- 
bescens, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 1. p. 515.— Sierra Leone, Don* 
One of Mr. Don's specimens is in fruit, and the following 

description may be added: 

Carpella 2, globosa, breviter stipitata, subrostrata v. mucro- 

nata, reticulata, dense ferrugineo-pubescentia. 

This species, like the East Indian S. urens, yields a gum 
resembling Tragacanth. The 8. pubescens of Don's Herb, (not 
Gard. Diet.) is the following plant. 

2. Sterculia obovata, Br. tn PI Jav. Rar. p. 233. -Congo 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 233 

River, Christ. Smith ; Sierra Leone, Don ; Senegambia, 
Herb. Hook. 

Leaves smaller than in the foregoing, and more shortly 
petiolate. 

The 8. tomentosa, Guill. et Perr., is the only other W. African 
species. 

1. Cola acuminata, Br. PL Jav. Rar. p. 237. 

a. Poliis longe petiolatis anguste lineari-obovatis acuminatis. 

Sterculia acuminata, Pal. de Beauv. — St. Thomas, Don. 
p. Foliis breviter petiolatis latioribus coriaceis. — S. nitida, 

Vent. ? — S. macrocarpa, Don. — S. verticillata, Schum. et 

Thonn. — Lemania Bichy, DC. — Fernando Po, Vogel ; St. 

Thomas and Sierra Leone, Don. 

This is the well-known Cola-nut, of which the var. ft. is the 
only one cultivated in the New World. 

The Sterculia cordifolia, Cav., from Senegambia, is considered 
by Brown (PI. Jav. Rar. p. 237) to be a second species of Cola. 
In the same work, a third plant, allied to Cola, but scarcely of 
the same genus, is alluded to as gathered in Sierra Leone by 
Alzelius, and three W. African species of Courtenia are enume- 
rated : C. Afzelii, Br., from Sierra Leone and Congo ; C. triloba, 
Br., from Senegambia ; and C. ? heterophylla, Br. {Sterculia hete- 
rophylla, Pal. Beauv.), from Oware. 

XX. Byttneriace^:. 

!• Waltheria Indica, Linn. An W. Guineensis et W. Africana, 

Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 295, 296. ? 

A very common W. African plant ; also abundant both in the 
East and West Indies. 

A second species, closely allied to one from Brazil, is in Heude- 
lot's Senegambian collection. 
L Melochia corchorifolia, Linn. — Polychlama simplex et P. ra- 

mosa, G. Don, Gard. Diet. \. p 488.— Senegal, Quorra river 

and Cape Palmas, Vogel ; St. Thomas, Don. 

Very variable in the size and breadth of the foliage. 

Another, and probably new species of this genus, occurs in 
Senegambia. 



234 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



XXI. TlLIACEiE. 

1. Corchorus tridens, Linn. — Abundant along the West coast 
of Africa, also in the East Indies. 

2. Corchorus acutangulus, Lam. Diet. — C. alatus, G. Don, 
Gard. Diet. 1. p. 542, 2. p. 104.— Senegal, Cape Coast, and 
Quorra River, Vogel ; St. Thomas, Don. 

A frequent East and West Indian species. 

3. Corchorus olitorius, Linn. — C. lanceolatus et C. longicarpus, 
G. Don, L c.,p. 543. - Senegal, Quorra, Vogel; St. Thomas, 
Don. 

I 

A fourth species, C. br achy car pus, Guill. et Perr., occurs in 
Senegal. The three Guinea species, described by Schumacher 
and Thonning, C. angustifolius , C. polygonus, and C. muricatus, 
are probably the same as some of the preceding ones. 

1. Triumfetta rhomboidea, Jacq. Amer. p. 147. /. 90. — Cape 
Coast, Grand Bassa and Quorra River, Vogel-, St. Thomas, 
Don. 

Certainly identical with the W. Indian plant. 
Var. /3. glabriuscula. — Bassa Cove, Ansell. 
Var. y. foliis omnibus brevi-petiolatis basi ovato-cuneatis.- ^ a P € 

Coast and Accra, Don. 

Also a W. Indian variety, having all the leaves like the upper 
ones of the first. All the varieties have membranous leaves, broad 
and undivided, the lower abrupt, and not cuneate at the base. 

2. Triumfetta glandulosa, Lam. Diet. 3. p. 421 ?— Quorr 
River, Vogel. 

Cuulis glabriusculus. Folia submembranacea, super vix pu- 
berula, subter velutino-pubescentia, superiora basi cuneata, 
inferiora basi latiora ; omnia subcordata, obscure triloba. 
Stamina 12 et plura. Fructus deest. 
The plant agrees tolerably with Lamarck's description, except 

the leaves being less velvety. 

3. Triumfetta velutina, Vahl, Symb. 3. p. 62. — Accra, Vogel. 
Differs (possibly not specifically) from T. mollis, in the more 

cuneate base of the coriaceous leaves, which have shorter petioles, 
and are more tomentose beneath ; the stems, too, are more 



a 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 235 

shrubby, and the toothing of the leaves less decided. The young 
capsules are densely villous between the aculei, in which respect 
the plant differs from VahPs description, but this character 
depends on age. 

4. Triumfetta trilocularis, Roxb. Fl Ind. 2. p. 462.— Nun 
River, Vogel 

Specimens very bad, but apparently identical with a Zanzibar 
species, called T. semitriloba by Bojer, but which differs from 
-De Candolle's description of that plant in the leaves not being 
velvety beneath. 

Caules erecti, rigidi. Folia late ovata, obscure lobata v. integra, 
basi ovato-cuneata, rigida, utrinque puberula, insequaliter 
serrata, 1-1 £ unc. longa ; petiolo 1^-pollicari. Capsula im- 
mature globosse, pubescentia, inter setas albida. 
The T. triloculariSy Guill. et Perr., appears to be the T. rhom- 

ooidea, Jacq., judging from the imperfect specimen in Herb. 
Hook. 

5. Triumfetta angulata, Lam, Diet. 3. p. 421 ?— Gambia, Capt. 
Boteler, (in Herb. Hook.) 

folia superiora sessilia, ovata v. ovato-lanceolata, nunc late 
rhomboidea, triloba, pubescentia et sericeo-pilosa, subter ve- 
lutina. Capsula immature globosae, pedicellatae, setosse, to- 
mentoque albido dense opertse. 

°- Triumfetta eriophlebia, Hook. fil. ; caule erecto ramoso laxe 
patentim piloso villosiusculo, foliis petiolatis deflexis supe- 
rioribus lanceolatis, inferioribus late ovatis sub 3-lobis, om- 
nibus acuminatis basi rotundatis ad petiolum cordatis sub- 
grosse irregulariter dentatis utrinque hirsutis pilis patulis, 
nervis subter dense albolanatis, floribus mediocribus axillari- 
bus pedicellatis subracemosis, sepalis longe acuminatis, 
staminibus 10, ovario hispido, capsula immatura lanata setis- 
que uncinatis tecta. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Petioli J unc. longi. Folia 2i-pollicaria, submembranacea, pilis 
patulis fulvis vestita. 
Complete specimens, both flowering and fruiting, are required 

of the Triumfetta to determine the limits of the species; and 

»uch are rare in our Herbaria. The size of the flower and 



236 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

arming of the capsule probably afford better characters than the 
variable foliage; it should always be mentioned whether the 
capsules described are ripe or not. Wight and Arnott hint at 
the probability of the number of East Indian species being 
much exaggerated, for these authors remark, that characters 
drawn from the suppression of parts of the flower and shape ol 
the leaves, are not to be depended upon. 

7. Triumfetta, sp. ? — Sierra Leone, Don. 

Caulis lignosus, ramosus, pilis patulis stellatis velutino-pubes- 

cens. Folia breve petiolata, petiolo \ unc. longo, l£-polli- 
caria, basi lata, ad petiolum cordata, utrinque dense velutmo- 
tomentosa, coriacea, triloba, insequaliter serrata, segmentis 
infimis glandulosis. Capsula immatura uncinato-setosa, inter 
setas pubescens; matura globosa puberula, breviter setosa, 
3-5-cocca ; coccis 1-spermis -, seminibus majusculis. 
In a genu sal ready involved in so much confusion, I unwil- 
lingly insert another doubtful species. The present is out ot 
flower, but would appear very distinct from its congeners. 

Two other species of this genus are mentioned and first 
described by Guillemin and Perrottet, T. cordifolia and T. pen- 
tandra, both from Senegal. Schumacher and Thonning have 
also described one from Guinea, under the name of T. mollis ; 
a specimen from Senegal of Heudelot's is either this species 
or one closely allied to it, and another gathered by Don, at 
Sierra Leone, in leaf only, if not the T. cordifolia, may he 
distinct from all the foregoing. 

1. Grewia carpinifolia, Juss. Ann. Mus. 2. p. 91. /. 51./ 1 
Cape Coast, St. Thomas and Accra, Vogel and Don. Also 
a native of Senegal and Oware. 

Grewia, as was to be expected, is a large W. African genus, 
whence the poverty of the Niger collections in one so con- 
spicuous and easily collected is remarkable. Besides the above, 
six species are enumerated, chiefly 'however from Senegal, viz- : 

1. G. betulafolia, Juss., closely allied to, and probably identical 
with the G. populifolia, Vahl, and if so, a plant ranging from 
Senegal, through Arabia and Persia, to the Peninsula of In(h a ; 

2. G. corylifolia, Guill. et Perr. (G. villosa, Hort. Mai.) also 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 237 

a native of Senegal, Nubia and the East Indies. 3. G. bicolor, 
Guill. et Perr., from Senegal. 4. G. megalocarpa, Pal. Beauv., 
from Benin. 5. G. guazumafolia , Juss., from Senegal and East 
India. 6. G. mollis, Juss., a native of Senegal and Benin ? 
1. Omphacarpus Africanus, Hook. fil. ; ramulis puberulis, 
iolns breve petiolatis ovatis acuminatis super glaberrimis ni- 
tidis subter puberulis integerrimis v. obsolete serratis, fructi- 
bus oblique obovato-cuneatis compressis. — Sierra Leone ; Don. 
rrutex majusculus. Rami teretes ; cortice atro ; ramulis fusco- 
pubescentibus, viscosis? Folia 2 unc. longa, subcoriacea. 
Flores paniculati. Fructus f unc. longus. 
Of this curious plant, whose only congener is a Borneo 
species described by Korthals, I have seen but very imperfect 
specimens. Except by the somewhat different shape of the 
fruit, the two species are hardly distinguishable. It affords a 
remarkable instance of the relation between the littoral Flora of 
W. Africa and that of the hot damp Malayan Archipelago, and 
which contrasts so strongly with the Flora of the drier northern 
parts of Tropical West Africa, as Senegal, Cape Verd, &c, the 
types of whose vegetations, and many of the species themselves, 
are prolonged eastward through Sennaar, Abyssinia, and Arabia, 
to the Peninsula of India. 

Glyph^a, Hook, fil. (nov. gen.) 

» 

Calyx ad basim 5-partitus, laciniis oblongis, aestivatione valvatis, 
deciduis. Pe/a/«angustelanceolata,sessilia,basinuda. Stamina 

plurima, hypogyna ; filamentis gracilibus haud complanatis ; 
antheris basifixis immobilibus erectis linearibus, connectivi 
angusti productione brevissime apiculatis loculis 2 laterali-in- 
trorsis, apice rimula brevi poriformi introrsum dehiscentibus. 
Ovarium s\ibsessile(gynophQro saltern haud conspicuo) in stylum 
apice acuto stigmaticum attenuatum, abortu (?) 3-loculare, 
loculis ad angulum internum superposite pauciovulatis, et inter 
ovula contracto-interruptis, inde in locella superposita uniovu- 
lata divisis. Fructus subcapsularis ? (fragmenta ejus tantum 
video) fusiformi-oblongus, verticaliter pluricostatus (10-cos- 
tatus, Hook, fil.), mesocarpio crasso aride suberoso, locellis 



238 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

monospermis paucis (pro carpello singulo 2-3 uniseriatis), 
endocarpio cartilagineo subindehiscente limitatis ; columella 
in fructu forsann on sponte irregulariter fracto in fila soluta. 
Semina ad medium anguli intern i locelli cnjusve peritrope 
inserta, transverse late oblonga, anatropa. Embryo in axi 
albuminis rectus; cotyledonibus semini conformibus, haud 
crassis, facie plana sibi invicem applicitis, radicula exserta 
lineari-oblonga versus hilum directa. — Frutex Africa? occiden- 
tals tropica?, facie et vegetationis Grewia, ramis virgatis. 
Folia alterna, disticha, petiolata, lanceolata, cuspidata, remote 
et inaequaliter repando-serrata v. denticulata, triplinervia, 
cseterum penninervia, rigide membranacea, glabriuscula. Sti~ 
pulce non visse. Umbella 3-4-florse, pedunculate ssepius 
oppositifoliae, nunc axillares, basi ebracteatse, bracteolis ad 
basim pedicellorum caducis. Flores lutei.* 

1. Glyphjea grewioides, Hook. fil. (Tab. XXII.)— Grewia late- 
riflora, G. Don, Gard. Diet. I. p. 549.— Fernando Po, Vogel 

Ramuli, petioli, pedicellique pube parca stellata conspersi. Folia 
variant lanceolata v. late elliptica, basi subcordata v. obtu- 
siuscula. Pedunculi umbellse 1-2-pollicares. Pedicelli 5-1* 
lin. longi. Fructus erectus, 1J- unc. longus, utrinque atte- 
nuates, subacutus, axi fibroso percursus. Semina 2 lin. longa, 
lsevia, pallide brunnea. 
A very distinct genus, allied closely to the Javanese Diplo- 

phractum, Desf., (Mem. Mus. 5. p. 34. t. 1.) as well as to the 

true Grewia. 

Plate XXII. Fig. 1. expanded flower, slightly magnified; 
f. 2. ovary;/. 3. fruit, natural size ; f. 4. the same, cut 
across ; f. 5. longitudinal section of the same ; /. 6. seed ; /• ' • 
the same, cut through in the direction of the rhaphe. 

I. Christiana cordifolia, Hook, fil., foliis petiolatis oblongo- 
ovatis obtusis basi cordatis 5-nervibus super glaberrimis sub- 
ter molliter ferrugineo-pubescentibus obsolete 3-lobis inte- 
gerrimis, corymbo terminali, pedunculis pedicellisque velutino- 



* The above character is copied from that given by Dr. Planchon in 
e " Icones Plantarum. ,, t. 760. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 239 

v 

pubescentibus, calyce 3-lobo persistente, carpellis 2-4 brevis- 
sime stipitatis subglobosis velutino-tomentosis 1 -locularibus 
2-valvibus 1-spermis. — On the Quorra, opposite Stirling, 
Vogel. 

Arbor excelsa ; trunco mediocri. Rami validi, teretes ; cortice 

pallido fibroso, punctis albidis notato. Petioli stricti, 2\ unc. 

longi, vix puberuli. Folia 8-10 unc. longa, 5-6 lata, oblongo- 

cordiformia, obtusa, subobliqua, nunc obscure lobata, plana, 

siccitate ferrugineo-fusca, membranacea. Corymbus 6 unc. 

longus, amplus, pluries ramosus : ramis primariis validis, sub- 

elongatis; pedicellis breviusculis. Calycis lobi 2 lin. longi, 

conacei, obtusi. Carpella diametro Pisi sativi, molliter 

tomentosa. Testa pulchre irrorata, e membranis 3 constans ; 

exteriore dense Crustacea; intermedia tenuior, inter crus- 

taceam et membranaceam, atra ; interior tenuissima, albu- 

mini appressa. Albumen copiosum, carnosum. Cotyledones 

maxima?, foliacese, venosse; plumula minima; radicula teres 
crassa. 

A very handsome plant, agreeing well with Christiana in the 

three-lobed calyx, but in the fruit and habit allied to Brown- 
lovia, Roxb. 

2. Christiana Africana, DC. Prod. I. p. 516. — On the Congo 
River, Christ. Smith. 

1. Honckneya ficifolia, Willd. in Ust. Del. ex DC. Prod. 1. 
p. 506.— Clappertonia, Meissn. Gen. p. 36 (28).— Grand 
Bassa, Vogel; Sierra Leone, Don. ; Senegal. 

Sepala 5, 3 v. omnia glandula globosa apiculata instructa. 
Petala late rotundata, breviter unguiculata, imbricata, convo- 
luta, rubro-ccerulescentiaio, {Vogel). Stamina basi coalita, 
plura incompleta, setiformia, 12 elongata, antherifera; an- 
theris versatilibus, elongatis ; loculis utrinque liberis. Ovarium 
8-loculare setosum ; loculis multiovulatis, ovulis 2-serialibus, 
placentis axillaribus affixis. Semina parva, orbicularia, plano- 
convexa. Testa e membranis 3 constans ; exteriore membra- 
nacea ; intermedia Crustacea ; interiore tenuissima. Albumen 
carnosum. Embryo axillis, latitudine albuminis. Cotyledones 
latissimrc r>lanae; radicula crassa terete. 



240 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

This outer coat of the testa is usually described as an 
arillus. The hairs of the fruit are described by Vogel as 
always of a reddish-brown colour on one side of it, and green 
on the other. 

- 

XXII. DipterocarpejE. 

1. Lophira alata, Banks. — Guill. et Perr. Fl. Seneg.p. 108. /. 

24. — Sierra Leone, Don. ; Senegal. 

A low shrub, 2 to 3 feet high, according to Don. The 
structure of the wood is highly curious. 

XXIII. ClusiacejE. 

1. Tentadesma butyracea, G. Don, Gard. Did. 1. /?. 619. 
Sierra Leone and St. Thomas, Don. (The Butter- and Tallow- 
tree of W. Africa.) 



XXIV. Ternstro:miace,e. 



The 



Tropical America and Asia, have no representative in West 

Tropical Africa since Ventenatia and Cochlospermum have been 

removed by Planchon, the one to Bixinece, the other to the 

neighbourhood of Geraniacece. The following genus, however, 

and the others forming Planchon's group of Ixionanthea, are 

so nearly related to Ternstrcemiaceee, that it may be convenient 

to consider them merely as a tribe of that order. 

1. Ochthocosmus African™ * Hook. fil. (Tab. XXIII.) rhachidi- 

bus et pedicellis exceptis glaberrimus, foliis alternis brevissime 

petiolatis oblongis sparsis cuspidatis, cuspide callis paucis 

subglandulosis secus marginem instructo, utrinque acutis 

margine leviter incrassato et revoluto integris v. subrepandis 

rigide chartaceis nitidis subtus pallidioribus pulchre et te- 

nuissime venosis, racemis axillaribus 1-3 folio brevioribus, 

pedicellis fasciculatis petala sub fructu sequantibus rhachidi- 

busque puberulis, petalis sub fructu induratis calyce plus 

* This character is copied from that drawn up by Dr. Planchon, 
" Icones Plantarum," t. 773. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 241 

duplo longioribus, staminibus styloque exsertis. — Sierra Leone, 
Bon. 

Although at first sight this interesting plant might appear to 
differ generically from the original O. Roraimm, Benth., from 
Guyana, a more close inspection shows those differences to be 
merely specific. The leaves, which have in both the same firm 
texture and glossy surface, are here scattered on the branchlets, 
instead of being collected rather densely towards their apex; 
the inflorescence consists of racemose fascicles, not of a sub- 
corymbose panicle; the petals become thicker, and might be 
called almost woody, a character which, connected with all 
others, marks out the affinity of both- plants with the genus 
Ixionanthus of Jack. (Planchon.) 

Plate XXIII. Fig. 1. flower, long after fecundation ; /. 2. 
petal, with two stamens ; /. 3. pistil, with the disc and lower 
parts of the filaments ; f. 4. vertical section of the same ; 
/• 5 . fruit in the persistent flower ; f. 6. transverse section of 
the same ; /. 7. seed, with the arilliform production of the 



exostome. 



XXV. Erythroxyle^e. 



1. Erythroxylon, possibly E.ferrugineum, Cav.?— From Vogel's 
collection, without the precise station. The specimen is 
evidently of this genus, but quite undeterminable as to species. 
It does not appear to be the same as E.emarginatum, Schum. 
et Thonn. from Guinea, the only species as yet published 
from Western Africa. 



XXVI. Hypebicine^. 

Psorospermum ferrugineu m, Hook. fil. ; caule tereti erecto, 
foliis brevissime petiolatis elliptico-obovatis oblongisve obtusis 
v - acutis adultis glabratis subter reticulatis immaturisque 
ntrinque ferrugineo-tomentosis, marginibus leviter revolutis. 
pedunculis axillaribus sub-3-chotomis pedicellisque rufo- 
tomentosis, sepalis obtusis pubescentibus fasciculos staminum 
pentandros Eequantibus, petalis intus subvillosis. — Sierra 
Leone, Don. 



242 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

Rami cortice pallide griseo rimoso tecti ; ramulis ferrugineo-to- 
mentosis. Petioli \ unc. longi. Folia 1-2-uncialia, |-1 unc. lata, 
super siccitate fusca, subnitida, subter pallidiora, reticulatira 
venosa, pube stellata ferrugineo-subtomentosa. Cyma sub 
12-florse; pedicellis post anthesin elongatis, \ unc. longis. 
Flares 3 lin. longi. Androphora ciliato-barbata. Bacca im- 
mature globosse, acuminata?, 5-loculares, loculis-3-vacuis, 
cseteris 2-spermis ; testa seminis scrobiculata. 
Closely allied to the P. febrifugum, Spach, but the leaves are 

smaller, and not white underneath, nor are the cymes dense. 

2. Psorospermum tenuifolium , Hook. fil. (Tab. XXL); gla- 
berrimum, ramis teretibus, ramulis oppositis, foliis petiolatis 
membranaceis ellipticis utrinque angustatis punctis opacis 
notatis, pedunculis axillaribus, cymis multifloris, pedicellis 
sepalisque subacutis glaberrimis, petalis intus villosis, andro- 
phoris pentandris, ovario 5-loculari, loculis 2-ovulatis, bacca 
globosa abortu 3-loculari, loculis 1 -2-spermis, testa subco- 
riacea scrobiculata. — Nun River, Vogel. 

Frutex 10-pedalis, ramosus. Rami teretes, cortice pallido striate-; 
ramulis gracilibus. Petioli 2-4 lin. longi. Folia 3-4-polh- 
caria, 2-2 J unc. lata, saepe inaBquilateralia, glaberrima, apice 
angustata, acuminata ; super siccitate fusco-castanea, vix 
nitida, subter pallidiora, utrinque punctis minimis sparsa, 
costa prominula; penninervia, nervis parallelis. Peduncult 
i unc. longi, deinde ramosi, pedicellis perplurimis, 1-2 hm 
longis. Flores parvi. Petala albido-lutescentia ex Vogel. 
Baccce siccitate nigrse, in vivo ex Vogel nigrescenti-purpu- 
rascentes ; 2-3 lin. diametro. Testa seminum coriaceo-car- 
nosa, albumine nullo ; cotyledonibus conduplicatis, sparse 
nigro-punctatis. 
In this and the following species the cotyledons are remarkably 

conduplicate, a character possibly peculiar to the African species, 

as may be also the delicately membranous nature of the perfectly 

smooth leaf. 

Plate XXI. Fig. 1. flower;/. 2. pistillum;/. 3. fruit, nat. 
size; f. 4. the same, magnified; f. 5. transverse section of 
the same ; /. 6. seed ; /. 7. embryo. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 243 

3. Psorospermum alternifolium, Hook. fil. ; glaberrimum, ramis 
validis teretibus, ramulis crassis elongatis glaucis, foliis petio- 
latis inferioribus alternis omnibus obovato-oblongis obtusis 
acutisve valde coriaceis basi angustatis super nitidis subter 
glaucis reticulatim venosis sparse nigro-punctatis, pedunculis 
axillaribus lateralibusve laxe paniculatis, paniculis di-tri-cho- 
tomis, sepalis 4-5 glaberrimis obtusis, petalis basi squamula 
minima auctis apice inflexis acuminatis intus subvillosis, an- 
drophoris barbatis 5-7-andris, ovario 5-loculari, loculis sub 
2-ovulatis, bacca abortu 2-3-loculari, loculis 2-spermis, testa 
serobiculata. — Sierra Leone ; Don. 

Frutex 2-pedalis. Ramuli diametri penna3 corvinae, lseves, gla- 
berrimi. Petioli 4-6 lin. longi. Folia erecta, superiora 
opposita, csetera alterna, 4-7 unc. longa, 3-4 lata, seniora 
rigida, coriacea, super nitida, venosa, subter opaca, albido- v. 
cceruleo-glauca, nigro-punctata. Panicula 3 unc. longa, 
ramis gracilibus erectis. Flores 3 lin. longi. Bacca parvse, 
vix 2 lin. latae, calyce paulo aucto suffultse. Semina omnino 
ut in P. tenuifolio. 
A noble species ; remarkable for the alternate lower leaves, 

stout ramuli, the glaucous hue of the latter, as of the petioles, 

and under sides of the leaves, the large panicles, small 

berries, and conduplicate cotyledons. 
The other species of this genus are P. Senegalense, Spach, 

which is the Hypericum Guineense, Linn., (but perhaps not 

Vtsmia Guineensis of Choisy), a Senegambian plant, and P. 

fcbrifuffum, Spach, fromAngola. 

1- Haronga paniculata, Pers. Syn. 2. p. 91 (sub Arungana). 
Grand Bassa and Fernando Po, Vogel ; Sierra Leone, Don. ; 

Senegambia. 

I cannot distinguish the W. African specimens from those of 
the Mozambique, Mauritius and Madagascar. Vogel remarks 
that it is a shrub, and Don a tree 20 it. high. 
1- Vismia Leonensis, Hook. SL; ramulis teretibus oppositis 

velutino-pubescentibus, foliis petiolatis late elliptico-ovatis 

oblongo-lanceolatisve utrinque angustatis membranaceis 

R 2 



244 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



super glabratis subter ferrugineo-tomentosis nigro-punctatis, 
cymis axillaribus paucifloris, pedicellis elongatis pedunculo 
sequilongis sepalisque obtusis pubescentibus, bacca globosa 
pulposa 5-loculari, loculis polyspermis, seminibus subcylin- 
draceis. — Sierra Leone ; Vogel, (cult.), Don. 

Rami graciles ; cortice pallide cinereo rimoso ; ramulis divan- 
catis. Petioli 2-3-pollicares. Folia inferiora parva, late 
elliptico-oblonga, 1-1 \ unc. longa, superiora majora, oblongo- 
lanceolata, 4-pollicaria, in apicem acuminatam angustata, sub- 
membranacea, margine obscure undulata, super fusco-brunnea, 
opaca, subter pallidiora, flavo-fusca v. rufo-ferruginea, pube 
stellata subtomentosa, penninervia. Pedunculi graciles, 4 lin. 
longi, dichotome v. subumbellatim ramosi. Baccce diametro 
Pisi majusculi. Testa Crustacea pallide flavo-brunnea, leviter 
reticulata, albumine v. endopleura parca ; embryone tereti, 
cylindraceo. 
The specimens are flowerless, but tbe structure of the fruit 

and seed so entirely accord with the S. American Vismice, that 

though perhaps the only extra- American species of the genus, 1 

refer it to that with little hesitation. 

It is to be borne in mind that it appears to abound at Sierra 

Leone, where Vogel distinctly says it is in cultivation. 

The Lancretia suffruticosa, Del., a plant common to Senegal 

and Egypt, is the only other W. African Hypericinea known to 



me. 



XXVII. MalpighiacejE. 

1. Acridocarpus plagiopterus, Guill. et Perr. Fl. Seneg. I- P- 
123. t. 29.— Anomalopteris obovata, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 
1. 642. — Sierra Leone, Don.; Senegambia. 

2. Acridocarpus Smeathmanni, Guill. et Perr. /. c. p- 1^4. 
Anomalopteris spicata, Don, I. c. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

3. Acridocarpus longifolius, Hook. fil. ; glaberrimus, ramis graci- 
libus, foliis alternis breve petiolatis lineari-oblongis elongatis 
apice angustatis acuminatisque margine undulatis membra- 
naceis subter vix glandulosis, petiolo biglanduloso, racemo 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 245 

terminali breviusculo paucifloro, pedicellis gracillimis sepalis- 
que puberulis, bracteolis subulatis eglandulosis. — Anomalop- 
teris longifolia, Don, I c— St. Thomas, Don. 
rrutex 8-pedalis. Rami graciles, crassitie penna3 anatinse, 
teretes ; cortice pallide cinereo ; ramulis rufescentibus. Folia 
5-lOunc. longa, 2£-41ata, oblongo-obovata v. lineari-obovata, 
ramea obovato-lanceolata ; membranacea, utrinque glaberrima, 
integerrima, in petiolum non angustata, superne in apicem 
obtusum acutumve angustata, super fusco-viridia, reticulatim 
venosa, subter pallide viridia, glandulis paucis notata ; petiolo 
i unc. longo. Racemus terminalis, 4-pollicaris, pedunculo 
pube ferruginea vestito ; pedicellis gracilibus, \ unc. longis. 
F lores flavi, £ unc. lati. Sepala late oblonga, puberula, 
unico basi glandula maxima depressa notato. Petala calyce 
quadruplo longiore ; marginibus erosis. 
Anis is Don's Anomalopteris longifolia, so called in his 
collections, though differing from the insufficient and inaccurate 
description in the " Gardener's Dictionary." It cannot, how- 
ever, be the A. Guineensis of Adrien Jussieu, which that author 
particularly describes as having very coriaceous leaves, whereas 
nose of this plant are even more membranous than in A, 
Smeathmanni. 

Acridocarpus Guineensis, Adr. Juss. Malpigh. p. 231 j ramis 
validis supremis puberulis, foliis alternis breve petiolatis co- 
naceis lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis integerrimis glaberrimis 
super laevibus subter reticulatim venosis, petiolo biglandu- 
loso ; racemis lateralibus, pedunculo valido, pedicellis sepalis- 
que oblongis pubescentibus, bracteolis subulatis, samaris 
glabris, ala gradatim dilatata apice oblique rotundata. 
Fernando Po, Vogel. 
Frutex sarmentosus, 4-5-pedalis ; ramis pendulis, apices versus 
praecipue puberulis. Folia 6-10 unc. longa, 3-4 lata, coriacea, 
super opaca laevia, subter palhdiora venis prominulis reticulata, 
remote punctata, basi glandulis majusculis 2-3 instructa; 
petiolo incrassato, £ unc. longo. Racemi 3-4 unc. longi, 
erecti, multiflori; pedicellis infimis curvatis, | unc. longis. 



246 FLORA. NIGRITIANA. 



Calycis lacinise oblongse, pubescentes. Corolla flava ; petalis 
fere £ unc. longis. Ovarium dense pubescens. Samara % 
pollicaris, glabra v. puberula, e basi dilatata, latior quam in 
A. Smeathmanni et plagiopteride. 



<sus 



sparse tuberculatis, foliis breviter petiolatis coriaceis elliptico- 
ovatis ohlongisve acutis integerrimis glaberrimis super lsevi- 
bus subter reticulatim venosis basi biglandulosis, racemis 
axillaribus terminalibusque corymbosis pubescentibus folio 
multoties brevioribus, pedunculo sursum incrassato, pedicellis 
elongatis gracilibus, floribus parvis. — Cape Coast Castle, 

Vogel. 

Arbuscula. Rami diametro pennse anatinse ; cortice fusco, 
tuberculis sparsis instructo. Folia 3 unc. longa, If l ata > 
basi obtusa, glandulis (nisi ad apicem petioli) nulhs, v. ro- 
conspicuis, super fusco-brunnea, subter pallidiora, opaca; 
petiolo 2 lin. longo. Pedunculus vix uneialis post anthesin 
subclavatus. Inflorescentia corymbosa, corymbo 1 unc. lato, 
multifloro ; bracteolis parvis, subulatis ; pedicellis gracilibus, 
\ unc. longis. Calycis lobi rotundati, extus puberuli, unico 
basi glandula depressa instructo. Flores £ unc. lati. 

Plate XXIV. Fig. 1. flower, without the petals; / 2. stamen; 
/. 3. ovary ; all more or less magnified. 
The other W. African hwcias of thi« wnns are. A. Cavanit- 



> ns%s 



from Angola ; and an undescribed Senegambian species in the 
Hookerian Herbarium, collected by Heudelot. 

1. Heteropterys Africana, Adr. Juss., Malp. p. 202.— Sierra 

Leone, and Grand Bassa, Vogel ; Senegambia. 

2. Heteropterys Jussieui, Hook. fil. ; foliis elliptico-oblongis 
lineari-lanceolatisve acuminatis coriaceis super lucidis planis 
bullatisve subter reticulatim venosis glaucis, paniculis ternu- 
nalibus trichotome ramosis pubescentibus, calycis lacinns 
biglandulosis, samara circumscriptione semicirculari ala pl» na 
semini conforme. — Sierra, Leone, Don, Vogel. 

There is little but the very different form of the samara to 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 247 

distinguish this from H. Africana. Each carpel has a broad 

semicircular wing, produced equally above, below, and out- 
wardly. 

The above are the only two extra-American representatives of 
a genus numbering no less than eighty-two species, and afford 
a striking example of the' relation subsisting between the East 
American and West African Floras. 
1. Triaspis odorata, Adr. Juss. in Deless. Ic. 3. p. 21. t. 36, 

Fernando Po, Vogel ; Guinea, Thonning. 

The T.flabellaria, Adr. Juss., from Senegambia, concludes 
the catalogue of W. African Malmahiacece. 



XXVIII. Sapindace,e. 

1. Cardiospermum Halicacabum, Linn., var. hirsutum. — Fre- 
quent along the coast, from Cape Verd to the Niger River. 

2. Cardiospermum microcarpum, H.B.K. Nov. gen. et sp. 5. 
p. 104. — Senegambia ; also in Vogel's collection, without the 
precise station, but probably as frequent as C. Halicacabum. 
A very distinct plant from the former, in the small, short, 

broadly-triangular, trigonous capsules, depressed at the top, 
although when in flower only it is difficult to distinguish it. 
Both species vary in the greater or less degree of pubescence 
of the stems, young leaves, and pods, or in their perfect smooth- 
ness, yet it is probably the C. Halicacabum that Schumacher and 
Thonning refer to as C. hirsutum, and that the C. microcar- 
pum is their C. glabrum. Both species are so widely diffused 
over Tropical America, the whole of Africa, the East Indies, and 
the islands of the Pacific, that we have no other data to deter- 
mine which is more particularly their native country, than this, 
that America is the exclusive station for all other known species 
of the genus. The C. microcarpum has been since published 
by Miguel (Limuea, p. 18. 359), under the name of C. acumina- 
tum, and Cape- Verd specimens of it were included under C. Hali- 
cacabum in the first portion of this vol., p. 114. 
1. Paullinia pinnata, Linn.— Senegal, Sieber ; Sierra Leone, 



248 FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 



Cape Coast, Fernando Po, St. Thomas, and Congo River, 

Christ. Smithy Vogel, Don, &c. 

An abundant W. African plant, variable in the size of the 
foliage, from which P. Senegaknsis, Juss., P. uvata, Schum. et 
Thonn., and P. Africana, Don, do not appear to be distinct. 
It is also frequent in the West Indies.- The only other West 
African species of this large American genus, and the only one 
hitherto published as extra- American is the P. sphcerocarpa, 
Kich., from Guinea. 

1. Schmidelia Africana, DC, Pro d. 1. p. 610.— Ornitrophe 
tristachyos, Schum. et Thonn., Beskr. p. 188 ?— Sierra Leone, 
Aboh, Quorra, and Grand Bassa, Vogel ; Senegal, Sieber, &c. 
Apparently a very common species along the coast, and very 

closely allied to the 8. Abyssinica, Hochst., from Abyssinia, and 
to the S. melanocarpa and leucocarpa, Presl. (Rhus., E Mey. ib 
PL Drege MS.), from South Africa ; but all these appear to have 
rather larger flowers. The 8. serrata from E. India, and 
S. Cominia from the West Indies, have the leaves always downy 
underneath. 

2. Schmidelia hirtella, Hook. fiL— S. monophylla, Hook, fl- 
irt Ic. PI. t. 775 (Tab. XXV.) Eamis petiolis foliisque 
subter pubescenti-pilosis, foliolo solitario membranaceo obo- 
vato-oblongo basi angustato apice abrupte longe acuminato 
remote argute dentato, costa super puberula, racemis axillanbus 
multifloris petiolo paulo longioribus, floribus parvis 4-nieris, 
petalis intus dense villoso-barbatis, glandulis (inter stamina et 
petala) obcuneatis. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Frutex. Ramuli graciles, subflexuosi, teretes, pubescenti-pilosi ; 
cortice pallido. Folia alterna 1-foliolata. Peliolus £-un- 
cialis, erecto-patens. Foliolum amplum, 6-7 unc. longum, 
3 latum, ad apices venularum dentatum, super luride vires- 
cens subter pallidius, ad axillas venarum lanuginosum. R a ~ 
cemi unciales ; pedicellis 1-2-floris. Pedunculus gracihs, pube- 
scens. Flores masculi globosi, \ lin. lati. Sepala 2 exteriora 
minora et angustiora, interiora lata, concava. Petala obo- 
vata, unguiculata, sepalis multoties minora, intus barba de- 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 249 

pendente ancta. Squamuhe carnosse, petala sequantes, emar- 

ginatse. Stamina 8 ; filamentis crassiusculis glaberrimis. 

Fl. foeminei ignoti. 

A very distinct species, though belonging to a unifoliolate 
group, which is common to the W. Indies, Brazil, S. Africa, 
and Ceylon. One of the S. African ones named by E. Meyer, in 
Drege's collection, Rhus monophylla, has been rightly placed 
by Presl in Schmidelia, under the name of S. monophylla in 
his Botanische Bemerkungen, a work we had not seen when we 
first gave the same name to the present species. 
Plate XXV. Fig. 1. bud; /. 2. flower without the calyx; /. 3. 

petal ; all magnified. 

The S. affinis, Guill. et Perr., of Senegal, probably the same 
as Ornitrophe magica, Schum. et Thonn. from Guinea, and Orni- 
trophe thyrsoidea, Schum. et Thonn., are the only other West 
African congeners. 
1* Sapindus Senegalensis, Poir. Diet. 6, p. 666. — S. Guineensis, 

G. Don, Gard. Diet. I. p. 666? — Senegal, Brunner ; on the 

Gambia, Don. 

The S. saponaria, Linn., is said by Brunner to be cultivated 
in Senegambia and at St. Yago (Cape de Verd), and to have 
become almost wild in woods of the valley of San Domingo, in 
the latter island. 

1. Deinbolliajtfiwrcafo, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr.p. 242. — Prostea 
pinnata, Camb. in Mem. Mus. Par. 18. p. 39. — Guinea, in 
VogeVs collection without the exact locality. 

2. Deinbollia ? grandifolia, Hook. fil. ; glaberrima, ramis vali- 
dis, petiolis elongatis teretibus laevibus basi incrassatis, foliolis 
amplis alternis subremotis breve petiolulatis lineari-oblongis 
lanceolatisve basi insequaliter cuneatis rotundatis integerrimis, 
paniculis axillaribus folio brevioribus ramosis, fructibus didy- 
mis subbaccatis. — Cape Palmas, Vogel. 

Arbor 8-pedalis. Rami lseves, crassitie digiti minoris. Petiolus 
2-pedalis ? teres, glaberrimus, cortice pallide fusco. Foliola 
8 unc. ad pedalia, super leviter, subter profundius reticulata, 
pallide viridia, subcoriacea, vix nitida ; petiolulis 3 lin. longis. 
Panicula fructifera pedalis, ramosa, erecta ; ramis subangu- 



250 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

latis pallide punctatis, sub lente puberulis. Pedicelli fructus 
lignosi, 3 lin. longi. 

A very handsome species, but unfortunately neither in flower 
or fruit. The latter having fallen away, I have taken the 
brief description of that organ from a note on the ticket, by 
Dr. Vogel, which adds that it is lemon-colour. The leaflets are 
very large. 

3. Deinbollia insignis, Hook. fil. ; glabra, foliolis 13 v. ultra 
amplis alternis brevissime petiolulatis oblongo-ellipticis acu- 
minatis undulatis basi obtusissimis, paniculis infrafoliaceis ad 
axillas foliorum delapsorum elongatis, sepalis extus puberulis, 
petalis glabris ciliatis, staminibus ciliatis. — Fernando Po, 
Vogel. 
Truncus subarborescens, orgyalis, 2 poll, diametro, apice coro- 
nam fert foliorum bipedalium. Horum uncium adest nee 
perfectum, pars enim inferior deest ; glaberrimum est, rhachis 
crassa obtuse subangulata. Foliola alterna, 8-10 poll, longa, 
3-4 poll, lata, petiolulo crasso brevissimo v. vix ullo, utrmque 
viridia, nervis pinnatis et venulis reticulatis numerosis promi- 
nulis scabriuscula. Panicula semipedales ad pedales, intra 
comam e trunco ortse, parum ramosse, novellas puberulse. 
Hamuli breves, irregulariter subcymosse. Pedicelli breves, 
superne incrassati, tomentosi. Sepala 5, orbiculata, concava, 
valde imbricata, parum insequalia, 2^-3 lin. diametro. Petala 
5, sepalis minora, orbiculata, intus basi squama lata pl us 
minus ciliolata aucta. Discus carnosus, parum prominulus. 
Stamina circa 20 ; filamenta brevia, hirta ; antherce oblongo- 
sagittatse, filamentis paullo longiores, dorso ciliatse. Ovarium 
hirtellum, trilobum. Stylus brevis, trilobus. Fructus deest. 
1. Blighia sapida, Keen. Ann. Bot. 1806. v. 2. p. 571— Cupania 
edulis, Schum. et Thonn., Beskr. p. 190.— Cultivated at 
Frederiksgaue, Vogel ; found wild on the plains of Guinea, 
according to Thonning, 

Lecaniodiscus, Planch.* (nov. gen.) 

■ 

Calyx 5-partitus. Petala 0. Discus calycis fundum occupans 

* From Vogel's imperfect specimens, Dr. Hooker was unable to make 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 251 

obscure 10-crenatus. Stamina 10, intra disci marginem in- 
serta, antheris oblongis. Ovarium villosum, apice vix in 
stylum brevissimum attenuatum, intus triloculare. Stigma 
crassum, reflexo-trilobum. Ovula in loculis solitaria erecta. 
Drupa obovoidea v. globosa, styli reliquiis apicalibus, intus 
abortu unilocularis. Semen arillo mucoso involutum. Em- 
bryo rectus, cotyledonibus crassis conferruminatis, radicula 
parva. — Frutex? Africa? occidentals tropicse, habitu Cupanue. 
Folia impari-pinnata, foliolis oppositis v. alternis integer- 
nmis. Hacemi breves axillares, floribus secus rbacbin fas- 
ciculatis, breviter pedicellatis. 

1. Lecaniodiscus cupanioides. Planch. MS. — Accra, Vogel ; 
Sierra Leone, Don ; also Senegambia, Heudelot, in the 
Hookerian Herbarium. 

Frutex v. arbor, ramulis sulcatis pubescenti-tomentosis. Folio- 
rum petiolus communis 3-6-pollicaris, sulcatus, puberulus. 
Foliola 6-11, breve petiolulata, obovata obtusa v. brevissime ob- 
tuso-acuminata, basi breviter angustata, margine integerrima, 
at obscure undulata, submembranacea, supra siccitate fusco- 
brunnea, subtus pallidiora, glabra v. subtus ad costas pube- 
rula, penninervia, venulis inter nervos reticulars . Hacemi 
1 i-2 poll, longi, rhachide rufo-tomentello. Bractea parvae, 
caducissimae. Pedicelli solitarii v. 2-3-ni, puberuli, 2 lin. 
longi. Calycis lacinise fere 2 lin. longee, oblongse, obtusse, 
crassiusculse, intus extusque pubesccntes, per anthesin re- 
flexse. Discus \\ lin. diametro, piano- patellseformis, crena- 
turis vix conspicuis et fere usque ad marginem calycis fun do 
adnatus. Stamina glabra, ovario vix longiora. Ant her a 
filamento paullo breviores, biloculares, rimis longitudinalibus 
dehiscentes. Ovarium sessile, ovoideo-globosum, dense villo- 
sum. Stylus brevissimus in lobos latos crasse stigmatosos 
ovato-hippocrepideos deflexos brevissime divisus. Drupa 

out the genus of this plant, and had referred it with doubt to Cupania, of 
which it has the habit. Dr. Planchon having since found a flowering 
specimen in Heudelot's collection, and ascertained that they belonged to 
an entirely new genus, I have drawn up the abbreviated character from 
the two specimens.— (G. B.) 



252 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

semi-unciam longa, extus tomentosa et in vivo (ex Vogel) 

lutea, pericarpio tenuiter carnosa, endocarpio tenui. Semen 

cavitatem fractus implens, arillo mucoso (cujus rodimentum 

jam sub ovulo ante anthesin apparet) involutum. 

The apetalous flowers, and the remains of the stigmate at the 

summit of the fruit, and not lateral, distinguish this genus from 

Sapindus, and bring it nearer to Schleichera, from which it is 

readily distinguished by the calyx, the anthers, and the embryo. 

1. Dodonsea viscosa, Linn. — On the Gambia, Don ; Senegal, 

Sieber. 

Don's specimens, in excellent fruit, are undoubtedly identical 
with the Jamaica plant, which Schlechtendahl, with reason, 
considers as the best entitled to retain the Linnsean specific 
name. Sieber' s specimens, which the same botanist establishes 
as a distinct species, under the name of D. Kohautiana, appear 
to be only a slight variety, partly accidental, from the manner 
in which the resinous exudation has dried, so as to give them a 
scaly appearance. D. repanda, of Schum. and Thonn., from 
Guinea, is evidently closely allied, but may be distinct. 

The Erioglossum cauliflorum, Guill. et Perr., from Senegam- 
bia, referred by Arnott to the Cupania canescens, Pers., is tne 
only other W, African Sapindacea known to me besides the 
following, considered by Planchon as forming with Melianthus 
and Bersama, a distinct Order, Melianthece, but which undoubt- 
edly bears considerable affinity to, if it be not a mere tribe of, 
Sapindacea. 

1. Natali* paullinioides, Planch. (Tab. XXIX) ; foliis cum impan 
7-10-jugis, foliolis oppositis v. passim alternis petiolatis lan- 
ceolatis breviter cuspidatis utrinque acutis glabriusculis 
(nervis subtus tantum pilosulis) remote serrulatis serraturis 
incurvis, supra siccitate nigrescentibus subtus pallidis, racemo 
oppositifolio pedunculato plurifloro, bracteis parvis subulatis, 
pedicellis calyce brevioribus v. eum subsequantibus, petalorum 
lamina lineari-oblonga cristulis parvulis basi ornata v. nuda, 
ungue pro parte sericeo-albido, stylo inferne piloso stanuni- 
busque exsertis. — Sierra Leone, Vogel. 
Frutex (verosimiliter scandens) facie Paullinm. Hamuli pe- 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 253 

tiolique communes rhachidesque racemi sulcati et pube de- 
tersibili primum hinc inde sparsi, demum glabrati. Stipulte 
in unam extra-axillarem brevem, ovatam, dorso sericeam con- 
crete. Racemus 7-pollicaris, inferne nudus, medio cicatrici- 
bus pedicellorum notatus, apice confertiflorus. Flores illis 
jEsculi Hippocastani minores, leviter irregulares. Calyx 
profunde 4-fidus, lacinia infera (antica) apice bidentata (e 2 
constante). Petala 5, sestivatione imbricata, infimo emar- 
ginaturse lacinise infimse calycis respondent e, inde sepalis 2 
connatis alterno, cseteris angustiore. Stamina 4. Fila- 
menta basi dilatata, duorum petalorum infimorum connata, 2 
lateralium libera. Glandula carnosa, brevis, sepalo postico 
opposita, propter stamina externa. Ovarium 4-loculare pilis 
runs vestitum. Stigma pyramidato-truncatum. (Planchori). 
Plate XXIX. Fig. 1. bud, side view; /. 2. flower; /. 3. the 
same, with only the stamens, pistil, gland, lower petal and 
one of the posterior petals ; f. 4. stamens, gland, and pistil, 
back view ; /. 5. gland; f. 6. ovary, vertical section ; f. 7. 
summit of the style ; all more or less magnified. 



XXIX* Meliacejs.* 

1 • Turrsea Vogelii, Hook. fil. ; ramulis pubescentibus, foliis 
elliptico-ovatis acuminatis integerrimis ad venas pubescenti- 
bus, floribus pedicellatis pentameris, calyce brevissime den- 
tato, tubi staminei dentibus 10 setaceis demum patentibus, 
ovario 12-loculari, styli parte inflata apice tantum stigmatosa 
petala non excedente. — Sea Coast, Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Frutex m (fide Vog.) ramosissimus, ramis elongatis sarmentosis, 
pube brevi subvelutina obtectis. Folia 4-6 poll, longa, 2-3 
poll, lata, acumine obtusiusculo, margine integerrima subun- 
dulata, inaequilatera et basi saepius obliqua, ima basi obtusa et 
rotundata v. brevissime aculata, membranacea, penninervia et 

* The characters and descriptions in this and the two following Orders 
are drawn up by myself from Dr. Hooker's memoranda, as well as from 
nry own examination of the specimens. (G. B.) 



254 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

reticulata, costis et venis primariis prsesertim subter pube 

brevi tomentellis, petiolo circa 3 lin. longo pubescente ; folia 

novella venis dense hirtis flavicant. Pedunculi in axillis su- 

perioribus bipollicares, apice umbellam ferunt pluri- (8-10 ?) 

floram, Pedicelli tomento minimo canescentes, 4-5 lin. longi, 

basi bracteis parvis sericeis confertis stipati. Calyx cupuli- 

fornris, tomentellus, lineam longus. Petala 10-11 lin. longa, 

lineari-oblonga, basi longe angustata, extus in sicco vix 

tomento tenuissimo leviter canescentia, in vivo fide Vogel 

intus albida et patentia. Tubus stamineus dimidio petalorum 

longior, tenuiter cylindracea, intus infra apicera pilosulus, 

cseterum glaber; dentes apicales setacei, anthens vix 

breviores, superne integri v. bifidi et papilloso-serrulati, in 

alabastro erecti et inter antheras stylo appressi, per antnesin 

reflexo-patentes.* Anthera ad apicem tubi subsessiles, ob- 

lon go-linear es, connectivo in apiculam uncinato-inflexam pro- 

ducto. Stylus usque ad apicem antherarum tenuis, dein 

inflatus, oblongo-linearis, glandula stigmatosa crassa sub- 

integra depressa coronatus. Ovarii loculi 12 vidi in nores 

paucos quos examinavi. 

2. Turrsea propinqua, Hook. fil. ; ramulis glabriusculis, folus 

elliptico-oblongis obtusis v. vix acuminatis integerrhnis (v. 

apice lobatis ?) basi angustatis glabris v. vix ad venas minute 

puberulis, floribus pedicellatis pentameris, calyce brevissime 

dento; tubi staminei dentibus 20 setaceis demum patentibus, 

ovario 12-loculari, styli parte innata apice tantum stigmatosa, 

petala superante. — St. Thomas, Don. 

Rami quam in prsecedente tenuiores, nonnisi juniores tenuissmie 

puberuli. Folia minora et angustiora, majora in specinnne 

vix tripollicaria, semelque in specimen folium apice lobatum 

occurrit. Pedunculi pollicares, pedicellis in umbella seini- 

* The arrangement of these curious appendages in the bud, as well as 
the texture of the upper portion of them, seem to indicate that they are 
destined, as well as the hooks on the top of the anthers, to perform some 
function at the time of fecundation, perhaps analogous to that of the 
collecting hairs found in so many plants at the same period on the style or 
other contiguous parts. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 255 

pollicaribus 6-10-nis bracteolis paucis parvis basi stipatis. 

Flares minores quam in T. Vogelii, albi, fragrantissimi 

(ex Don) . Petala semipollicaria crassiuscula, extus siccitate 

canescentia. Calyces et genitalia T. Vogelii in omnibus nisi 

stylo ratione calycis longiore et dentibus tubi staminei (in 

flore unico a me examinato) 20 nee 10. Ovarii loculi 12. 

The T. heterophylla, Sm., the only species mentioned by 

Bennett in his review of the genus as from West Tropical 

Africa, is different from either of the above. Don has likewise 

published (Gard. Diet. 1. p. 678) a T. quercifolia from Sierra 

Leone, which may possibly be the same as T. lobata, since 

published and figured by Lindley (Bot. Keg. 1844, t. 4.) from 

the some country. This belongs to Bennett's first division, 

although Rcemer, on geographical grounds, places it in his 

genus Rutcea, founded on Bennett's second division. 

1. Melia Azederach, Linn. — M. augustifolia, Schum. Thonn. 

Beskr. } p. 212. — Sierra Leone, Don, probably cultivated. 
1- Trichilia emetica, Vahl, Symb. 1. p. 31. — Goniostephanus 
tomentosus, Fenzl, Flora, 1844, p. 312.— Elkaja emetica, 
Forst. Rcem. Syn. Mon. Hesperid. p. 116. — Sierra Leone, 
Herb. Hook, ; Senegambia, Heudelot. Also a native of 
Nubia and Arabia. 

The T. Prieuriana, A. Juss., from Senegambia (to which 
* • Ruppeliana, Fresen., from Abyssinia, appears closely allied) 
and an undescribed one from Senegambia are the only other 
West African species known to me, but Dr. Planchon suggests 
that the Limonia ? monadelpha, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 217. 
is probably also a Trichilia. 

1. Carapa Guineensis, Sweet, Hort. Brit, et in A. Juss. Mem. 

Mel. p. 90.— C. Touloucouna, Guill. et Perr. FL Seneg. L 

p. 128. — Touloucouna gigantea, Ram. Syn. Mon. Hesperid. 

l'J>. 123. — Senegal, Sierra Leone, Don? 

This tree produces an oil employed in making soap for 

anointing the body, as is the case with the C. Guianensis, of 

which species Ad. Juss , and others who have examined the two 

plants, suspect that the African one may be a mere variety. 



256 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

The number of parts of the flowers, although usually different in 
he two, is expressly stated by Jussieu not to be so constant 
in C. Guianensis as to warrant the making use of it as a specific 
distiction, still less as a generic one, as proposed by Roemer, 
apparently without re-examination of specimens. 
1. Khaya Senegalensis, Guill. et Perr. Fl. Seneg. \. p. 130. /. 

32.— Senegal, Brunner ; Sierra Leone, Don. 
Wood like Mahogany, and very useful for various purposes. 
The Ekebergia Senegalensis is the only other West African 
plant of this order known to me. (G. B.) 



XXX. AuRANTIACEiE. 

1. Glycosmis ? Africana, Hook.fi].; foliolis solitariis oblongo- 
ellipticis breviter acuminatis margine recurvis coriaceis, drupis 
obovoideo-oblongis (abortu ?) monospermis. — St. Thomas, 
Don. 

Specimen unicum fructiferum, formis unifoliolatis latifoliis G. 
citrifolue (Limonia parviflora, Sims, L. citrifolia, Wind, et 
DC. non Roxb. quae Glycosmis? citrifolia, W. et Am. et 
Roem. Syn ) simile, sed baccarum forma certe diversa. Petioh 
teretes, 3-4 lin. longi, apice articulati. Foliolum 4-6 poll. 



nitidum 



venulis 



parallelis reticulatisque. Inflorescentia omnino G. citrifolia • 
Flores desunt sed ex calycis vestigiis pentameri videntur. 
Drupte 4-5 lin. longae, stigmate subsessili disciformi coronatse, 
pericarpio carnoso cellulis oleiferis numerosis, endocarpio 
membranaceo ; pulpa in sicco nulla apparet. Semen unicum, 
ex apicem pendulum, cavitatem implens ; testa rigide mem- 
branacea; embryo ad hilum spectans ; cotyledones crassa?, 
carnosa?, basi integrse, celluhs oleiferis numerosis ; radicula 
brevissima, plumula minima. 
1. Claussena anisata, Hook. fil. — Amyris anisata, Wild. Spec. 2. 
p. 337.— Fagarastrum anisatum, G. Don, Gard. Did. 2. p> 
87. — Cape Coast, Vogel. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 257 



The genus Amyris had already been restricted to American 
plants by Kunth and others ; Wight and x\rnott showed that 
the Indian ones at least belonged to Aurantiacece, and chiefly 
to Claussena. Don, however, in establishing the genus Fa- 
garastrum for the African species,' retained them among Tere- 
ointhacea, without alluding to Aurantiacea. Presl has since 
perceived the affinity to the latter order of the South African 
species, but without comparing it either with Claussena or 
with Will den oVs A. anisata 3 (from which it is separated by 
characters so slight as possibly not even to be specific), created a 
new genus under the name of Myaris. Both African species, 
C. anisata and C. inccqualis, are very near in habit and cha- 
racter to the C. Willdenowii, but differ, not only in the form 
°f the leaves and other minor points, but also in what at first 
ought appear more important, that the ovules are usually, 
especially in C. incequalis, collateral and not superposed. It 
must be observed, however, that even in the Indian species the 
ovules are collaterally inserted, although from the form of the 
c ell they place themselves one above the other as they are 
developped, the placenta becoming slightly elongated into an 
umbilical cord. In C. anisata and iruequalis, the number, form 
and size of the cells is variable ; they are usually small, and 
according to that form, the ovules at the time of flowering lie 
cither more or less superposed, or absolutely side by side, 
especially in C. inaequalis. 

*• Citrus aurantium, Linn. — C. articulata, Willd. in Spreng.Syst. 
3. p. 334 ? — Cape Palmas and Isle of S. Antonio, Vogel, (pro- 
bably cultivated.) 

The only other W. African Aurantiacea published is Citrus 
paniculata, Schum. and Thonn., from Guinea, which, however, 
*rom the character given, can scarcelv be a true Citrus. — 

(G. B.) 

XXXI. OlacinejE. 

h Heisteria parvifolia, Sm. in Bees' Cycl. ». 17; ramulis an- 
gulatis, foliis ovatis oblongisve acuminatis coriaceis, calycis 
fructiferi profunde lobati lobis subcordato-ovatis Rcutiiwculit 

s 



258 FLORA. NIGRITIANA. 

v. obtusis post fructus delapsos paten tibus sinubus reflexis 
Sierra Leone, Whitfield; Grand Bassa and Fernando Po, 
Vogel ; Senegal. 

The specimen described by Sir J. Smith was a small-leaved 
one, hence his name is not very appropriate although there do 
not appear to be sufficient grounds for changing it. The species 
is so closely allied to a common, although hitherto undescribed 
Brasilian species,* that one is almost tempted to consider it as a 
mere variety. The leaves are, however, usually rather smaller, 
narrower and thinner, and the divisions of the enlarged calyx 
not so blunt, with the sinus more reflexed. Both, however, may 
be mere forms of H. cauliflora, Sm.f 

Some specimens, in leaf only, gathered by Vogel in the woods 

of Fernando Po, and stated by him to be those of a shrub 

bearing a bitter fruit called Kola, of which the seeds are chewed 

by the natives, are conjectured by Dr. Planchon to belong to a 

new species of Heisteria, but there is no evidence to confirm 

the supposition, and some remains of flower-stalks seem to show 

an inflorescence very different from that of Heisteria. 

1. Strombosia ? grandifolia, Hook, fil.; foliis amplis obovali- v. 

elliptico-oblongis acuminatis, floribus axillaribus congestis bre- 

viter pedicellatis, calycis brevissime adhserentis limbo profunde 

5-fido, ovario sublibero triovulato, stigmate obsolete trilobo 

Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Frutex arborescens (ex Vog.) Rami teretes, lseves, graciles, uti 

tota planta glaberrimi. Folia 5-7 poll, longa, 3-4 poll, lata, 

petiolo semipollicari, apice in acumen subsemipolhcare pro- 

ducta, margine integerrima v. undulato-sinuata, basi rotundata 

v. cuneato-acutata, submembranacea, nitida, costa vahda e 

• H. Raddiana, (Benth MS.) 'ramulis subangulatis, foliis ovatis oblon- 
gisve obtusis v. breviter acuminatis crasso-coriaceis nitidis, calycis fruc- 
tiferi profunde lobati lobis ovato-orbicularibus obtusissimis post fructus 
delapsos patentibus, sinubus subreflexis. — Rio Janeiro, Raddi, Gardner, 
5379 and 5378 ? 

t To this I should refer, besides Cayenne specimens, Hostmann's n. 
194, from Surinam, and Gardner's n. 2516, 2787, and 5974, from Tropical 
Brasil. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 259 

nervis primariis pinuatis subtus prominulis percursa, et 
venulis trans versis creberrimis arcuato-subparallelis reticulata. 
Nodi floriferi axillares, flores plures parvos inconspicuos bre- 
viter pedicellatos ferunt. Pedicelli apice incrassati, carnosuli, 
cum toro et calycis tubo continui. Calyx minimus, subcam- 
panulatus, tubo brevissimo fere omnino adhserente, lobis bre- 
vibus ovatis obtusis. Petala 5, oblonga, sestivatione valvata, 
apice mflexa, basi inter se cohserentia, superne intus villosa. 
Filament a petalis opposita, numero iis sequalia et alte adnata. 
Ant her a ovato-oblongse. Ovarium crasso-carnosum apice 
pulvinato-depressum et (pressione petalorum) 5-angulatum, 
prope basi intus excavatum in loculos tres spurios apice 
confluent es. Ovula 3, e parte uniloculare pendula. Stylus 
brevissimus, apice crasse stigmatosus et obsolete triloba*. 
Fructus non vidi. 

lliere is little doubt, even without having seen the fruit, 
that this plant is referable to Blume's genus, Strombosia, as 
characterized by Gardner, although in the Ceylonese plant, and 
probably also in the Javanese, the ovary is pentamerous, and 
the calyx adheres rather higher up. Dr. Gardner is evidently 
correct in his views of the affinities of the genus, although 
w c can scarcely agree with him and Blume in describing the 
°vary as immersed in a fleshy disk. The thick fleshy mass 
a t the base of the style appears to us to be perfectly continuous 
^'ith, and to form part of the ovary itself, which in most Ola- 

cinea is very fleshy and thick compared with the ovuliferous 
cavity. 

Rhaphiostylis, Planch, (no v. gen.) 

Flares hermaphroditi. Calyx parvus, liber, 5-partitus. Petala 
5- Stamina totidem, iis alterna, sterilia nulla. Ovarium uni- 
loculare, ovulis 2, hinc ab apice pendulis collateralibus. Stylus 
excentricus, basi postice gibbus, gibbo sulcato. Fructus .... 
Inflorescentia axillaris. — Frutices Africa? tropicis glabri. Folia 
alterna integerrima perennantia. Flores in nodos axillares 
plures pedicellati, iis Apodytis simil« s. 

I* Rhaphiostylis Bemnensis, Planch. MSS.—Apodytes Bcni- 

s 2 



260 PLORA NIGRITIANA. 



nensis, Hook. fil. in Ic. PL t. 778. et tab. nostr. 28. 
Cape Palmas, Vogel. 
Frutex (ex Vog.) glaberrimus. Ramuli teretes v. striati. Folia 

i 

petiolata, ovali- v. elliptico-oblonga, breviter et obtuse acumi- 
nata, integerrima, margine recurvo, basi obtuse angustata, 
rigide membranacea v. subcoriacea, cost a venisque paucis pn- 
mariis validis, rete venarum tcnui; 2-4 poll, longa, f-li poll* 
lata, petiolo bilineari canaliculato. Pedicelli in nodos axil- 
lares per 10-12 aggregati, tenues, erecti, uniflori, 2-3 lin. 
longi, irna basi minute bracteolati. Alabastra oblonga, 3 lin. 
longa. Calyx minutus, fere ad basin 5 -partitas, laciniis ovato- 
triangularibu3 acutis basi leviter imbricantibus. Petala Ii- 
ncaria, (teste Vog. albo-viridia), apice uncinato-inflexa, intus 
glaberrima Filamenta tenuissime ciliata, a basi ultra medium 
concavo-dilatata, superne filiformia. Anthera oblonga?, pol- 
line trigono. Ovarium sessile, ovatum, compressum, glabrum, 
obliquum. Stylus excentricus, filiformis, incurvus, basi postice 
dilatatus in gibbum superne sulcatum, sulco fere ad medium 
styli obscure continuo ; styli apex clavato-stigmatosus obli- 
quus . 

The characters derived from the flower are so nearly those oi 
Apodytes, that in the absence of the fruit, Dr. Hooker had 
described it as a new species of that genus. Dr. Planchon has, 
however, named it as a new genus, and in this I should be dis- 
posed to agree with him, chiefly on account of the inflorescence, 
which in Olacinea appears very constant. The character de- 
rived from the ovary and style is also remarkable, and forms 
a positive distinction from those of Apodytes. The fruit remains 
unknown. 

Plate XXVIII. Fig. 1. flower, before expansion ; /. 2. stamen; 

/. 3. ovary and calyx ; /. 4. vertical section of the ovary ; 

/. 5. transverse section of the same ; f. 6. ovule, which should 

have been drawn in the inverse position, as in /. 4. 

A fine specimen, also in flower only, from Heudelot's Sene- 

gambian collection, is considered by Dr. Planchon as a second 

species, but I do not see any character to distinguish it by. 

Dr. Hooker observes that in Rhaphiolepis the base of the corolla 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 261 

■ 

(so called) is inserted on the apex of the pedicel, but not imme- 
diately within the calyx, whose true nature is probably that of an 
involucre, as suggested by Brown. 

Olacinece, considering the smallness of the Order, rather 
abound in Western Tropical Africa, there being besides the 
above, four other species known belonging to other genera, 
viz. : Ximenia Americana, L., common to both the New and the 
Old World; Groutia celtidi folia, Guill. et Pcrr., a Senegal plant 
closely allied to an Abyssinian congener ; Icacina Senegalensis, 
Juss , and another undescribed species of Icacina, gathered by 
Heudelot in Senegambia.— (G. B.) 

XXXII. VlNIFER^E. 

1- Cissus ccesia, Afz, in DC. Prod. 1. p. 628; caule glaberrimo 
terete glauco, foliis petiolatis late cordatis obscure angulatis 
subacutis ciliato-denticulatis super glabratis subter puberulis 
rehculatim venosis, pedunculis gracilibus superne pedicellis- 
que elongatis puberulis paucifloris, floribus parvis, drupis late 
obovatis. — Guinea, Afzelius ; Sierra Leone, Vogel, Don, 
(Countiy Grapes.) 
Rami crassitie pennse olorinse, pulchre glauci. Folia 5 unc. 
longa, super pube fulva sub lente subtilissime conspersa, 
lunde viridi-fusca, subter pube tenui grisea ornata ; petiolo 
puberulo, sub | unc. longo. Cirrhi validi, bi-multifidi. Pe- 
dunculus 2-pollicaris, di- trichotomus, gracilis, pedicellis \ 
Unc. longis, floribus triplo longioribus; alabastris breviter 
c ylindraceis, obtusis ; petalis 4, solutis. 

This differs from C. rufescens in the longer and more slender 
peduncles, in the fewer, smaller and less crowded flowers, and 
in the glaucous stems. The nerves of the leaf are not rufescent 
m any of Vogel's specimens : those of Don's Herb, are between 
the Senegalese and Dr. Vogel's in this character. 
2 - Cissus argute, Hook. fiL ; glaberrima, caule subgracili ob- 
scure tetragono basi subpolygono, foliis sublonge petiolatis 
ovatis acuminatis basi profunde cordatis argute serratis den- 
tibus erectis, stipulis late ovatis, cirrbis gracilibus, pedun- 



262 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

culis petiolo subaequilongis plerisque trichotomis puberulis, 

cymis subumbellatis 8-10-fioris. — On the Quorra, at Ibu, 

VogeL 
/9. Foliis paulo majoribus magis angustatis, floribus majoribus, 

petalis non cohserentibus. — On the Quorra, VogeL 
Rami fusco-virides, crassitie pennse anserinae. Folia utrinque 

glaberrima, siccitate rugulosa et crispata, 2-3 unc. (in /3. 4 unc.) 

longa ; 2^ ' lata, basi profunde cordata, pleraque late ovata, 

abrupte acuminata, superiora angustiora; petiolo i-f longit. 

folii. Stipules late ovatae. Pedunculi subgraciles, puberuli ; 

ramis pedicellisque pube fulva tectis. Calyx cyathiformis ; 

margine integro. Petala 1 lin. longa, apice cohaerentia v. 

soluta ; stamina basi glandulis aucta. 

Easily to be recognized by the crisp, smooth, and sharply- 
toothed leaves. 

3. Cissus uvifera, Afz.? DC. Prod. 1. p. 628; glaberrima, 
caule valido obscure tetragono, foliis sublonge petiolatis co- 
riaceis late o vat is acuminatis basi obtuse cordatis retusisve 
remote serratis subter nervosis, cirrhis validis, baccis Jonge 
pedicellatis globosis 1-locularibus 1-spermis, petalis 4 apice 
cohserentibus. — An C. populnea, Guill. et Perr. FL Seneg. p- 
134 ? — Sierra Leone and Fernando Po, VogeL 

Caules validi, diam. pennse olorinae, 4-goni v. obscure polygom, 
angulis siccitate nunc tuberculatis, striatis sulcatisve. Folia 
3-5 unc. longa, 2-3 \ lata, basi truncata v. cordata, sinu la- 
tissimo ; petiolo ^-2-pollicari subpeltatim affixo. Cyrrus pau- 
cinorae? ramis puberulis; pedicellis ^-uncialibus. 
Specimens very imperfect, and differing from the descriptions 

of C. uvifera in the leaves not being entire. 

4. Cissus petiolata, Hook. nl. ; glaberrima, caule suberoso ob- 
tuse tetragono striato glaberrimo, foliis longissime petiolatis 
pallide viridibus subcoriaceis opacis late ovatis obtusis basi 
5-nerviis latissime cordatis obscure sinuato-denticulatis, pe- 
dunculis ramisque cymse elongatis dichotomis paucinoris, stylo 
elongato, baccis majusculis oblongis.— Aguapim, VogeL 

Cauks siccitate pallide flavi, fragiles, suberosi, striati, ramuliq ue 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 263 

profunde 4-sulcati, angulis obtusis. Folia 3-4 unc. longa, 
ovata, lobis basi rotundatis, utrinque fusco-viridia, opaca, 
nervis non prominulis ; petiolo foliis longiore, gracili ; sti- 
pulis caducis. Racemi petiolo subaequilongi, trichotome ra- 
mosi ,♦ ramis glaberrimis, gracilibus, fructiferis divaricatis. 
Bacca* paucae, virides, \ unc. longse. 

A most distinct species, though in an imperfect state. It is 
allied to an Abyssinian plant, and also to the Cape C. fragilis, 
E. Mey., but the remarkable length of the petioles and pedicels 
will at once distinguish this. 

5. Cissus producta, Afz. ? DC. Prod. 1. p. 629 — Sierra Leone, 
Don. 

Folia integra, lanceolata, acuminata, obscure serrata, glaberrima, 
basi rotundata, baccis obovatis. 
Specimens too imperfect for determination. 

6. Cissus glaucophylla, Hook. fil. ; caule erecto ? glaberrimo 
tereti lsevi subglauco, foliis longe petiolatis late ovatis acumi- 
natis profunde cordatis lobis rotundatis integerrimis v. sinuato- 
dentatis coriaceis super lsevibus adultis cceruleo-glaucis, 
nervis subter prominulis obscure puberulis, stipulis late ovato- 
rotundatis, cirrhis nullis, paniculis terminalibus trichotomis 
nmltinoris, petalis 4 cohserentibus. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

hamuli obscure 4-goni. Folia late ovato-cordata v. suborbi- 
culata, subpeltatim petiolata, 3-5 unc. longa, 2-3 £ lata, in 
acumen elongatum producta, super lsevia, juniora atro-fusca, 
seniora pulchre glauca, subter castanea, opaca; petiolo folio 
breviore. Racemi 2-3-unciales, compositi, subcymosi, multi- 
flori, pedicellis ramisque puberulis. Flores umbellati, parvi, 
1 lin. longi. Calyx cyathiformis, depressus. Petala 4, ca- 
lyptratim cohserentia, basi calyce latiora. Stamina 4. Stylus 
gracilis, breviusculus. 

7 - Cissus tetraptera, Hook. fil. ; glaberrima, ramis crassis car- 
nosis tetrapteris ad nodos constrictis striatis, foliis breve 
petiolatis late reniformi-rotondatis profunde cordatis 5-lobis 
carnosis utrinque sub lente (e rhaphidibus perplurinns) cre- 
bcrrime punctato-striatis subargute serratis, cirrhis crassis 
elongatis, pedunculo tcrminali brevi apice umbcllato, pedicclli* 



264 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

elongatis, floribus majusculis 4-petalis. — Elephant's Bay, (S. 
of the Line), Dr. Curror. 
Rami crassitie digiti minoris, striati, valde carnosi, tetraquetri, 
angulis alatis, alis undulatis, pallide virides. Stipula trans- 
verse elongata?, breves. Petiolus 3-4-uncialis. Folia 2 unc. 
lata, crassa, carnosa, siccitate viridia, subtiliter reticulata, 
subpellucida, fasciculis rhaphidium valde conspicuis. Pedun- 
calus oppositifolius, pollicaris, striatus, \ unc. diametro, apice 
5-radiatus. Rami § unc. longi, umbellulam sub 7-floreni 
gerentes; pedicellis 4 lin. longis. Flores majusculi. Calyx 
brevis. Petala breviter ovato-oblonga ; staminibus 4 ; stylo 
cylindraceo stigmate simplici. 

Possibly a young branch of C. Currori, but in that plant I 
find no trace of an alate stem ; the panicle is different, as are 
the toothed lobes of the leaves. The raphides are in both so 
conspicuous as to cause a projection of the cuticle over the 
crystals, and give the semblance to the whole plant of being 
pubescent. 

8. Cissus Leonensis, Hook. fil. ; caule robusto tereti puberulo 
et setoso, foliis late orbiculatis cordatis palmatim 5-lobis super 
pubescentibus subter rufo-lanatis, lobis ovato-oblongis acumi- 
natis argute serratis, cirrhis multifidis, panicula vage decom- 
posite ramosa, ram is alternis, corolla pentapetata calyptrseformi. 
Sierra Leone, Vogel. 
Caulis herbaceus, crassus, teres, fuscus, pubescens, setisque 
patentibus sparsis instructus. Folia 8 unc. lata, submem- 
branacea, late cordata, supra medium lobata, super lunde 
fusca, sub lente subarachnoidea et puberula, subter lana 
tenui rufa subappressa instructa ; nervis 5, validis, radianti- 
bus, pubescentibus ; petiolo 4 unc. longo, pubescenti ; stipulis 
deciduis. Panicula brevis, pubescens, 2 unc. longus ; pedi- 
cellis brevissimis. Flores parvi, fere lineam longi, globosi. 
Calyx cyathiformis, margine integro submembranaceo. Pe- 
tala breviter ovata, crassiuscula, apice arete cohserentia. Sta- 
mina 3. Ovarium depressura, pentagonum, angulis sulcatis, 
filamenta foventibus ; stylo brevi, conico, crasso, truncato, 
10-sulcato, apice depresso v. subinfundibuliformi. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 265 

This should probably be referred to Vitis, from the decom- 
posed panicle, with always alternate branches, characters which 
would afford better characters for distinguishing these genera 
than those now in use. * 

9. Cissus Currori, Hook. fil. ; glaberrima, foliis amplis 3-folio- 
latis, petiolo valido, foliolis petiolulatis ovatis obtusis basi 
cordatis grosse et obtuse subduplicato-crenatis carnosis punctis 
prominulis (raphidibus) notatis, stipulis ovatis acutis, panicula 
effusa, pedunculo elongato ramis dichotomis divaricatis, flori- 
bus majusculis, petalis 4 non cohaerentibus. — Elephant's Bay, 
(S. of the Line), Dr. Curror. 
Species omnium e sectione trifoliolata ornatissimus, arborescens, 
ramosus, carnosus. Rami crassitie digitis majoris, profunde 
striati, glabrati. Stipules ramo angustiores, \ unc. longse. 
Petiolus 3-4-uncialis, striatus. Foliola 6 unc. longa, 4 lata, 
plana, siccitate pallide flavo-viridia, pellucida, basi cordata, 
sinu angusto, petiolulo folioli intermedii fere unciali. Pedun- 
culi axillares v. terminales, 3-4 unc. longi, erecti, stricti, 
petiolo graciliores, dichotome ramosi ; ramis divaricatis, pluries 
divisis; pedicellis brevibus crassis. Cirrhi nulli? Flores 
r unc. longi. Calyx parvus, cyathiformis. Corolla calyce latior; 
petalis breviter ovato-oblongis, obtusis. Stamina 4 ? Ova- 
rium depressum, latum, 4-gonum, profunde 4-sulcatum, 
stylo valido, subelongato, stigmate simplici. Bacca junior 
ovoidea. 

A noble species, to which I have attached the name of its 

lamented discoverer. It is described by him as a much branched 

and very succulent tree. 

*0. Cissus Ibuensis, Hook. fil. ; parce pubescens', caule gracili te- 
reti obscure angulato apice subtomentoso, foliis breve petiolatis 
3-foliolatis, foliolis petiolulatis elliptico-ovatis ovato-lanceola- 
tisve acuminatis argute serrato-dentatis utrinque sed subter 
praecipue puberulis, cirrhis filiformibus divisis, pedunculis 
elongatis alterne ramosis pubescentibus, ramis pedicellisque 
brevissimis, floribus parvis, petalis 4 apice demum liberis, 
obovatis. — Ibu and Nun River, Voyel. 

Species gracilis, scandens. Caules crassitie pennae corvinae, 



266 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



pube temii superne densiore sparsa. Stipulce parvse, ovatze. 
Petiolus uncialis. Foliola patula, intermedio paiilo longiore, 
1 4-2 unc. longa, £-f l ata > basi rotundata, utrinque fusca, 
opaca, petiolulo \-^ unc. longo. Pedunculus 2-4-uncialis, 
tenuis, ramis alternis divaricatis. Calyx breviter cyathiformis. 
Petala 4, ovata, apice non cohserentia. Stamina 4. Stylus 
brevissimus. 

Inflorescence imperfect in these specimens. Closely allied to 
Vitis carnosa, Wall., but the whole plant is less hairy. 

11. Cissus tenuicaulis, Hook. fil. ; caule gracili striato parce 
piloso, foliis longe petiolatis 5-foliolatis, foliolis petiolulatis in- 
termedio majore lateralibus geminis lanceolatis acummatis 
basi rotundatis grosse serratis membranaceis utrinque pilosis, 
cirrhis elongatis gracillimis, racemis folio sequilongis, fruc- 
tiferis dichotome ramosis, ovario disco carnoso immerso, 
baccis late pyriformibus. — Sierra Leone, Vogel. 

Caulis crassitie pennse passerinse, glabratus v. superne precipue 
parce pilosus, obscure striatus. Stipulce late ovatse, obtusse. 
Petiolus gracilis, glaberrimis, 2-pollicaris. Foliola li-2 unc. 
longa, super fusco-viridia, subter pallidiora, utrinque pins 
albidis sparsa, petiolulo subhispido-pubescente. Flores mi- 
nimi. Calyx breviter cyathiformis. Petala 4, apice cohse- 
rentia. Stamina 4. Discus urceolaris. Stylus crassus, brevis ; 
stigmate capitato. Baccce sub 3-lin. longse. 
Except in the pubescent leaves, this hardly differs from 

C. Japonica. It is also very near the E. Indian C. capreolata, 

which is however a densely pubescent plant. 

12. Cissus membranacea, Hook. fil. ; glaberrima, flaccida, caule 
gracillimo tereti striato, foliis petiolatis trifoliolatis, foliolis 
petiolulatis lateralibus longioribus ovatis ovato-lanceolatisve 
acuminatis basi valde insequalibus serrato-dentatis membra- 
naceis, cirrhis gracillimis, pedunculis trichotomis .paucifloris 
fructiferis elongatis petiolo sequilongis, floribus minimis. 
Among VogeVs plants, without the precise station. 

Caulis diametr. pennse passerinse. Petioli 2-3 unc. longi; sti- 
pulis parvis, membranaceis, late ovatis, obtusis. Foliola 2-3 
unc. longa, 1-1 £ lata, subpellucida, summa obscure puberula, 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 267 

intermedio plerumque basi obtuso v. in petiolulum angustato, 
later alibus geminis basi valde insequalibus, latere exteriore 
deorsum angustato, interiore rotundato, v. in lobum producto; 
petiolulo intermedio elongato, nunc pollicari. Flores ut in 
C, tenuicauli. 

The oblique bases of the more regularly and conspicuously 
serrated leaflets, and smaller flowering panicle, will at once dis- 
tinguish this from the C. Japonicus. 

13. Cissus Vogelii, Hook. fil. ; setoso-pubescens, caule her- 
baceo tereti crassiusculo profunde striato, stipulis orbiculari- 
ovatis acuminatis, petiolis pubescentibus elongatis 5-foliolatis, 
foliolis obovato-lanceolatis in petiolulum angustatis acuminatis 
dentatis membranaceis super glaberrimis subter ad nervos 
praBcipue pubescentibus, panicula effasa axillari ampla alterne 
et dichotome ramosa, ramis multifloris, floribus pedicellatis 
cylindraceis pubescentibus, petalis linearibus apice fornicatis 
dorso setis glanduloso-capitatis ornatis. — Fernando Po, on 
the sea shore, Vogel. 
Caules prostrati, ramosissimi, sarmentosi. Rami herbacei, 
pallide flavi, profunde sulcati, pubescentes et setis sparsis 
ornati. Stipules majusculae, late ovato-rotundatae, acumi- 
nata?. Petioli 4-6 unc. longi, graciles, pubescentes. Fo- 
Uola omnia plana, 2-3 unc. longa, 1-14 lata, basi in 
petiolulum \ unc. longum pubescentem angustata, super 
glabrata v. glaberrima, subter puberula, nervis discoloribus 
rufo-pubescentibus. Panicula composita 6-8 unc. lata ; pe- 
dunculo stricto 4 unc. longo, pubescente, setoso et striato, ad 
axillas bractcolato, bractcolis oblongis ligulatisve, pedicellis 
insequilongis. Calyx breviter cyathiformis, pubescens, sub 
4-lobus. Petala erecta, pubesccntia, linearia. Ovarium ob- 
longum, profunde 4-sulcatum ; stylo elongato ; stigmate sim- 
plici. 

In the unusual form of the flower this is related to the 
C- cymosa, but the stipitate glands, or glandular hairs of the 
petals, form a prominent and beautiful diagnostic character, and 
the whole plant is much less pubescent. 



268 FLORA. KIGRITIANA. 

It is allied to the Abyssinian C. mollis, Steud., but the 
leaflets are smaller and more delicate, less pubescent and 
broader ; the stipules smaller ; panicles much larger, and of a 
different form. All these three species have the four or five 
glands of the disc firmly cohering with the ovarium, which thus 
appears deeply 4-grooved. 
14. Cissus cymosa, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 82. — Guinea, 

Thonning ; Accra, Vogel. 
Flores clavati. Petala 4, erecta, apice fornicata, cucullata, 

dorso gibboso-incrassata, pubescentia. 

The predominance of this genus in Western Africa is highly 
indicative of its humid atmosphere and jungly coast. Four 
other species are described as inhabiting the same country : 
C. rufescens, Guill. et Perr., of Senegambia (very closely 
allied to C. casta) ; C. quadrangular is, Wall. (ft triandrus, 
Schum.), a plant also common to Arabia and the continent of 
India ; ft gracilis, Guill. et Perr., and ft bifida, Schum. et 
Thonn. 
1. Leea Guineensis, Don. — Sierra Leone, Cape Palmas, St. 

Thomas, and Fernando Po, Vogel, Don. 



XXXIII. CoCHLOSPERME^E.* 

1. Cochlospermum Planchoni, Hook. fil. ; caule subarbore- 
scente, ramis puberulis striatis foliosis, ramulis petiolis foliis- 

- ■ 

que subter subvelutino-tomentosis, foliis late orbiculan-rem- 
formibus profunde cordatis 5-lobis, lobis rotundatis obtusis 

* See Lond. Journ. Bot. 6, p. 294, where Dr. Planchon has, 
with great sagacity, pointed out the affinities of Cochlospermum and 
Amoreuxia, and I perfectly agree with him in their separation from 
Ternstrcemiacea:, although I cannot subscribe to all his speculations on 
the grouping of this and several of the following Orders. Their real 
relative positions appear to me to be far from being, as yet, satisfactorily 
ascertained, I therefore leave them, for the present, nearly in the order in 
which De Caudolle had placed them, however convinced I am that 
several of the smaller groups might be advantageously united as tribes 
of larger Orders.— (G. B.) 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 269 

obscure sinuato-dentatis, floribus in ramulos ultimos axillari- 
bus, sepalis 5 insequalibus rotundatis pubescentibus 2 ex- 
terioribus minoribus. — Quorra River, in savannahs, VogeL 
Arbvscula 6-pedalis. Rami crassitie pennse olorinae, pube grisea. 
Petioli |-1 unc. longi. Folia coriacea, 2^-3 unc. longa, 
3-4 lata, super atro-fusca, (siccitate) nitida, subter pube densa 
grisea; venis primariis palmatim radiatis, venulis obscuris. 
Alabastra \ unc. longa. Flores lutei. 

This and the C. tinctorium, A. Rich., are the only W. Afri- 
can species known to me, 

XXXIV. GeraniacejE. 

Though S. Africa may be considered as the head-quarters of 
Geraniacece, and the N. shores of the same continent are not 
deficient in species, yet one species only exists within the Tropic, 
the Monsonia Senegalensis, Guill. et Perr. 

XXXV. OxalidejE. 

h Biophytum sensitivum, D.C. Pi-od. 1, p. 690. — On the 

Quorra at Attah, VogeL 

An abundant E. and W. Indian plant. 

It is remarkable that no species of Oxalis, not even the else- 
where ubiquitous O. corniculata, or O. strict a, appears to be 
found on the West Intertropical African coast. 

A species, apparently of Averrhoa, is in the Hookerian Her- 
bariau , collected in Senegambia by Heudelot. 

XXXVI. Zygophyllej5. 

*• Kallstroemia minor. Hook. fil. ; subsericeo-pilosa pube- 
scensve, foliolis 3-jugis oblique ovato-oblongis obtusis v. 
mucronulatisj pedicellis petiolo brevioribus, floribus parvis, 
coccis dorso muricatis 1 -locularibus 1-spermis. — Tribulus 
pubescens, G. Don, Gard. Diet. I, p. 669.— Cape Coast, 
Don, VogeL 

A. Tribulo cistoidi differt capsula 10-cocca, a Kallstramia 
maxima statura, foliolisque paucijugis. 



270 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

I have separated this from K. maxima, on the grounds of its 
constantly smaller size, and the few leaflets. 
1. Tribulus cistoides, Linn. — Sierra Leone? Don. 

This is one of the very few plants common to the West 
Indies and Pacific Islands, being found in Oahu. It varies 
much in the size of the fruit, which in these W. African speci- 
mens is particularly large. 

The Tribulus terrestris is a native both of Senegal and 
Guinea. 
1. Zygophyllum simplex, Linn. — Benguela, Dr. Curror. 

A plant common to the shores of the Red Sea, the banks of 
the Nile, and the Cape de Verd Islands, but not that I am 
aware of to any other part of the W. coast of Africa, except 
Benguela. 

Fagonia Arabica, a native of Arabia, as well as of N. Eastern 
Africa, is also a Senegal plant. 
1. Balanites Mgyptiaca? Del. Fl. Mg. p. 77, t. 28,/. 1. 

Senegal, Sierra Leone, Whitfield. 

Also a native of Abyssinia, and a variety of it, by some 
considered as a distinct species, extends to the dry plains or 
Bengal. 



XXXVII. Zanthoxyle^e. 



■ 

1. Zanthoxylum rubescens, Planch, in Herb. Hook. ; ramis 
aculeatis, foliolis circa 11 suboppositis ovali-obiongis longe 
acuminatis basi acutis crebre pellucido-punctatis petiolo acu- 
leato supra canaliculato, floribus diclinis, masculis paniculatis 
parvis tetrameris. — Cape Coast, Vogel. 

Frutex orgyalis, ramulis rubentibus, aculeis validis conicis recte 
reflexis v. recurvis. Foliorum petiolus 8-9-pollicaris. Foliola 
2-3 poll, longa, pollicem lata, glabra, membranacea. Pani- 
cula ampla, bis terve racemoso-ramosa, ebracteata. Flores m 

* Brown removes Balanites from Zygophyllem, but as I am not aware 
that he has published his views of its real affinities, and as, at any rate, 
it is in some measure related to Zygophylleee, I have left it here at the end 
of the Order.— (G. B.) 



FLORA NIGRITTANA. 271 

specimine omnes abortu masculi, parvi, albidi, per 2-3 e 

tuberculis secus ramos sessilibus v. pedunculatis orti, pedi- 

cello lineam longo fulti. Sepala 4, minima, orbiculata. 

Petala 4, ovato-oblonga, lineam longa. Stamina 4, petalis 

subsequilonga. Ovarii rndimentum carnosum. 

This agrees in so many respects with the description given in 

the Flora Senegambise of the Z. Leprieurii, which is drawn up 

from imperfect female plants, that our plant might be taken for 

the male of the same species, were it not that the number of 

parts of the flower appear to be constantly quaternary, not 

quinary. 

2. Zanthoxylum ? a very bad specimen, affording no materials 
to distinguish it from the American Z. pterota. — Cape Pal- 
mas, Ansell. 

The Z. Senegalensis, B.C., and the above-mentioned Z. Le- 
prieurii, Guill. et Perr., both from Senegal, are the] only other 
W. African species known ; the Z. polygamum of Schum. and 
Thonn. being probably the same as the Z. Senegalensis. 



XXXVIII. Simarube^e. 



1. Brucea paniculata, Lam. Diet. \, p. 472. — Sierra Leone, 



Don. 



African species of this Order known 



the Hannoa undulata, Planch. (Simaba ? undulata, Guill. et 



Senegal 



XXXIX. Ochnace^e. 



*• Ochna cfoto, Guill. et Perr. FL Seneg. 1. p- 137. /. 35. 
Sierra Leone, Don. 
Another W. African Ochna has been published, the O. mul 

tiflora, DC, from Sierra Leone. 

I. Gomphia glaberrima, Pal. Beauv. Fl. Ow. et Ben. 2. p. 22 



The 



Whitfield, 



carpels, are the best characteristics of this species. The nerves, 



272 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

which are defined on the leaf, form a more or less oblique angle 
with the costa. 

2. Gomphia reticulata, Pal. Beauv. /. c. /. 72.— Benin, Beau- 

vois ; Sierra Leone, Forbes, Vogel. 

It is not easy to distinguish this from G. glaberrima, without 
the flowers. The whole plant is more robust, much darker in 
colour when dry, the leaves have stronger and better defined 
nerves, forming a right-angle with the costa. The foliage 
varies much in breadth, and is more or less (but never sharply) 
serrated. Judging from the buds, the flowers are smaller. 
Panicles simple or branched in both. Neither Beauvois' 
figures or descriptions assure me that these two are the plants 
he describes, nor that the latter are distinct from one another. 

3. Gomphia Vogelii, Hook. fil. ; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis acu- 
. minatis basi in petiolum brevem angustatis obscure sinuato- 

dentatis coriaceis utrinque lucidis venis e costa ascendenti- 
bus, panicula robusta ramis infimis elongatis ascendentibus, 
calyce fructifero majusculo, carpellis 3-4 globosis calyce m- 
clusis lobis dimidio brevioribus. — Grand Bassa, VogeL 
Frutex ramosus. Rami teretes ; cortice pallide brunneo. Folia 
4-6 unc. longa, 1|~2 lata, siccitate utrinque pallide flavo- 
brunnea, costa valida; venis primariis £-f unc. distantibus, 
prominulis ; venulis creberrimis, parallelis. Panicula 3 unc. 
longa ; pedicellis calyce sequilongis longioribusve. Calyx 
fructifer majusculus ,• lobis non reflexis, suberectis, sub- 
coriaceis, fere \ unc. longis. Caiyella magnitudine gram 
piperis. 

• 

This I distinguish from G. reticulata by its more coria- 
ceous leaves, remote ascending veins, which run obliquely, and 
are united by venules of extreme tenuity and regularity. 
The much larger, broader, calycine segments distinguish it 
from G. glaberrima. 

4. Gomphia/ava, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 216. (fide Planch.) 
G. macrocarpa, Hook. fil. MSS. Planch, in Lond. Journ. 
Bot. v. 6, p. 2 ; foliis anguste elliptico-oblongis acuminata 
in petiolum angustatis argute serratis coriaceis planis reticu- 
latim venosis, venis primariis subremotis ascendentibus pani- 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 273 

cula basi ramosa, carpellis calyce reflexo longioribus teretibus 
utrinque obtusis. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 
Rami teretes. Folia subnitida, 6-pollicaria, 2 unc. lata, super 
fusco-viridia, subter pallidiora, utrinque reticulatim venosa; 
venis e costa ascendentibus, deinde margine parallelis, re- 
motis, vix prominulis; venulis transversis conspicuis reti- 
culata; supra basin ad apicem serrata; petiolo \\ unc. longo. 
Panicula terminalis ; florifera 4 unc. longa ; fructifera elon- 
gata; pedicellis \-^ unc. longis. Calycis lobi pedicellum 
sequantes v. breviores, post anthesin reflexi. Carpella 1-3, 

i unc. longa. teretia, breviter cylindracea, utrinque rotun- 
data. 

Readily to be distinguished by the sharply serrated leaves, 
which are very coriaceous, and especially by the large cylin- 
drical carpels. The veins and venules are not distant from one 
another, as in the following, the former ascend from the costa, 
and on approaching the margin run parallel to it for a conside- 
rable distance. 

5. Gomphia Turners, Hook, fil.; foliis elliptico-oblongis v. 
anguste lineari-lanceolatis in apicem longe acuminatis et in 
petiolum angustatis, valde coriaceis, obscure crenatis integer- 
nmisve, utrinque lucidis laevibus, venis inconspicuis, pani- 
cula elongata ramosa, ramis patentibus gracilibus, iloribus 
ternis subfasciculatisve, pedicellis calyci sequilongis. — Sierra 
Leone, Miss Turner, Don, Vogel. 
Rami teretes, subgraciles; cortice pallido. Folia etengata, 
utrinque fusco-castanea v. viridia, nitida, subter pallidiora, 1-6 
unc. longa, 1J-2 lata, in petiolum i unc. longum angustata, 
apice in acumen gracile producta ; costa valida ; venis pn- 
uiariis subremotis, ascendentibus ; venulis valde inconspicuis ; 
folia juniora margine obscure crenulata. Panicula 6-8 unc. 
longa, ramis elongatis gracilibus. Flores bini, terni v. sub- 
fasciculati, nutantes, J unc. lati ; pedicello J-£ unc. longo. 
Petala late obovata, orbiculata, subunfuiculata, intense 
lutea. 

The flowers of this plant entirely resemble those figured by 
Keauvois as G. reticulata, from which the compound panicle, 



274 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

very narrow, coriaceous, and plane (never undulate) leaves, at 

once distinguish the present species. 

6. Gomphia calophylla. Hook. fil. ; foliis obovato-lanceolatis 
basi gradatim angustatis, abrupt e acuminatis rarius apice 
angustatis marginibus undulatis venis parallelis confertissi- 
mis creberrime striatis subnitidis, racemo laterali foliis sub- 
sequilongo v. breviore, pedunculo compresso v. ancipiti, pedi- 
cellis gracilibus, laciniis calycinis post anthesin patulis, car- 
pellis subglobosis. — Sierra Leone, Don, Vogel ; Cape Coast 
and Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Rami teretes ; cortice cinereo, ramulis compressis. Folia 5-7 
unc. longa 1|-2J lata, basi ad petiolum brevem cuneata, 
deinde gradatim dilatata, apicem versus rotundata v. angus- 
tata et acuminata, margine undulata v. subcrispato-mcras- 
sata, venis transversis perplurimis parallelis ; stipulis brevi- 
bus, ovato-triangularibus. Racemi basi nudi, supra medium 
densiflori ; pedunculo compresso ancipiti ; pedicellis solitariis 
binis ternisve gracilibus \ unc. longis. Calycis laciniae post 
anthesin patentes, lineari-oblongse. Carpella parva, globosa, 
laciniis calycinis breviora. 
A very handsome species, of which the flower is unknown to 

me. The nervation of the foliage exactly resembles that ot 

Elvasia Hostmannia, Planch. 

7. Gomphia affinis, Hook. fil. ; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis acumi- 
natis basi angustatis submembranaceis nitidis maioribus un- 

# • * 

dulato-crispatis integerrimis, nervis parallelis confertissimis 
transversis, panicula terminali, ramis gracilibus angulatis, 
pedicellis subelongatis, carpellis calyce longioribus globosis 
Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Rami teretes ; cortice pallido subrugoso striato. Folia apices 
versus ramulorum, 3-4 unc. longa, 1-1 £ lata, submembra- 
nacea, utrinque nitida. Panicula 2-3 unc. longa; ramis 
strictis paucinoris gracilibus; pedicellis fructiferis § unc. 
longis, gradatim incrassatis. Calycis lacinise parvse, pedi- 
cellis £ breviores. 
Allied to the G. calophylla in the nervation of the leaves, 

which are, however, smaller, more membranous and glossy, and 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 275 

narrower above the middle. The inflorescence, too, is pa- 
niculate, not racemose, the peduncle angular and not so 
compressed, the calycine segments smaller, and the carpels 
larger. 



XL. RhamnejE. 

1. Zizyphus Baclei, DC. Prod. 2. p. 20.— Guill. et Perr. 

Fl. Seneg. t. 37. — Attah and Quorra, Vogel; Senegal. 

Z. orthacantha, DC, which is possibly a variety of Z. jujuba, 
is a native of Senegambia. The true Z. jujuba is found at 
Mozambique, and thence eastward through the Peninsula of 
India to the Indian Archipelago. 
1. Ventilago denticulata, Willi, DC. Prod. 2. p. 38.— V. ma- 

deraspatana /3 9 W. et Am. Prod. Fl. Pen. Ind. Or. 1. p. 

164. — Celastrus diffusus, G. Don, Gard. Diet, 2. p. 6. — 

St. Thomas, Don. 

The disc of the flower is smooth, or only very slightly hairy, 
m other respects I am unable to distinguish these specimens 
from some of the forms from the Indian Peninsula. I have not, 
however, seen the fruit. 



XLI. Chailletiace.e.* 



1. Chailletia toxicaria, Don, DC. Prod. 2. p. 57; foliis petio- 
latis ovato-oblongis v. oblongo-sublanceolatis obtuse acumi- 
natis basi acutis rotundatisve subcoriaceis glabris, cymulis 
contractis raro foliiferis in pedunculo axillari vix ramoso 
solitariis paucisve, petalis bifidis, stylo breviter triiido, drupis 
canescentibus. — Sierra Leone, Don, Vogel ; and, apparently 
the same species, Senegambia, Heudelot. 

Frutex dumosus, inflorescentia partibusque novellis canescenti- 
bus, cseterum glaber. Folia 3-4-pollicaria, saepe obiiqua, 
acumine brevi obtuso v. retuso, margine saepius undulata, 

* 

* By G. Bentham. 

T 2 



276 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

adulta utrinque glabra, supra opaca, subtus siccitate sub- 
rubentia, ad axillas venarum foveolata, reticulato-venulosa, 
petiolo crassiusculo 3-4 lin. longo fulta. Stipula minut#, 
caducse. Pedunculi in axillis superioribus solitarii, nunc 
breves cymulam unicam ferentes, nunc 1-3-pollicares, cymulis 
pluribus sessilibus v. breviter pedicellatis, nudis v. bractea 
foliacea fultis; cymula infima saepe ex ima basi pedunculi 
orta ; omnes in glomerulum contracts v. rarius leviter evo- 
luta?, cano-tomentosas. Pedicelli florentes vix lineam longi, 
fructiferi longiores, incrassati. Sepala 5, ovata, extus tomen- 
tosa, fere 1^ lin. longa, sestivatione imbricata. Petala ob- 
longo-linearia, calyce paullo longiora, apice breviter bifida, 
extus puberula, intus glabra et linea elevata a sinu loborum 
decurrente carinata. Stamina petalis sequilonga. Squama 
hypogynse petalis opposite, breves, emarginatse, tonientosse, 
inter se libera? sed continuse. Ovarium dense tomentosum, 
conicum, triloculare. Styli glabri fere ad apicem coaliti v. 
rarius demum ad medium soluti. Ovula in loculis gemma. 
Drupa ovoidea v. subglobosa, pollicem longa, obtusa v. acu- 
minata, extus tomentosa, abortu monosperma v. rarius dis- 
perma. 

One of G. Don's Sierra Leone specimens has narrower leaves, 
and may possibly be the plant described by D. Don under the 
name of C. erecta. If so, it would appear not to be specifi- 
cally distinct from C. toxicaria. The form of the fruit is very 
variable in the dry specimens, owing perhaps to its being 
gathered at different stages of maturity. 

2. Chailletia affinis, Planch, in Herb. Hook.; foliis longiuscule 
petiolatis ovali-ellipticis obovatisve obtuse acuminatis basi 
acutis rotundatisve subcoriaceis glabris, cymis laxiusculis 
in pedunculo axillari libero v. petiolo adnato solitariis paucisve, 
drupa glabrata. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Closely resembling C. toxicaria in the colour, venation and 
consistence of the leaves ; it appears, however, to differ in the 
longer petioles, broader leaves ; looser inflorescence and smooth 
fruits, and from some remains of petals and stamens, the flowers 
appear to have been larger. There are, however, neither per- 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 277 

feet flowers nor mature fruits to admit of determining whether 

it be really specifically distinct, or a mere variety of C. tooci- 
caria. 

3. Chailletia subcordata, Hook. fil. ; foliis breviter petiolatis 
late-ovatis vix acuminatis basi'subcordatis glabris v. ad costas 
puberulis, cymis in pedunculo brevi axillari libero solitariis 
multifloris, ramulis evolutis, petalis profunde bifidis, stylo 
breviter trifido. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Frutex ramosus, orgyalis et altior, ramulis tomentellis. Folia 
3-4 poll, longa, 2^-3 poll, lata, nunc obtusissima, nunc 
acumine brevi acutiusculo terminata, margine integerrima v. 
obsolete sinuata, basi late rotundata obtusissima v. ad petiolum 
ssepius cordato-emarginata, novella tomentella, adulta glabrata, 
rigide membranacea v. subcoriacea, venis primariis subtus 
puberulis, axillis venarum haud foveolatis, sed glandulse ad- 
sunt scutelliformes hinc inde per paginam inferiorem sparsse. 
Fetioli 2 lin. longi. Stipules angustse, acutae, petiolo bre- 
viores. Pedunculi petiolo longiores. Cymce juniores densse, 
mox dichotome evolutae, ramulis vulgo 4 demum semipolli- 
caribus. Pedicelli vix semilineam longi, bracteola parva sub- 
tensi, sub flore articulati et infra articulationem post flores 
delapsos persistunt. Flores ut videtur exsiccatione cadusis- 
sinu, alabastra juniora tantum in speciminibus supersunt, 
globosa, tomentosa, vix lineam diametro. His sepala sesti- 
vatione imbricata ; petala brevia, lata et fere bipartita ; ova- 
num et stylus C. toxicaria. 

4. Chailletia oblonga, Hook. fil. ; foliis petiolatis oblongis acu- 
minatis basi acutis ramulisque glabris, cymis laxis in pedun- 
culo brevi libero axillaribus v. terminalibus subpaniculatis, 
pedicellis calyce sublongioribus, sepalis lanceolatis, petalis 
calyce diraidio longioribus stamina subsequantibus, stylo elon- 
gato apice breviter bifido, drupa obovali-oblonga tomentosa. 

Fernando Po, Vogel, Ansell. 
4rbor, ramulis tenuibus foliisque glabris v. novellis vix to- 
nientellis. Folia ramulorum florentium 2-3 poll. longa, 1-1| 
l>oll. lata; inferiora tamen et ramorum iterilium duplo ma- 



278 FLORA N1GRITIANA. 

jora ; etiam in sicco virentia, apice in acumen breve latum 
producta, basi acuta, petiolo 1-2-lineari fulta; foveolse pagina3 
inferioris omnino deesse videntur. Stipules minutse. Cyma 
leviter tomentellse, graciles et laxe dichotomy, folio tamen multo 
breviores. Bractea minutaeV obsolete. Pedicelli 2-2^ hn. 
longi, supra medium articulati. Sepala angusta, 1£ lin. longa, 
extus tomentosa, sestivatione valde imbricata. Petala glabra, 
anguste linearia, fere 3 lin. longa, ad duas tertias integra, 
dein biloba, lobis vix divergentibus, sinu acuto intus carinato- 
prominente. Stamina petalis vix longiora. Glandula hypo- 
gynse basi brevissime connatse. Ovarium breve, tomentosum, 
biloculare. Stylus staminibus longior, glaber v. basi leviter 
pubescens, apice breviter bifidus. Drupa ultrapollicaris, 
fulvo-tomentosa, ssepius bilocularis, disperma. Seminis testa 
membranacea ; cotyledones crassse, carnosse ; radicula supera, 
brevissima. 
5. Chailletidi Jloribunda, Planch, in Hook. Ic. t 792. (Tab. XXX); 
ramulis cinereo-tomentellis, foliis petiolatis amplis ovali- 
oblongis basi acutis glabris, cymis amplis multifloris in pe- 
dunculo brevi libero axillaribus, pedicellis brevissimis, sepalis 
oblongis, petalis calyce plus dimidio longioribus quam stamina 
brevioribus, stylo elongato apice breviter bifido, drupa obo- 
voidea tomentosa. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 
Hamuli tomento diu persistente cinerei, crassiores ac in praece- 
dente. Folia 6-9 poll, longa, 2^-4 poll, lata, acumine obtuso 
v. acuto interdum brevissimo, margine integerrima v. obsolete 
sinuata, siccitate fusco-rubentia, ad costas pilis raris puberula, 
cseterum glabernma, petiolo 4-6 lin. longo fulta. Stipula 
parvae, deciduse. Cymce pluries dichotoinse, usque ad 3 poll, dia- 
metro, nunc pedunculo ima basi bifido geminse videntur, nunc 
pedunculo communi brevi fultse. Bracteola minutae. Pedicelli 
vix semilineares, articulati. Sepala linea paullo longiora, obtu- 
siuscula, extus tomentosa, distincte imbricata. Petala et geni- 
talia C. oblongtB, sed stamina longiora. Drupa etiam pariter 
dense tomentosa sed latior et brevior, maturam tamen non vidi. 
Platk XXX. Fig. 1. flower; /. 2. petal, with the hypogynous 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 279 

scale opposed to it ; this scale is however represented too 
narrow at the base, and too evidently connected with the 
petal ; /. 3. anther, back view : all magnified. 
The Rhamnus paniculatus, Schum. et Thonn. ; which De Can- 
dolle had, without examination, referred doubtfully to Ceanothus, 
under the name of CJ Guineensis, (Prod. 2. p. 30), is evidently, 
from Thonning's detailed description since published, a Chail- 
letia nearly allied to C. toxicaria, and if really a distinct species, 
should receive the name of C. paniculata. A seventh species, as 
yet unpublished, is among Heudelot's Senegambian plants, which 
gives to Tropical Africa nearly half the total number of species 
now known of this small Order, whose affinities with Hippo- 
crateacece and Celastrinece become more and more evident as 
the species are better known. The valvate calyx, mentioned 
among the distinctive characters by Lindley (Veg. Kingd. 
p- 583), is a mistake ; all the species known to me have it 
imbricated in aestivation, as originally described by De Candolle ; 
so much so, that one division of the calyx is usually entirely 
concealed by the others in the bud. The characteristic disc of 
Celastrinece , which in Hippo crateacece is united with the fila- 
ments in a fleshy mass, is represented among Chailletiacece by 
the hypogynous glands, which are sometimes slightly connected, 
so as to form a real disc, only differing from that of several 
Celastrinece by being more deeply lobed. The three groups 
might indeed be considered, without inconvenience, as three 
tribes of one natural Order.— (G. B.) 



XLII. HlPPOCRATEACEJS. 



*• Hippocratea rotundifolia, Hook. fil. ; caule tereti scandente? 
cortice lrevi, foliis petiolatis late oblongis rotundatisve obtusis 
v. subacuminatis rugosis utrinque reticulatis coriaceis, pani- 
culis axillaribus terminalibusque dichotomis ramis erectis 
elongatis, petalis rotundatis concavis, disco depresso concavo, 
antheris 4-lobatis extrorsum dehiscenti bus. —Sierra Leone, 



Don. 



Rami cortice grisco-fusco la?u tecti. Folia opposita, 4-5 unc 



280 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

longa, 3|-4| lata, margine undulata, pallide flavo-viridia, 
utrinque opaca, consimilia ; venis prominulis reticulata, ru- 
gulosa, subcoriacea. Panicula folio longior; ramis strictis, 
ad axillas compressis, gracilibus. Flores lutei. 
Very near a West Indian species common to Demerara and 
St. Vincents, but the leaves are much broader, not marked with 
raised dots, more rugulose and opaque on the upper surface. 

* 

There are five other W. African species of this genus, viz. : 
H. Richardiana, Guill. et Perr., from Senegal; H. Indica, 
Willd., common to Senegambia, the East Indies, and probaby 
Madagascar; H. paniculata, Vahl, ranging from Sierra Leone 
to Senegal ; H. macrophylla, Vahl, from Sierra Leone ; and H. 
velutina, Afz., from Guinea. 

1. Salacia prinoides, DC. Prod. 1. p. 571; ramis teretibus 
sparse pustulatis, ramulis compressis, foliis (inferioribus sub- 
oppositis) petiolatis valde coriaceis late ellipticis utrinque 
- obtusis integerrimis v. obscure sinuato-dentatis opacis super 
luride virescentibus subter pallidioribus nervis divaricatis, 
pedicellis axillaribus solitariis paucisve aggregatis petiolo sequi- 
longis, lobis calycinis brevibus obtusis, petalis late oblongis 
obtusis, disco elevato, filamentis ovario sequilongis, antheris 
sub-urceolatis. — Grand Bassa, Vogel. 
Frutex ? glaberrimus. Rami cortice atro-castaneo lsevi obscure 
pustulato tecti. Folia 3-4 unc. longa, I|-2 lata, suprema 
opposita, inferiora approximata, sed vere alterna, super vix 
nitida, subter pallidiora, venis inconspicuis reticulata ; petiolo 
i unc. longo. Pedicelli validi, erecti, 1-flori, infra florem m- 
crassati. Flores flavo-virides, \ unc. diametr. Calyds lobi 
lati, coriacei, orbiculati. Petala calyce ter longiora, obtusa, 
fusco-striata. Discus erectus, subelongatus. Filamenta com- 
pressa, ligulata, recurva ; antheris rubris, filamento bis 
latioribus, tranverse elongatis, 1-locularibus, rima lata superne 
hiautibus. 

I am unable to distinguish this from the Salacia prinoides of 
Malacca, but have given a detailed description of the African 
specimens, with which more copious ones of the Indian •peciea 
than I have had access to, should be compared. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 281 

2. Salacia Senegalensis, DC. Prod. 1. p. 570. — Sierra Leone 
and Accra, Vogel; Senegal. 

Specimens of a similar Senegambian plant, collected by 
Brunner, are possibly a different species. 

3. Salacia affinis, Hook. fil. ; ramis teretibus, cortice pallide 
rufo verrucis 4-lobis pallidis dense consperso, foliis sub- 
oppositis alternisque petiolatis elliptico-oblongis acuminatis 
basi angustatis subintegerrimis coriaceis super luridis sub- 
nitidis, subter pallidioribus, venis reticulars, pedicellis axillari- 
bus fasciculatis unifloris gracilibus petiolum superantibus, ala- 
bastris cylindraceis, lobis calycinis late rotundatis, petalis late 
oblongis obtusis apicibus incurvis, disco conico, filamentis 
planis elongatis. — Sierra Leone, Whitfield. 

Rami diametro pennse corvinse. Cortex pallide ruber, undique 

verrucis parvis flavo-fuscis 4-sectis sparsa. Folia 3 unc. 

longa, 1^ lata, versus apicem obscure serrata ; petiolo J unc. 

longo. Flores axillis in superioribus perplurimi, £ unc. lati, 

pedicellis fere \ uncialibus. 

Very closely allied to S. Senegalensis, but the leaves are very 
obscurely serrated, the flowers larger, petals broader, and the 
warts on the stem larger and more numerous. 

4. Salacia cornifolia, Hook. fil. ; ramis teretibus, cortice griseo 
verruculato, ramulis lsevibus glaberrimis, foliis oppositis petio- 
latis ellipticis utrinque angustatis apice obtusis rarius ellip- 
tico-lanceolatis longe acuminatis coriaceis super nitidis subter 
pallidioribus reticularis margine tenuiter recurvo obscure 
sinuato-serrato, pedicellis 2-3 axillaribus validis 1-floris pe- 
tiolo longioribus, alabastris globosis, disco depresso annulari, 
filamentis brevissimis, antheris rima hippocrepiformi extror- 
sum hiantibus vix 2-locularibus, baccis parvis pyriformibus 3- 
locularibus. — Sierra Leone, Vogel. 

Rami sparse verruculati; ramulis oppositis, patentibus, com- 
pressis. Folia 3-4 unc. longa, 1£ lata, forma varia, utrinque 
angustata, apice plerumque obtusa, petiolo £ unc. Iongo. 
Flores ^ unc. diam. ; pedicellis \ pollicaribus, superne incras- 
satis. Stamina fere ut in Hippocratea, sed rima vere dorsahs. 



282 FLORA NIGRITIANA 



Fructus £ unc. longus, obscure trigonus, siccitate fusco- 

viridis. 

In the structure of the flower, the depressed disc, short 
filaments, and especially in the apparently all but 1 -celled 
anthers, this approaches Hippocratea, from which genus, how- 
ever, the inflorescence and fruit remove it. 

5. Salacia pyriformis, Warp. Rep. l.p. 402; ramis prsecipuead 
petiolum compressis, cortice atro-fusco laevi, foliis petiola- 
tis oppositis alternisque subcoriaceis oblongis utrinque rotun- 
datis nunc subacaminatis plerumque integerrimis super niti- 
dis subter pallidioribus opacis reticulatis, pedicellis plurimis 
axillaribus 1-floris petiolo sequilongis, alabastris globosis, 
fructu pyriformi obtuse trigono. — Calypso pyriformis, G. 
Don in Gard. Diet. l.p. 629.— Mountains of Sierra Leone, 
Don ; Senegambia. 

Frutex scandens ?. Rami elongati, teretes. Folia 4-5 unc. 
longa, 2-2 \ lata, siccitate super fusca, nitida, subter palh- 
diora, subferruginea ; venis divaricatis; petiolo \-\ unc# 
longo. Flores \ unc. diametro, petalis oblongis obtusis, disco 
conico, filamentis basi latissimis. Fructus (fid. Don) mag- 
nitudine Pyri " Bergamot" dicti, edulis. 
This is one of the few edible fruits of Western Africa, of which 

an account, drawn up by Sabine, appears in the Hort. Soc. Trans. 

v. 5. p. 459. under the name of Tonsella pyriformis. 

6. Salacia elongata, Hook. fil. ; ramis validis obscure tubercu- 
latis v. granulatis, ramulis lsevibus ad axillas foliorum com- 
pressis, foliis petiolatis oblongo-obovatis elongatis basi an- 
gustatis apice rotundatis v. subacuminatis obscure sinuato- 
serratis integerrimisve super nitidis subter pallidioribus opacis 
coriaceis, pedunculis axillaribus fructiferis petiolo longion- 
bus. — St. Thomas, Do?i. 

Exemplar miserrimum, priori afline, differt foliis magis coriaceis 
angustioribus basi non rotundatis, venisque foliorum multo 
minus a costa media divergentibus. Alabastra globosa. 
This is evidently a distinct species from the former, although 
it appears to have been confounded with it in Don's Herba- 
rium. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 283 

7. Salacia erecta, Walp., Rep. 1, p. 402; ramis teretibus 
superne subangulatis, cortice subgranulato, ramulis com- 
pressis angulatis, foliis oppositis breve petiolatis ellipticis 
elliptico-lanceolatisve utrinque angustatis regulariter serratis 
super subnitidis, pedieellis axillaribus, fructu ovato-cordato 
obtuse trigono. — Calypso erecta, G. Don, Gard. Did. I. p. 
629. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

Frutex habitu Thece viridis. Folia 2\ unc. longa, 1 lata, sub- 
coriacea, basi angustata, sed in petiolum non desinentia, 
apiceru versus obtuse acuminata, super lsevia, subter venis 
prominulis reticulata. Fructus f unc. longus. 
Specimens rather imperfect. 

8. Salacia debilis, Walp. Rep. 1. p. 402; caule tereti striato 
lsevi, foliis breve petiolatis subcoriaceis ovalibus v. elliptico- 
oblongis utrinque subangustatis vix acutis obscure serratis, 
noribus parvis axillaribus fasciculatis, pedieellis gracillimis 
erectis.— Calypso debilis, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 1. p. 629.— 
Senegambia, Heudelot ; Sierra Leone, Don. 

Rami cortice fusco tecti. Folia saepius elliptica, 2-2 \ unc. 
longa, J-1J lata, super lsevia, subnitida, subter pallidiora, 
venis prominulis reticulata. Pedicelli \-\ unc. longi, fili- 
formes, stricti, erecti, uniflores. Flores patentes, 1 lin. lati. 
Lobi calycini rotundati, ciliati. Petala patula, lineari-ob- 
longa, obtusa. Stamina 3 ; filamentis brevissimis ; antheris 
late subreniformibus, emarginatis, transverse dehiscentibus, 
unilocularibus. 

-Easily to be recognized by the small flower and very slender 
Pedicels. The habit is that of an Efaodendron. 
9- Salacia ? rufescens, Hook. fil. ; ramis teretibus laevibus striatis, 
ramulis creberrime flavo-punctatis, foliis breve petiolatis sub- 
*nembranaceis elliptico-oblongis v. oblongo-lanceolatis utrin- 
que angustatis obtusis siccitate subcrispatis rufescentibus 
sinuato-dentatis, pedieellis solitariis binisve axillaribus 1-floris 
petiolum superantibus, alabastris globosis, lobis calycinis 
petalisque ? rotundatis, antheris transverse elongatis. — Sierra 
Leone, Voyel. 
Rami cortice fusco tccti. Folia patula, 2-3 unc. longa, 1-1 i 



I 



284 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

lata, in apicem obtusum angustata, basi in petiolum 1-2 lin. 

longum desinentia, opaca, subter pallidiora; venis incon- 

spicuis. Pedicelli \ unc. longi. Flores \\ lin. lati. Caly- 

cis lobi concavi, late rotundati. Petala brevissime unguicu- 

lata. Discus atnplus, planus. Stamina filamentis brevissimis ; 

antheris transversee longatis, cylindraceis ; polline trigono. 

The solitary specimen differs very much from any other 

species, though wanting any more striking character than 

the rufescent colour. Having seen no fruit, the genus is 

perhaps doubtful. The form of the anther is nearly that of 

Hippocratea, but the inflorescence is very different. 

The only other described West African Salacia, the 8. Afn- 
cana, DC. {Tonsella, Willd.) from Guinea, may possibly be the 
same as some one of the preceding species. 



XLIIL Celastrinejs.* 

1. Celastrus (Catha) Senegalensis, Lam. DC Prod. 2. p. 8. 

On the Gambia, Don ; Senegal. 

The C. coriaceus, Guill. et Perr., also from Senegal, and 
the C. lancifolius, Schum. et Thonn., from Guinea, are the 
only other W. Tropical African species, and belong likewise to 
the section or genus Catha, well distinguished in most cases 
from the true Celastri by the axillary inflorescence, short style 
and thin incomplete arillus, although the numerous South 
African species have not yet been sufficiently examined to ascer- 
tain the real value of these characters. Presl has farther sepa- 
rated some species to form his two genera Encentrus and Poly- 
acanthus, to the former of which the C. coriaceus might be 
referred, were the chief character, the two-celled ovary and 
capsule, constant, but though the number of cells be indeed 
generally two, I have occasionally found three. So again, m 
Polyacanthus stenophyllus, neither the supposed quaternary 
parts of the flower, nor the unilocular capsule are by any means 
constant in one and the same individual, and both genera must 



* By G. Bentham. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 285 



necessarily be reunited with Catha, whether the latter be retained 

i 

as a separate genus or as a section of Celasirus. — (G. B.) 



XLIV. Terebinthace^e.* 

1. Canarium? edule, Hook. fil. — Pachylobus edulis, G. Don, 

Gard. Diet. 2. p. 89.— St. Thomas, Don. 

The fruit described by Don, on which he founded the genus 
Pachylobus, does not appear to differ from that of Canarium ; 
and the foliage, of which alone there is a specimen, is very like 
that of some species of that genus. It differs from that of 
C. commune in the midrib of the leaflets being hispid under- 
neath. The flower is unknown. 

The only other W. Tropical African plant known of the tribe 
of Bur sere® is the Balsamodendron Africanum, Arn., (Heude- 
lotia, A. Rich.) from Senegal. 

1. Spondias lutea, Linn. — S. aurantiaca, Schum. et Thonn. 
Beskr. p. 225 ? — Sierra Leone, cultivated, Vogel. 

2. Spondias dubia, A. Rich. FL Seneg. \.p. 153. — Grand Bassa, 
Vogel ; St. Thomas, Don ; Senegal, Sieber. 

3. Spondias ? Zanzee, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 2. p. 79.— Fer- 
nando Po ? Vogel ; St. Thomas, Don. 

This species, and another from Senegambia closely allied to it, 
(S. microcarpa, A. Rich,), differ from Spondias in their poly- 
gamous and tetramerous flowers, with the petals much more 
decidedly imbricate, and when better known will probably be 
found to form with Harpophyllum caffrum, Bernh. (or Spondias 
Ctt ffra y Meissn.), a distinct section of Spondias, or possibly a good 
separate genus. The specimens of S. Zanzee are very imperfect, 
and insufficient to afford any decided character to distinguish it 
from S. caffira ; the young fruit is like that of the true Spondias, 
but small. 

Another W. African species, Spondias Birrea, A. Rich., from 
Senegal and Abyssinia, has since been established as a distinct 
genus by Hochstetter, under the name of Sclerocarga. 



• By G. Bentham. 



286 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



1. Odina Oghigee, Hook. &\. — Spondias Oghigee, G.Don, Gard. 
Diet. 2. p. 79. — Sierra Leone, Don; Grand Bassa, Vogel, who 
states that the bark is converted into powder by the natives 
and mixed with other substances to form a paint for the face. 
This species appears to be so very near to the East Indian 

0. Wodier, that the imperfect specimens of the collection 
afford no positive character to distinguish it. They are perhaps 
more perfectly glabrous than the East Indian ones, and the 
leaflets rather less numerous. The ovary is, as in 0. Wodier, 
unilocular, with one ovule suspended from the top of the cavity, 
and is crowned by four short styles, each of which is truncated 
and apparently stigmatic at the apex. 

There are two other W. African species, O. acida and 0. vein- 
Una, both from Senegal, and published by A. Richard, under 
the new generic name of Lannea, but since correctly referred to 
Odina by Endlicher. 

1. Sorindeia heterophylla, Hook. fil. ; foliis simplicibus pinnatisve 
foliolisque oblongis coriaceis glabris, venulis anastomosanti- 
bus convergentibus in venulas spurias versus axillas venarum 
reversas, paniculis axillaribus laxis, floribus masculis 10-U- 
andris. — Sapindus simplicifolius, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 1. P- 
666. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

Habitus, glabrities, inflorescentia et flores masculi omnino &• 
Madagascariensis ; flores foeminei et fructus desunt. Folio la 
speciminis alterius omnia simplicia, inferiora 8 poll, longa, 
poll, lata, petiolo ultrapollicari, superiora 3 poll, longa, 2 poll, 
lata, petiolo 3-4-lineari; omnia brevissime et obtuse acumi- 
nata, basi acutiuscula et sequalia, nisi folio infimo maximo cui 
basis hinc valde dilatatur; panicula in axillis supenonbus 
folio multo longiores, pauciflorse. In speciminibus ceteris 
pariter floriferis folia omnia pinnata; his foliola 3-7, to ins 
simplicibus similia sed ssepius angustiora et basi plus minus 
inaequalia. Calyces ut in S. Madagascariensi breves, bre- 
vissime 5-dentati. Petala 4, astivatione valvata. Stamina 
10-15, disco planiusculo inordinate inserta, pleraque tamen 
marginalia. 
The singular venation of the leaflets and leaves of this plant; 



FLORA NIGRITIANA, 287 

may be traced in a slight degree, and very irregularly, in the 
leaflets of the Sorindeia Madagascariensis, and more distinctly 
in the simple leaves of a species from Penang (Wallich, n. 8505) 
and Malacca (Griffith) apparently referable to the same genus, 
as well as in the Dupuisia juglandifolia mentioned below, but 
not in any other terebinthaceous plant I am acquainted with. 

A species of Sorindeia, from Congo, is alluded to by Brown, 
and has been named S. Africana by De Candolle, but being as 
yet undescribed, I have no means of judging whether it be 
different from the above S. heterophylla or not. 
1. Dupuisia? longifolia, Hook. fil. ; foliolis 15-18 anguste ob- 
longis coriaceis glabris supra glaucis subtus elevato-penni- 
nervibus rete venularum inconspicua, panicula mascula amp] a 
floribunda ferrugineo-tomentella, disco staminifero rufo-hirto. 
Sierra Leone, on the borders of marshes, Vogel. 
Arbor excelsa. Foliorum petiolus cum rhachi bipedalis et longior. 
Foliola 6-8 poll, longa, 1^-2 poll, lata, inferiora sublanceo- 
lata, basi rotundato-cuneata, apice breviter acuminata; ul- 
tima subsequaliter oblonga basi longe acutata ; omnia subtus 
siccitate leviter rubro-fusca; petioluli breves, crassi. Pani- 
cula semipedales ad pedales, e ramis ortse ad axillas foliorum 
delapsorum, pyramidato-ramosissimae, tomento minuto ferru- 
ginese. Flores in specimine omnes masculi, brevissime pedi- 
cellati, subfasciculati, ebracteati, nutantes, duplo fere majores 
lis Sorindeia Madagascariensis. Calyces breves, lati, ferru- 
ginei, dentibus 5 brevibus distantibus. Petala \\ lin. 
longa, crassa, glabra, sestivatione valvata, per anthesin pa- 
tentia. Discus planiusculus dense hirsutus. Stamina 5, 
petalis breviora ; antherse filament o longiores. 
The original species, Dupuisia juglandifolia, A. Rich., from 
Senegal, differs from the above by its broader leaflets, of a 
thinner texture, with the venation of Sorindeia, by its smaller 
flowers and smoother panicle, &c. Both are evidently nearly 
allied to Sorindeia, and satisfactory specimens are wanting to 
ascertain with certainty whether the two genera ought or not 
to be united. In the mean time the number of the stamens, 



288 FLORA NIGRTTIANA. 

equal to that of the petals, not double that or more, will serve 
to characterize Dupuisia. 

1. Anacardium Occident ale, Linn. — St. Thomas, Don; Fer- 
nando Po, Vogel. 

The remaining Terebinthacece mentioned as inhabiting W. 
Tropical Africa are the Rhus villosa, Linn., a Cape plant inserted 
in the Flora Senegambise as found at Cape Verd, and a species 
of Anaphrenium, E. Mey., or Heeria, Meissn., from Senegal, 
distributed amongst Sieber's plants under the name of Vitex 
terna. It appears to be identical with a Cape plant occurring 
in some old collections, as well as in Drege's, and since pub- 
lished by Bernhardi, under the name of Anaphrenium mucro- 
natum, and by Presl under that of Rhus salicifolia ; it is also 
scarcely distinct from the Abyssinian Anaphrenium Abyssini- 
cum, Hochst., or Ozoroa insignis, Delile, (G. B.) 



XLV. ConnaracetE .* 

There has been considerable confusion in the circumscription 
of the genera of this small Order, owing to De Candolle's having 
overlooked the fact that Gaertner's Omphalobium was founded 
on the fruit of Linnaeus' Connarus monocarpus, the original 
species of both genera being evidently one and the same plant, 
Gaertner's name must consequently be entirely suppressed, and 
the chief character of the three genera, so well defined by 
Brown, and which still include the whole Order, would stand 
thus : 

1. Connarus. Calyx imbricatus. Ovarium et stylus 1 (ra- 
rissime 2 ?). Ovula sutura ventrali affixa. Capsula stipi- 
tata. Semen exalbuminosum. — Omphalobium, Gsertn. 

2. Rourea.f Calyx imbricatus. Ovaria et styli 5. Ovula e 

* By G. Bentham. 

t Wight and Arnott, taking the same view of the limitation of the 
genera, have (Prodr. 1. p. 143) by mistake described the calyx of Con- 
narus monocarpus as glabrous, which has misled others as to the identity 
of this typical species. The calyx is clothed with a short rusty down in 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 289 

ba.si ovarii crecta. Capsular (abortu ssepc solitarise) sessiles. 

Semen exalbuminosum. — Connarus, DC. ; Byrsocarpvs, 

Schum. et Thonn. ; Anisostemon, Turczan. 
3. Cnestis. Calyx valvatus. Ovaria et styli 5. Ovula e basi 

ovarii erecta. Capsular (abortu ssepe solitarise) sessiles. Semen 

albuminosum. 

Since Brown published his observations in his celebrated 
Appendix to Tuckey's Congo, as little has been added to our 
knowledge of the affinities of the Order as to that of the genera 
themselves. Their intimate connection with Averrhoa and the 
Oxalidece on the one hand, and with Copaifera and allied 
Leguminosce on the other, so clearly pointed out by him, has 
only been further confirmed. Planchon has indeed proposed 
the uniting Oxalidece, Connaracece and Leguminosa; into one 
group, or even Order, but for this there appear to be no better 
grounds than there would be for uniting Rubiacece with Scro- 
phularinece, Gentianece and Apocynece, on account of the inter- 
mediate Loganiacece. Arnott, and latterly Lindley, in order to 
obviate the anomaly of placing an Order where the stamens are 
almost always very distinctly hypogynous, in a group of pro- 
fessedly perigynous Orders, have removed Connaracece from 
their usual place next to Leguminosa to the neighbourhood of 
Oxalidece and Zanthoxylece. That may be their best situation, 
out as the real distinction between hypogynous and perigynous 
insertion of the stamens, important as it usually is, is not yet 
correctly understood, and as in this respect Leguminosce them- 
selves are variable, I have preferred leaving Cormaracece in their 
old place. Several species, both of Rourea and of Cnestis, have 
Ve ry evident stipules ; almost all Leguminosce of the tribe of 
tynometrece have the flowers nearly or quite as regular as in 
Connaracece ; and in Copaifera, besides the arillus, we may 
observe the radicle at a considerable distance from the hilum on 
the back of the seed near its base, although not so far as in 
Comiarus, where it is also on the back of the seed, but near .its 
summit. 

this as well as in the greater number of true Connari, as mentioned by 
•nnaeus in his generic character. 

V 



290 FLORA NIGRIT1ANA. 

1. Connarus Africanus, Lam. Diet. 2. p. 95. — Omphalobium 
Africanum, DC. Prod. 2. p. 85. — Sierra Leone, Don. 
Two other W. African species of Connarus have been pub- 
lished : C. floribundus, Schum. et Thonn. [Omphalobium Thon- 
ni?igii, DC) from Guinea, and O. Smeathmanni, DC, from 
Sierra Leone. 

1. Rourea coccinea y Hook. fil. ; .glabra, foliolis 7-11 (parvis) 
oblique ovali-ellipticis orbiculatisve obtussissimis retusisvc 
membranaceis v. demuni coriaceis reticulatis, cymis laxe 3-o- 
floris, staminibus stylos duplo superantibus. — Byrsocarpus 
coccinea, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 226.— Cape Palnias, 
Accra and on the Quorra, Vogel; Senegambia, Heudelot; 
Guinea, Thonning. 

The leaflets vary much in number, breadth and consistence, 
but these differences appear to depend much on age and on the 
vigour of the shoots ; they seldom attain an inch in length. 
Small stipules may often be observed on the young sterile shoots. 
The flowers are precisely those of the true Rourea, the stamens 
most decidedly hypogynous, the ovaries hairy, the pod smooth, 
of a bright scarlet when fresh, and straighter than in most 
Rourea, but not otherwise differing from the generic type. 

Schumacher and Thonning describe a second species ot 
Rourea from Guinea, under the name of Byrsocarpus punicea, 
and Omphalobium villosum, DC. from Sierra Leone and Sene- 
gambia, is a third. To the latter species may probably be 
referred the Cnestis obliqua, Pal. de Beauv., from Oware. I 
have a fourth unpublished species, gathered by Captain Middle- 
ton at Grand Bassa, remarkable in the calyx, which is only very 
shortly divided into five imbricately activated lobes, or rather 
teeth, and in the stamens less distinctly hypogynous, although 
in "the absence of fruit it cannot be generically distinguished 
from Rourea. 
I. Cnestis corniculata, Lam. Diet. 2. p. 23 ?— Grand Bassa, 

Vogel. 
Frutex, ex Vog., arborescens. Ramuli et foliorum juninrum 
pctioli communes ferrugineo-villosi, demum glabrati et irerru- 
culosi. SHpufa parvrc, rigidae, acutis*iimv\ Foliola 7-9, 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 291 



ovata v. ovato-Ianceolata, acuminata, basi rotundata, 1-1 1- 
pollicaria, coriacea, venulosa, juniora ad costain subtus hir- 
suta, adulta glabrata. Paniculce floriferse laxse, graciles, foliis 
longiores. Bractece ad ramificationes setacese, villosse. Pedi- 
celli ultimi 2-3 lin. longi, capillares, infra medium articulati. 
Calyx lineam longus, sepalis lanceolatis acutis sestivatione val- 
vatis, extus pallide roseis. Petala calyci sequilonga, lanceo- 
lata, extus puberula, alba. Stamina hypogyna, basi vix con- 
nata, calyce breviora, alterna alternis breviora. Carpella 5, 
sessilia, pubescentia, in stylos breves desinentia. Ovula 2, a 
basi ovarii erecta. 

The other W. Tropical African species of Cnestis are C.fer- 
ruginea, DC, from Sierra Leone, and C.pinnata, Pal. deBeauv., 
trom Oware : Brown mentions also several new species as being 
contained in C. Smith's Congo collection.— (G. B.) 

XLVI. LEGUMlNOSiE.* 

1. Crotalaria genistifolia, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 335 ; 
Benth. Enum. Leg. in Lond. Journ. Bot. 2. p. 479. — Guinea, 
Isert; Accra, Vogel. 

2. Crotalaria Vogelii, Benth. I. c. p. 561. — On the Quorra, at 
Stirling, Vogel 

3. Crotalaria ononoides, Benth. I. c.p. 572. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

4. Crotalaria ochroleuca, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 2. p. 138 ; erecta ? 

m 

ramis virgatis ramulis petiolisque tenuiter subsericeo-pilosis, 
stipulis minutis, foliolis elongatis lineari-Ianceolatis supra 
glabris subtus appresso-puberulis, racemis terminalibus sub- 
elongatis plurifloris, calycis dentibus tubo subtriplo breviori- 
t>us, vexillo late elliptico acuminato, carina3 rostro falcato, 
leguraine subsessili oblongo polyspermo. — St. Thomas, Don. 

Habitu, statura et magnitudine florum C. brevidenti, Benth., 
8imillima, differt vexillo acuminato, carina falcata et legumine 
majore, ampliore. 
In habit and foliage this species may also be compared with 

C lanceolaia, E. Mey., from South Africa, which however has 

* By J. D. Hooker and G. Bentham. 

( 2 



292 FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 

much smaller flowers ; the acuminated standard is like that of 
C. macrocarpa. There is also a C pallida, Ait., from " Africa," 
which is only known by a very short phrase, as applicable to 
this as to several other species. 

5. Cro talari a falcata, Vahl, Benth. 1. c. p. 585. — C.obovata, G. 
Don, Gard. Diet. 2. p. 138. — Bassa Cove, Am ell ; Cape 
Palmas and Cape Coast, Vogel ; Accra, Don. 

6. Crotalaria striata, DC, Benth. 1. c. p. 586.— Senegal, Per- 
rottet ; St. Thomas, Don. This is found in many parts of 
Africa, South Asia, and in the West Indies, but in some of 
the stations whence it has been sent it is probably cultivated 
or introduced. 

7. Crotalaria incana, Linn., Benth. 1. c. p. 587. — Senegal, Per- 
rottet; Sierra Leone, Don. — An American species perhaps 
introduced only to the Old World. 

8. Crotalaria Goreensis, Guill. et Perr., Benth. L c. p> 589. — 
Senegal, Perrottet ; Gambia, Captain Boteler, Heudelot; 
Accra, Thonning, Don, Vogel. Also a native of Upper Egypt. 

9. Crotalaria lotifolia, Linn. DC. Prod. 2. p. 13 1.— Cape Coast, 
Vogel. — A West Indian species, from which VogcFs imperfect 
specimen does not appear to differ. 

10. Crotalaria, sp. n. ? allied to some of the S. American shrubby 
trifoliolate species, but the specimen is insufficient for deter- 
mination. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

This is, next to Indigofeia, one of the most numerous dicoty- 
ledoneous genera in W. Tropical Africa, as besides the above 
ten, no less than sixteen other species are known to inhabit that 
region, viz.: 1. C arenaria, Benth. 2. C. glauca, Willd. 3. C. 
Leprieurii, Guill. et Perr. 4. C. calycina, Schranck, (a common 
S. Asiatic species.) 5. C. Perrottetii, DC. 6. C. gracilis, Walp. 
7. C. ebenoides, Walp. 8. C. iodina, Benth. 9. C. macrocalyx, 
Benth. 10. An unpublished species from Senegambia allied to 
C. medicaginea, Lam. 11. C. spharocarpa, Perrot. 12. C. poly- 
car pa, Benth. 13. C. Senegalensis, Bade, (also found in Nubia). 
14. C. lathijroides, Guill. et Perr. 15. C. podocarpa, DC. (also 
found in Cordofan), and 16. C. cylindrocarpa, DC. 

One species of Lvp'ums, L. termis, Forsk., is cited in the 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 293 

Flora Senegambise, besides which the only other W. African 
species known of the tribe of Genistea, is the Xerocarpus Mr- 
sutus, Guill. et Perr., from Senegal and Cordofan. 

Of the tribe of Trifoliece, no species has as yet to my know- 
ledge been found in W. Tropical Africa, although a few have 
been gathered in the eastern portion of that continent within 
the Tropics as well as in North and South Africa. 

Acanthonotus, Benth. Indigofera sp., Auct. Char. gen. ref. 

Calyx profunde quinquefidu s, laciniis lanceolato-subulatis. Pe- 
tala breve unguiculata, inter se calycique sequilonga ; vexillum 
obovatum, alse lineari-oblonga? libera?, carina recta, edentula, 
segmentis fere a basi connatis. Stamina diadelpha, antherae 
late didymse, connectivo in acumen producto basi dorso piloso. 
Ovarium breviter stipitatum, lineare, obliquum, in stylum va- 
lidum uncinatum productum. Stigma subsimplex. Legumen 
indehiscens, falcatum, latiusculum, compressum, echinatum, 
hispido-setosum, dorso bicarinatum. Semen solitarium. 

1. Acanthonotus echinatus, Benth. — Indigofera echinata, Willd. 
et Auct. — Senegambia, Heudelot ; on the Quorra, at At tab, 
Vogel. 

A widely distributed plant, common to West Africa, Ceylon, 
and the Peninsula of India The leaves vary much in form, 
from broadly obovate and very blunt, to oblong and rather 
acute at both extremities, or elliptical ; all these forms may be 
seen in the W. African specimens, although the Indian ones are 
rather more constantly obovate. 
1- Indigofera bracteolata, Guill. et Perr. Ft. Seneg. 1. p. 170. 

— Senegambia ; on the Quorra, Vogel. 

2. Indigofera enneaphylla, Linn.— S. Thomas, Don ; Cape Palmas 
and Grand Bassa, Vogel 

3. Indigofera sp. very near 7. tetrasperma, Vahl, and I. panicu- 
lata, Perr., but possibly distinct. There is only a single 
specimen in VogePs collection without any precise locality. 
It appears to be an erect annual, four or five feet high, much 
branched in the upper part, the upper leaves are simple and 
like those of I. tetrasperma, but the lower leaves are wanting, 



294 FLORA NIGRTTIANA. 

and there is no fruit, so that it cannot be accurately de- 
scribed. 

4. Indigofera Nigritana, Hook. fil. ; caule tereti erecto ramoso, 
raraulis gracilibus glabratis, stipulis lineari-subulatis, foliolis 
lineari-obovatis subacutis strigillosis, caulinis 2-3-jugis, raineis 
ultimis noralibusque simplicibus, pedicellis axillaribus filifor- 
mibus uninoris, calycis strigosi 5-partiti laciniis lanceolato- 
subulatis subsequalibus, vexillo oblongo calyce bis longiore, 
ovario biovulato, legumine appresse piloso breviter oblongo 
compresso dispermo. — On the Quorra, Vogel. 

Caulis herbaceus, 2-3-pedalis, superne pyramidatim ramosus, 
ramulis strictis sulcatis, ultimis filiformibus. Petioli graciles, 
£-! poll, longi. Foliola ramea 3 lin. longa, floralia minora, 
ultima bracteseformia. Pedunculi ^-f poll, longi, apice curvati 
v. geniculati. Flores \\ lin. longi. Calyx glandulosus. Legu- 
men fere 2 lin. Ion gum, atrofuscum, seminibus suborbiculatis. 

5. Indigofera endecaphylla, Jacq. DC. Prod. 2. p- 228. 1- 
anceps, Vahl, DC. /. c— I. Schimperiana, Hochst. PI Abyss. 

Grand Bassa and Cape Palmas, Vogel; found also in Senegal 
and Guinea, in Abyssinia and East Tropical Africa, southward 
to Port Natal. 

6. Indigofera simplicifolia , Lam. DC. Prod. 2. p. 222.— On the 
Quorra, at Attah, Vogel ; Sierra Leone, Smeathmann. 
These are luxuriant specimens, above three feet high, though ap- 
parently an annual, the stems are nearly simple, as described by 
Lamarck, and certainly not very much branched, as appears to 
have been the case with the specimen seen by De Candolle. 
The larger leaves are five inches long and half au inch broad, 
but the upper ones are scarcely above an inch and a half long 
as stated by Lamarck. Vogel' s specimens are not in fruit, but 
the ovary is long and slender, with numerous ovules. 

7. Indigofera dendroides, Jacq. DC. Prod. 2. p. 227. — Savannahs 
of the Quorra, Vogel ; Senegal and Guinea. 

8. Indigofera hirsuta, Linn. DC. Prod. 2. p. 228.— I. astragalina, 
DC. 1. c. — I. ferruginea, Schurn. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 370. 
I. fusca, G. Don, Gard. Did. 2. p. 211.— Cape Coast/and on 
the Quorra Vogel ; St. Thomas, Don ; Senegal and Guinea. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. ' 295 

A widely diffused species, extending from Tropical Africa 
through the whole of Southern Asia to the Philippine Islands 
and North Australia, and varying considerably in most of these 
localities. 

9. Indigofera Anil, Linn.— I. uncinata, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 2. p. 

208. — Sierra Leone and on the Quorra, Don, Vogel; cultivated. 

The name Anil, given by Linnaeus to the West African and 
American indigo, is derived from a Hindostanee term applied to 
the Indian indigos, and especially to the /. tinctoria, and signi- 
fying blue. Both the I. tinctoria and /. argentea are also cul- 
tivated in West Tropical Africa. 

Besides the above nine species, the same region possesses at 
least twenty-seven other species of Indigofera, viz. : 1. L (Ame- 
carpus) Senegalensis, Lam. (/. tenella, Schum. et Thonn., and 
Brissonia trapezicarpa, Desv.) from Senegal and Nubia ; 2. /. 
diphylla, Vent., from Senegal ; 3. /. Perrottetii, Guill. et Perr., 
from Senegal; 4. /. oligospermia, DC. {I. glutinosa, Schum. et 
Thonn.) Senegal, Guinea and Nubia; 5. /. macrocalyx, Guill. et 
Perr., Senegal ; 6. /. nigricans, Vahl, (7. elegans, Schum. et 
Thonn.) Guinea; 7. I. pulchra, Vahl, Senegal and Nubia; 
8. L procera, Schum. et Thonn., Guinea; 9. /. trichopoda, 
Guill. et Perr., Senegal; 10. I. tetrasperma, Schum. et Thonn., 
(nee Vahl ex Webb, supra p. 121), Guinea; 11. I. paniculata, 
Pcrs., Sierra Leone ; 12. I. viscosa, Lam. (I. glutinosa, Guill. et 
Perr., and possibly /. lateritia, Willd.), Senegal and Guinea, and 
thence across Tropical Africa to the East Indian Peninsula; 
A3. I. sessiliflora, DC, Senegal ; 14. I. linearis, DC., Senegal 
and Cape Verd Isles ; 15. I. subulata, Vahl., (I. Thonningii, 
Schum.) Guinea; 16. I.pilosa, Poir. (I. Guineensis, Schum. et 
Thonn.), Guinea; 17. L aspera, Guill. et Perr., Senegal and 
Cordofan; 18. J. Prieureana, Guill. et Perr., Senegal; 19. I. 
lasiantha, Desv., Angola ; 22. /. macrophylla, Schum. et Thonn., 
Guinea ; 23. 1, seevndiflora, Poir., Guinea, and four unpublished 
species from Senegal. The /. omithopodiodes of Schum. and 
Thonn., cultivated in Guinea, appears to be the I. tinctoria. 

Of the allied genus, Cynmopsis, there is one Senegambian 
species, C. Senegalensis, Guill. et Perr., also found in Nubia. 



296 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

The widely diffused genus, Psoralen, has as yet no representa- 
tive in West Tropical Africa, although one species at least has 
been found in Nubia. Of the two known species of Requienia, 
one is from Senegal, R. obcordata, DC. 

1. Tephrosia Vogelii, Hook, fil.j fruticosa, ramulis pedunculis- 
que velutino-tomentosis, stipulis lanceolato-subulatis caducis, 
foliolis 6-10-jugis lineari-oblongis obtusis emarginatisve api- 
culatis subtus prsecipue adpressc sericeis, floribus ampns, 
bracteis late ovatis acuminatis, calycis lati dentibus late ob- 
longis obtusis, vexillo emarginato dorso sericeo, alis cum carina 
basi connatis, filamento superiore basi apiceque libero, legn- 
mine breviter falcato lineari-oblongo valde compresso dense 
fulvo-villoso.— On the Quorra, and Fernando Po, VogeL 

Frutex arborescens, 8-10-pedalis, ramis suberectis, ramulis sul- 
catis, pube conferta. Stipule 2 lin. long*. Petioli pubentes, 
6-8 poll, longi, pube fulva dense obtecti. Foliola l|-2|-poJ4- 
caria, \-% poll, lata, inferne subangustata, supra grisea scricco- 
pubescentia, subtus dense albo-sericea, venis prominuhs obli- 
que parallelis striata, costa ferruginea. Racemi terminates, 
validi, erecti, pluriflori, subpyramidati. Bractea caducse. 
Flores magnitudine Pisi sativi. Calyx late hemisphsencus, 
supra medium 5-fidus. Corolla purpurea; vexillum latius 
quam longum, erectum, patens, dorso argenteo-sericeum, na sl 
albo-maculatum, breviter unguiculatam ; alse late dolabri- 
formes, obtuse, transverse rugosa*. Ovarium lineare, velu- 
tinum. Legumen 5 poll, latum, planum, sub-18-spermum. 
A very handsome species of the same group as /. toxicarta, 

and which, like that species in the "W. Indies, is cultivated by 

the natives and used for poisoning fish. 

2. Tephrosia densiflora, Hook. fil. ; fruticosa, ramulis peduncu- 
lisque pube tenui dense obtectis, stipulis lineari-subulatis, 
foliolis obovato-oblongis late emarginatis obcordatisve subtus 
prsecipue pubescenti-sericeis, racemis terminalibus, bracteis 
an gust e lanceolatis, calycis villosuli dentibus 4 brevissinus 
quinto subulato revoluto, vexillo sericeo, alis liberis, legumine 
leviter arcuato late lineari dense villoso. — Pattch, VogeL 

Frutex ramosus. Folia 3-5 poll, longa \ foliolalj-lj poll, longa, 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 297 

6-9 lin. lata, supra pubc tenui appressa, subtus sericea, costa 
ferruginea. Racemi sub-4-pollicares. Bractece extus sericeo- 
tomentosre, intus glabrae. Pedicelli 6 lin. longi, villosuli. Calyx 
\\ lin. longus, latior quam longus. Veocillum fere \ poll. Ion- 
gum, latissime orbiculatum, dorso dense sericeo-villosum, bre- 
vissime unguiculatum, apice emarginatum ; alse basi tranverse 
rugosse. Filamentum superius basi apiceque liberum. Legu- 
men pendulum, 3-4 poll, longum, 5 lin. latum, planum, apice 
oblique et abrupte acuminatum, undique dense villosum. 
Allied to T. Vogelii, but less hairy, with much smaller flowers, 
narrower pods, broader and more emarginate leaflets, and very 

different calyx and bracts. It is said by Vogel to be a cultivated 
8pecics. 

". rephrosia Amelia, Hook. fil. ; caule erecto basi lignoso parce 
ramoso, ramis pedunculisque laxe patentim pilosis, stipulis 
subulato-filiformibus, foliolis sub-7-jugis lineari-oblongis 
obtusis vix emarginatis, subtus laxe et molliter sericeo- 
pilosis, racemis terminalibus strictis elongatis multifloris, 
bracteis lineari-subulatis, calycis dentibus 4 brevissimis infe- 
nore longiore, vexillo sericeo, legumine late lineari-oblongo 
subarcuato compresso parce piloso marginibus villoso-ciliatis. 
Savannahs on the Quorra at Stirling, Ansell, Vogel. 

Suffrutex erectus, 3-pedalis, simpliciusculus. Caulis strictus, 
griseus v. pallide rufescens, villis mollibus laxis. Stipuke 
5 lin. longse, persistentes. Petioli 4-7 poll, longi, pube pal- 
hde fulva. Foliola 1J-2 poll, longa, 3-5 lin. lata, basi vix 
angustata, apice retusa, pilis albidis marginata. Racemi semi- 
pedales ad pedales, floribus secus axem geminis. Bractea 
stipulis consimiles, pedicellos duplo triplove superantes. Calyx 
vix lineam longus, hemisphsericus, dentibus 2 superioribus 
connatis, ceteris subulatis, inferiore longiore. Vexillwn late 
elliptico-oblongum, emarginatum, unguiculatum, dorso pilis 
fusco-brunneis dense sericeum ; alse basi cum carina connatse, 
transverse rugosre. Filamentum superius basi et apice li- 
herum. Ovarium dense sericeum. Legumen 1£-1J P°U- 
longum, 4 lin. latum, plano-compressum, basi apiceque an- 



298 FLORA NIGRITTANA. 

gustatum, sub-7-spermum, faciebus pilosis, marginibus in- 
crassatis villoso-ciliatis. 

4. Tephrosia elongata, Hook. fil. ; sufFruticosa, erecta, caule 
tereti ramulisque cinereo-pubescentibus, stipulis oblongo-lan- 
ceolatis, petiolis elongatis, foliolissub-12-jugis anguste lineari- 
oblongis obtusis apiculatis supra glabratis subtus appresse 
sericeis, racemis longissimis multifloris, bracteis ovato-oblongis, 
pedicellis brevibus, vexillo calyce breviter 5-dentato sextuplo 
longiore dense velutino, legumine leviter arcuato lineari com- 
presso velutino. — On the Quorra, Vogel. 

Svffrutex tripedalis. Caulis strictus, ramis raris valde elongatis 
laxe foliatis. Folia spithamea, suberecta, petiolo velutino- 
pubescente, stipulis 1^ lin. longisextus sericeis. Foliola ses- 
quipollicaria, 2^ lin. lata, vix basi angustata, costa subtus 
ferruginea. Racemi interdum bipedales, parte florifera per 
anthesin 4-unciali, fructifera pedali. Flores ssepius gemini, 
erecto-patentes, purpurei, 9 lin. longi, pedicello 2-lineari 
bracteaque sericeis. Calyce brevissimus, dente inferiore subu- 
lato, 2 summis fere ad apicem connatis. Vexillum sessile, 
late obcordatum, dorso dense fulvo-sericeum; ala? basi ca- 
rinas vix cohzerentes, medio transverse rugulosae. Fua- 
mentum supremum basi et apice liberum. Legumen erecto- 
patens v. horizontale, acuminatum, 3 poll, longum, %\ nn. 
latum, plano-compressum, marginibus incrassatis, sub- 14- 
spermum. 

5. Tephrosia fasciculata, Hook, fil.; fruticosa, ramis validw 
teretibus pubescentibus, petiolis elongatis, stipulis ovato-lan- 
ceolatis, foliolis 6-9-jugis linearibus emarginato-bilobis supra 
glabratis subtus albo-sericeis, racemis terminalibus erectis 
brevibus, pedicellis brevissimis, floribus erectis fasciculatis, 
legumine lineari compresso velutino. — On the Quorra, Vogel • 

Frutex erectus, orgyalis. Stipuke infimse foliacea?, 3-4 fa- 
longa?. Petiolus 6-8-pollicaris. Foliola 2 poll, longa, 3 fa. 
lata. Racemi ut videtur densiflori, soli fructiferi mibi 
noti. Flores delapsi iis T. elongata similes. Legumina fas- 
ciculata, patula, 2£ poll, longa, \ poll, lata, sub-11-spernia, 



FLORA NTGRITIANA. 299 

facicbus pilis flavo-fuscis pubescentibus, marginibus incras- 

satis. 

Most nearly allied to" T. elongata, but the leaves are longer, 
the stipules very different, and the pod broader and fewer- 
seeded. 

6. Tephrosia ^.two^, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 2. p. 232 ; caule 
erecto sublignoso flexuoso superne ramulisque pubescenti- 
pilosis, stipulis filiformi-subulatis, foliolis 4-5-jugis lineari- 
lanceolatis subacutis supra pubescentibus subtus argenteo- 
senceis, racemis terminalibus abbreviatis sericeo-villosis, flo- 
nbus confertis, bracteis subulatis, calyce brevissimo, legumine 
late-lineari subtoruloso sub-8-spermo. — St. Thomas, Don. 

Fruticulus 1-lJ-pedalis, caulibus sa?pe angulatim flexuosis basi 
denudatis stipulis pollicaribus solis persistentibus. Petioli 
molliter flavo-pubescentes. Foliola supra grisea, subtus pilis 
nifescentibus tecta. Racemus florens sesquipollicaris, fruc- 
tifer parum elongatus. Legumen suberectum, vix arcuatum, 
faciebus torulosis sericeo-pubescentibus, marginibus incras- 
satis fulvo-tomentosis. Semina late oblonga, testa nitida, 
nigra, flavo-irrorata. 

?• Tephrosia elegans, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 376. — Sa- 
vannahs on the QuoiTa, Vogel ; Guinea. 

kimillima T. brevipedi, e Guiana ; differt foliolis plerisque bi- 
jugis, floribus minoribus, calycis laciniis latioribus petal isque 
obtusioribus. 

°. Tephrosia pulchella, Hook. fil. ; caule erecto simplici basi 
hgnoso superne subfastigiatim ramoso, ramis petiolisque gra- 
cdibus adpresse puberulis, foliolis 4-5-jugis anguste lineari- 
cuneatis retusis emarginatisve supra glabratis subtus argenteo- 
sericeis, floribus axillaribus solitariis parvis brevissime pedi- 
cellatis, calycis segment is subaequalibus subulatis, legumine 
erecto dense villoso. — On the Quorra, at Stirling, Vogel. 

Suffrutex gracilis, tripedalis, ramulis erect is virgatis. Stipuke 
nainimae. Petiolus 4-9 lin. longus. Foliola sensim e basi 
angustata, *-£ poll, longa, f-1 lin. lata, inferiora raro sesqui- 
pollicaria, supra obscure griseo-pubcrula subtus argentea costa 
ferruginea. Flores parvi, pedicello 1 lin. tongfl brarh-am sub- 



300 FLORA NIGRITFANA. 

i 

ulatam excedente. Calyx dense serieeus, ad medium 5-fidus. 
Vexillum orbiculari-oblongum, unguiculatum ; alee cum carina 
vix adhscrentes, medio obscure tranvcrsim reticulata?. Ova- 
rium dense sericeo-pilosum, sub-12-ovulatum. 
9. Tephrosia linearis, Pers. Syn. 2. p. 330. — Senegal ; Accra, 
Vogel ; also a native of Cordofan. 

The genus Tephrosia seems peculiarly abundant towards the 
northern or drier regions of West Tropical African Flora, all 
but one of the following additional known species being found 
in Senegambia, viz. : 1. T. bracteolata, Guill. et Perr., and 2. 
T. platycarpa, Guill. et Perr., both from Senegal ; 3. T. humilis, 
Guill. et Perr., from Senegal and Cape Verd; 4. T. apollinea, 
DC, from Senegal ? Nubia and Arabia ; 5. T. I ep tost achy a, DC, 
from Senegal and Nubia; 6. T. lineata, Sebum, et Thonn. 
(perhaps the same as T. leptostachya, DC, and T. purpurea, 
Pers.) from Guinea; 7. T. gracilipes, Guill. et Perr., from Se- 
negal ; 8. 71 uniflora, Pers. (to this may possibly belong the 
Senegambian T. apollinea, as well as the T. anthylloides, Hochst. ; 
the true Galega apollinea, Delille, being probably a very different 
species), Senegal and Nubia; 9. T. lathyroides, Guill. et Perr., 
from Cape Verd ; 10. T. hirsuta, Schum. et Thonn. (perhaps, 
as well as T. lathyroides, the same as T. uniflora) from Guinea ; 
11. T. digit at a, DC, from Senegal ; and one, or perhaps two, 
unpublished species from Senegambia. 

The T. toxicaria, presumed by Tussaud to have been intro- 
duced into the West Indies from West Africa, does not appear 
in any of the collections from the latter country, where other 
species are cultivated for the same purpose of poisoning fish. 
It may also be stated, as further evidence that T. toxicaria is 
really American, not African, that the American Continent pos- 
sesses other indigenous species much nearer allied to that one 
than to any African ones. 

1. Sesbania aculeata, Pers. — Accra, Vogel; Senegambia, and 
widely diffused over Africa and the East Indies, and intro- 
duced into the West Indies. 

2. Sesbania Mgyptiaca, Pers.— S. punctata, DC— Sierra Leone 
and Quorra River, at Attah, Vogel; Senegambia, and, like 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 301 

the preceding species, diffused over Africa and East India as 

far as the Philippine Islands. 

Three other Senegambian species have been described, S. lep- 
tocarpa, DC, S. pachycarpa, DC. and S. pubescens, DC, of 
which two at least, if not all three, are also found in Nubia. 
1. Agati grandiflora, Desv., DC. Prod. 2. p. 266.— Sierra 

Leone, Don. — Introduced from E. India, where also it appears 

to be generally, if not always, more or less in a state of culti- 
vation. 

No other genus of true Galegece, nor yet any of the large 
tribes of Astragalece or Vicece, have as yet been found in West 
Iropical Africa, although a few have been gathered in Nubia. 
1. Stylosanthes Guineensis, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr.p. 351, et 

G. Don, Gard. Diet. 2. p. 281 ?— S. erecta, Pal. de Beauv. 

FL Ow. et Ben. 2. p. 28. /. 77.— Vog. Linntea, 12. p. 68, 

Senegambia to Guinea ; Cape Coast Castle, Grand Bassa and 

Nun River, Vogel ; Wby dah, Don. 

Certainly very closely allied to the West Indian S. procum- 
bens, and perhaps only a luxuriant variety. It is usually a much 
larger plant, thickly covering large patches of ground, and 
rising to the height of a foot and a half, but not really erect, on 
which account it may be better to adopt Schumacher's name 
than Palisot de Beauvois's. The flowers are usually more nu- 
merous than in S. procumbens, but not always so. 

The East Indian S. mucronata, Willd., slightly differing from 
the preceding, has also been found in Senegal. 
*• Stylosanthes viscosa, Sw., Vog. Linncea, 12. p. 66. — Sierra 

Leone, Don. The specimens are precisely similar to the 

common American form. 
L Arachis hypogaa, Linn. — Abundantly cultivated in West 

Tropical Africa. In addition to Mr. Brown's observations 

(App. Cong.) on the probable country and migrations of this 

plant, it may be stated that the discovery of several other 

species of the same genus in Brazil is additional evidence of 

the American origin of the A. /u/pogaa. 
h Zorma diphylla, Pers., var. (jlochidiata.—Z. gloehuiiata, 



302 FLORA NIGRJTIANA. 

Reich. DC. Prod. 2. p. 316.— Z. biarticulata, G. Don, Gard. 

Diet. 2. p. 288. — Accra, Vogel, Don ; Senegambia. 

The distinctions between the common American, Asiatic and 
African forms of this widely diffused plant prove to be very 
inconstant, as already observed by Vogel ; and it is now no longer 
possible to view them as forming more than one species, found 
in almost every hot country visited by botanists. 

A new species of Geissaspis, remarkable for its entire, not 

r 

ciliated bracts, is amongst Heudelot's Senegambian plants. 

The same Senegambian collection includes the Herminiera 
elaphroxylon, Guill. et Perr., which must be removed to Hedy- 
sarece, the pod being certainly articulated when quite ripe, and 
an allied plant, which appears to be the same as the Abyssinian 
Acrotaphros bibracteata, Steud. 

1. Ormocarpum verrucosum, Pal. de Beauv. Fl. Ow. et Ben. !• 
p. 96. t. 58. — Grand Bassa, in marshy places and in maritime 
sands on the Nun River, and in the island of Fernando Po, 
Vogel; Oware. 

2. Ormocarpum coronilloides, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 2. p. 279 ; 
foliis impari-pinnatis, foliolis multijugis oblongis utrinque 
obtusis mucronulatis, leguminis articulatis striatis glabris 
v. pilis glanduliferis raris instructis. — Rathkea glabra, Schum. 
et Thonn. Beskr. p. 355; — var. a. petiolis pedicellisque 
glanduloso-puberulis, St. Thomas, Don ; — var. /3. petiolis 
pedicellisque glabrioribus, on the Niger, Me William. 

Very similar to a Philippine Island plant, which appears to 
be the JEschynomene colutoides of A. Richard, and which as 
well as our plant, may be mere varieties of the East Indian 0. 
sennoides, the degree of glandular hairiness of the inflorescence 
and pods being evidently very variable. 

1. ^schynomene aspera, Linn. DC. Prod. 2. p. 320.— Nun 
and Quorra Rivers, Vogel; Accra, Don. These specimens 
differ but slightly from the common East Indian form in 
the bracts and calyxes being more acuminated and smooth, 
but do not appear to be specifically distinct. 
The JS. Indica, Linn., which probably includes M. macro- 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 303 

poda, DC, M. quadrata, Schum. et Thonn., and JE. sensitiva, 
Pal. de Beauv., a common East Indian plant, is found in Senegal 
and Guinea, extendiug also to Cordofan ; and the American 
M. sensitiva, Sw., as well as an apparently new species, are in 
Heudelot's Senegambian collection. 

Sprengel, under the name o/ Smithia spicata, has described a 
presumed Senegambian plant, which must remain a puzzle 
untri it has been seen by some more accurate botanist. No 
true Smithia has as yet been found to our knowledge in Western 
Africa, athough one species (Kotschya Africana, Endl.) is a 
native of Upper Egypt. 

1- Uraria picta, Desv., DC. Prod. 2. p. 324. — Cape Palmas 
and Quorra River, at Addanda, Vogel ; St. Thomas, Don. 
A common East Indian species, also recorded as a native of 
Guinea by Schumacher and Thonning, whose plant is erro- 
neously referred by Walpers to Desmodium. 

1. Desmodium (Pleurolobium) oxybracteatum, DC. Prod. 2. p. 
334? — D. grande,»2£. Mey. Comm. PI. Afr. Austr.p. 124. 

D. paleaceum, Guill. et Perr. Fl. Seneg. p. 209. — Ab6h, 
Vogel; Senegambia; also S. East Africa, Madagascar and 
Mauritius. VogeFs specimens closely resemble the eastern 
ones, Heudelot's are rather less vigorous, but all appear to 
belong to one species, varying very much in the hairiness of 
the fruit, as is the case with so many Desmodia. 

2. Desmodium (Chalarium) latifolium, DC. Prod. 2. p. 328. 
D. lasiocarpum, DC. I. c. — Hedysarum deltoideum, Schum. et 
Thonn. Beskr. p. 361. — Accra and Quorra River, Vogel; 
St. Thomas, Don ; Senegambia and Guinea. A very common 
East Indian plant extending as far as the Philippine Islands. 

3. Desmodium (Heteroloma) Mauritianum , DC. Prod. 2. p. 
334. — H. fruticulosum, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 363. — 
D. linearifolium, D. ramosissimum et D. tenue ? G. Don, 
Gard. Diet. 2. p. 294.— St. Thomas and Sierra Leone, Don ; 
Grand Bassa, Cape Palmas, &c, Vogel,— A Mauritius plant, 
extending probably all across the African continent. 

4. Desmodium (Heteroloma) uicanum f DC. Prod. 2. //. 332. - 
D. sparsiflorum, G. Don, Gard. Did. 2. p. 29 1,— Sierra 



304 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

Leone and St. Thomas, Don ; Fernando Po, Vogel — A 
common American species, said to be found , also in the 
Mauritius 
5. Desmodium (Heteroloma) oxalidifolium, G.Don, Gard. Diet. 
2. p. 295.— St. Thomas, Don; sandy shores of the Nuii 
River, near the sea, Vogel. ♦ 
Caules e basi radicante ^-2-pedales, prostrati, graciles, apicibus 
adscendentibus, parce subsericeo-pilosi. Stipulce 3 lin. long#, 
persistentes, lanceolatse, setaceo-acuminatse. Petioli £-1 poll- 
longi. Foliola late obovato-orbiculata, 1-1 J-pollicaria, niem- 
branacea, pallide viridea, supra sparse puberula. Peduncuh 
terminales, elongati, pauciflori, pedicellis subgeniinis filiior- 
mibus semipollicaribus. Bractece lanceolatse setaceo-acunn- 
nataB. Flores 2 lin. longi. Calyx pubescens, profunde par- 
tit us, segmentis subulatis. Legumen pollicare, articuhs 
4-5 longioribus quam latis, hinc fere rectis, illinc convexis, 
faciebus planis glochidiato-pubescentibus. 
Apparently allied to D. ccespititium, DC., and closely re- 
sembling a Javanese species. 

Besides the above, there are three described Desmodia from 
W. Tropical Africa, viz. : D. lanceolatum, Schum. et Thonn., 
from Guinea, D. ovalifolium, Guill. et Perr., and D. terminale, 
Guill. et Perr. (referred by Webb to the common W. Indian 
D. tortuosum), both from Senegambia, and a fourth apparently 
new one in Heudelot's collection. 

1. Nicholsonia reptans, Meissn. Linnaa, 21. p. 260.— Des- 
modium trinorum, DC. Prod. 2. p. 334. — D. Bullamense, 
G. Don, Gard. Diet. 2. p. 29 1— Hedysarum granulatum, 
Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 362. — Accra, Vogel— A very 
common weed in hot damp climates within the Tropics, both 
of the New and the Old World. Meissner is quite right in 
transferring it from Desmodium to Nicholsonia, to which 
genus belong four or five other E. Indian and Mauritius 
species published as Desmodia. 
1. Alysicarpus vaginalis, DC. Prod. 2. p. 353.— Stirling, at the 
confluence, Ansell ; also Senegal, Cordofan, and very abun- 
dant in East India, as far as the Philippine Islands. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 305 

A second species, A. rugosits, DC, to which probably belong 
also Hedysarum rugosum and H. ovaltfolium, Schum. et 
Thonn., is a native of Senegal and Guinea, extending to Cor- 
dofan. 

Of the genus Abrus, which connects Viciea* with Phaseolea, 
one species, the common A. precatorius, is included in the 
Senegambian Flora. It is found abundantly within the Tropics, 
both in the New and the Old World, but in many places evidently 
introduced. 
1. Centrosema decumbens, Mart. — Benth. in Ann. Mus. Vind. 

2. p, 120. — Cape Coast, Vogel. — A common South American 

plant, ranging from the West Indies to South Brazil. The 

genus is also, with this exception, exclusively American. 

Clitoria Ternatea, a common East Indian plant, introduced 
mto many parts of America, is found also in Scnegambia, and 
over a great portion of Tropical Africa. 
1. Glycine labialis, Linn. — Wight et Am. Prod. Penins. Ind. 

Or. 1. p. 200. — St. Thomas, Don. — A common Tropical plant, 

both in the New and the Old World. 

The G. Senegalensis, DC, is generally supposed to be a mere 
variety of G. parvifiora, Lam., (which latter is correctly referred 
to G. labialis) ; but some specimens in Heudelot's Senegambian 
collection, agreeing well with De Candolle's character, are 
certainly distinct. Besides the longer racemes, and longer and 
smoother pods, the calyx is essentially different, being divided 
mto four instead of five teeth, and each tooth is broader. Hoch- 
stetter's Kennedy a Arabica, from Cordofan, appears to be the 
same as the Senegambian plant. 
1. Johnia Willdenowii, Hook. fil. — Glycine hedysaroides, Willd. 

Spec. 3. p. 1060. — Accra, Don ; in VogeVs collection without 

the precise locality. 

This species, well described by Thonning under Willdenow's 
name, is certainly congener to the Johnia Wight ii, Am., and to 
the Bujacia anonychia, E. Mey., which is scarcely specifically 
distinct from the Indian plant. In all I find the stamens mo- 
nadelphous, and all bearing anthers, the upper stamen being 
free only at the base. In the Johnia vettito, Am., however, 



306 flora nigritiana: 

the upper stamen is entirely free. All these small geneva, 
allied to Glycine, require a general revision. 

Another Guinea plant, the Glycine biflora, Schum. et Thonn., 
may possibly be a Johnia, but is at present insufficiently de- 
scribed to determine the genus. 

1. Dioclea (Pachylobium) reflexa, Hook. fil. ; ramulis petiolis- 
que patentim pilosis, foliolis ovatis brevissime acuminata 
tenuiter coriaceis supra glabris subtus hirsutis, inflorescentia 
rufo-tomentosa, floribus confertis brevissime pedicellatis, brac- 
teis lanceolatis persistentibus reflexis, calycis campanulati 
lacinia infima tubo vix breviore, carina rostrata alis breviore, 
legumine ovato-oblongo planiusculo rufo-villoso. — Dolicnos 
coriaceus, Grah. in Wall. Cat. Herb. Ind. n. 5562. — Cape 
Palmas, near the sea-coast on the Quorra, and Fernando Po, 
Vogel. 
Frutex scandens, ramis teretibus glabratis ad nodos ramulisqut' 
patentim pilosis. Stipula medio affixa?, lanceolato-subulattf, 
reflexse. Petioli 3 poll, longi, pilis flaccidis patentibus fulvis 
obsiti, stipellis setaceis. Foliola 3-5 poll, longa, 2-3 lata, 
breve petiolulata, reticulato-venosa, supra nitida, subtus pal- 
lidiora. Pedunculi bipedales, inferne glaberrimi, supra me- 
dium pubescentes et dense florigeri. Bracteae semipollicares, 
ligulatze, acuminata, rufo-velutinae, recurvse. Flores per 2-* 
ad quemquam nodum brevissime pedicellati, splendide rubro- 
purpurei. Calyx rufescenti-sericeus, 4 lin. longus, basi bi- 
bracteolatus, tubo late ovato-hemisphgerico, ore 5-lobo, lobis 
lateralibus late oblongis obtusis, summis paullo brevioribus, 
infimo angustiore longiore. Vexillum glaberrimum, calyce 
bis longius, ungue late lineari, lamina latissime obcordata ; 
alae vexillo paullo longiores, obovato-quadratse, basi auricula 
reflexa appendiculata? ; carina coriacea. Ovarium villosissi- 

9 • 

mum. Legumen planum, crasso-coriaceum, in specimme 

adhuc immaturum sed jam 5 poll, longum, 2 poll, latum, 

sutura seminifera valde incrassata. 

A species, as far as hitherto known, only found in East India, 
and some other parts of the Old World, although belonging to an 
otherwise exclusively American genus. It closely resembles the 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 307 

Brazilian D. violacea, whose violet-coloured bracts are straight 
and erect, whilst in the West African one they are always reflexed, 
as in another yet unpublished Brazilian species, (Gardner, n. 
2117), in which however the flowers are very different. 

Two species of Canavalia are mentioned as inhabiting W. 
Tropical Africa, the C. obtusifolia, DC, common on the 
sea-coast of Senegal and Guinea, and of East Tropical Africa, 
Asia and America, and C. gladiata, DC, from Guinea, a 
commonly cultivated East Indian species. The first of these 
is described by Schumacher and Thonning under the name of 
Dolickos obovatus ; and that species is followed by a D. ovali- 
folius, which is unknown to us, but judging from the ex- 
pression " caetera uti in prsecedenti," it may be another Cana- 
valia. 

1. Mucuna wrens, DC, Prod. 2. p. 405. — Fernando Po, Vogel; 
Accra, Don; also Guinea. — Apparently identical with the 
West Indian plant figured by Plumier. 

2. Mucuna fiagellipes, Vogel, MS. ; caule foliisque glabris, 
foliolis oblique ovatis subcordatis apice abrupt c acuminatis 
membranaceis nitidis, pedunculis longissimis apice racemosis, 
bracteis late ovato-cymbaeformibus sericeis, calycis late hemi- 
sphaerici dentibus 3 aequilongis obtusis. — On the banks of the 
Niger, most abundant, Vogel. 

Caulis lignosus, scandens, arbores altissimas superans (fide Vogel). 
Ramuli teretes. Petioli 3-4 poll, longi, sulcati. Foliola 5 
poll, longa, 3 poll, lata, basi valde oblique rotundata v. plc- 
rumque plus minusve cordata, apice in acumen 4-5 lin. longum 
obtusum producta, petiolulis 2 lin. longis. Peduncidi 3-6 
pedes longi, funiformes, nudi, apicibus floriferis incrassatis pu- 
bescentibus, parte florifera tripollicari geniculatim flcxuosa, 
nodis florigeris 12-16. Bractea l\ poll, longae, latissimae, 
pilis fulvis pungentibus obsitae, tridentatae. Vexillum H 
poll, longum, viridi-lutescens ; alae obtusae, vexillo requilongae, 
basi lineis sericeis percursse, cum carina brcviore subacuta 

connatae. 
1. Erythrina Vogelii, Hook. fil. ; inermis ? mhgkbtt, eau!« sul- 
cata, foliolis ovato-oblon-is oblongkfi obtusis eorifteetj rcti- 

x2 



308 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

culatim venosis, racemis terminalibus strictis multifloris, 
calyce spathaceo vix puberulo apice reflexo obscure tridentato, 
vexillo calyce multo breviore, alis calycem a3quantibus, carina 
triente longiore. — Fernando Po, Vogel ; Accra, Don. 
Caulis lignosus, cortice albido. Petioli 2-3-pollicares, infra pe- 
tiolnlos 1 lin. longos glanduligeri. Foliola 4 poll, longa, late- 
ral ibus minoribus, supra viridia, subtus pallidiora. Peduncuh 
8-12-poliicares, stricti, multiflori, dense pubescentes. Flores 
1£ poll, longi, solitarii v. gemini, brevissime pedicellati. 
Calyx 4 lin. longus, coriaccus. Vexillum paullo curvatum. 

Legumen deest. 

Vogel cites this as a medicinal plant. Don's specimens arc 
hardly determinable: their flowers appear rather larger than 
VogeFs. 
2. Erythrina Senegalensis, DC. Prod. 2. p. 413.— E. Guineensis, 

G. Don, Gard. Diet. 2. p. 371.— Sierra Leone, Don. Sene- 

gambia to Guinea, extending, according to A. Richard, as lar 

as Abyssinia. 
1. Phaseolus lunatus, Linn. — Fernando Po, Vogel. — A plant 

extensively cultivated in Tropical countries, especially in Asia 

and Africa. 

The P. vulgaris is enumerated by Schumacher and Thonning 
as being in cultivation in Guinea, and Guillemin and Perrottet 
have described another species, P. Senegalensis, as a native ot 
Senegambia. 

1. Vigna oblonga, Benth. Bot. Sulph. p. 86.— Sandy banks ot 
the Nun River, near the sea, and Fernando Po, Vogel- 

An American sea-coast plant, very near V. glabra, but the 
leaflets are always remarkably blunt, besides some differences in 
the flowers. , 

2. Vigna multiflora, Hook, fil.; pilosula v. glabra, stipulis 
breviter auriculatis, foliolis membranaceis ovato-rhombeis, 
pedunculis folio longioribus supra medium multifloris, pedi- 
cellis calyce subbrevioribus, calycis late campanulati dentibus 
tubo brevioribus supremo latissimo integro lateralibus obtusis 
infima angustiore, carina nuda erostri, leguminibus glabris 
leviter falcatis. — Fernando Po, on the sea-coast, Vogel. 



FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 309 

Merba volubilis, V. graclli affinis, sed omnibus partibus major. 
Rami hinc inde pilis reflexo-patentibus hirti v. omnino gla- 
brati. Stipul/e 1-2 lin. longse, late lanceolatse, acutse, striata?, 
basi in auriculam brevem acutam infra insertionem products, 
glabra- v. piloso-ciliatae. Petioli infra foliola 2-3 poll, longi, 
inter foliola semipollicares, hinc inde prsesertim prope basin 
paten tim pilosi. Stipella? parvse, obtusas, fere glanduliformes. 
Petioluli 1-1 J lin. longi, villosi. Foliola l|-3-pollicaria ; 
terminale late rhombeum, lateralia valde insequilatera, basi 
truncata v. subcordata, omnia apice breviter acuminata, utrin- 
que viridia, margine ciliata, ad costas pilis nonnullis utrinque 
hispidula et in pagina superiore pilis raris conspersa. Pe- 
dunculi infra {lores 3-5-pollicares, parte florida H-2-polli- 
cari. Pedicelli ad quemquam nodum gemini v. rarius 3-4-ni, 
per anthesin calyce ssepius breviores, fructiferi panllulum elon- 
gati. Bractece et bracteolse parvse, oblongo-lineares. Calyx 
fere V. glabrae nisi dentibus latioribus multo obtusioribus. 
Petala glabra, iis V. glabra subsimilia. Legumen 15-18 lin. 
longum, vix 2 lin. latum. 

Like the V. gracilis, this species cannot be generically sepa- 
rated from the V. glabra of Savi, which is much nearer to the 
true Dolichos than some of the following. Unfortunately, the 
very indifferent specimens existing in herbaria, scarcely admit 
as yet of any exact limitation of this and the allied genera. 

3. Vigna ? sp., apparently near V. multiflora, but the specimen 
is too bad to determine. — Near the town of St. Ann de Chiaves, 
Don. 

4. Vigna w/guiculata, Walp. Rep. I. p. 779.— Dolichos ungui- 
culatus, Linn, et Auct.— Cape Coast, Vog el— Extensively 
cultivated in W. Tropical Africa, as it is in other parts of 
Africa, Asia and America. 

5. Vigna linearifolia, Hook, fil.j caule volubili scabro v. piloso, 
stipulis lanceolatis acuminatis pilosis, petiolis hispidis, foliohs 
longe lineari-lanceolatis hispidnlis transverse reticulatis, pe- 
dunculis pilosis apice 2-3-floris, calycis laciniis 5 longe lan- 
ceolato-sctaceis, legumine densissime velutino-villoso.— Sa- 
vannahs of the Quorra, Vogel. 



310 FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 



Caules pluri-pedales, inter gramina volubiles, rigiduli, teretes, 
inferne glabrati, superne scabri et pilosi, internodiis elongatis. 
Stipula 3 4 lin. longse, basi in auriculam brevem obtusissi- 
mam adnatam infra insertionem produetse. Petioli \\-%- 
pollicares, petiolulique pilis rigidulis hispidi. Foliola rigi- 
dula, 6-8 poll, longa, vix semipollicem lata, utrinque scabrida 
et pilosula, penninervia et lineis parallelis crebris transversa 
pulchre reticulata. Pedunculi oppositifolii, Validi, 1-1 2 P°" # 
longi, apice incrassati. Flor % es majusculi, sessiles v. brevis- 
sime pedicellati. Calyx semipollicaris, tubuloso-campanu- 
latus, tubo brevi basi obtuso, laciniis plus duplo tubi longi- 
tudine, subulato-acuminatis. Vexillum late obcordatum, bre- 
viter unguieulatum, lamina basi utrinque hamata, extus lutea, 
intus purpurascens ; alse purpurea carina? cohaerentes, basi 
hinc calcaratse. Stigma laterale vix productum. Legumen 1 % 
poll, longum, 2 lin. latum, sub-10-spermum, pilis rigidis 
atropurpureis vestitum. 

6. Vigna reticulata, Hook. fil. ; caule volubili superne folus 
pedunculisque setosis, stipulis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis, 
foliolis anguste ovato-lanceolatis acutis creberrime transversim 
reticularis, pedunculis apice sub-2-floris, calycis laciniis o 
subulato-setaceis, legumine velutino-tomentoso pilis fulvis con- 
sperso. — Savannahs at Accra, Vogel. 

V. linearifolice simillima, sed duplo major, pilis fulvis rigidiori- 
bus, foliolis stipulisque latioribus, legumine fere 2i-pollicare, 
indumento diverso. 
The beautiful tranverse reticulations on the leaflets of this 

and the preceding species distinguish them from any of their 



congeners. 



6. Vigna Nigritia, Hook. fil. ; caule volubili sparse piloso, sti- 
pulis ovato-lanceolatis basi in auriculas 2 productis, petiohs 
hispidis, foliolis ovato-lanceolatis utrinque pilosis, pedunculis 
pilosis folio longioribus apice multifloris, calycis glabri brevius 
campanulati dentibus 5 obtusis, legumine glabrato apice 
hamato-mucronato.— On the Quorra, Vogel. 

Caulis pallide flavo-i'uscus, scaberulus, superne pilosus. StipiM 
2J lin. longer, striata?, glabriuscuhc, ciliatw, aun<-uli> infra 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 311 

insertionem brevibus acutis. Petioti pollicares. Foliola 2 
poll, longa, |-2J lata, basi rotundata truncata v. cuneata, 
trinervia, reticulatim venosa, pallide viridia, lateralia obliqua. 
Pedunculi 2-4-pollicares, validi, sulcati, pilis retrorsis. Flores 
brevissime pedicellati. Calyx 1 lin. longus, glaberrimus. 
Veanllum 4 lin. Ion gum, latissimum, recurvum, pallide ro- 
seum, ungue brevissimo, lamina basi utrinque auriculata ; 
alse intensius coloratse, basi hinc auriculatse. Legumen sub 
lente minutissime puberulum, leviter curvatuin, \\ poll. Ion- 
gum. Semina oblonga, rufo-fusca. 

A most distinct species, of which the specimen is very im- 
perfect. 

8- Vigna Thonningii, Hook. fil. — Plectrotropis hirsuta, Schum. 
et Thonn. Beskr. p. 339. — Cape Coast and Fernando Po, 
Vogel. 

This answers very well to Thonning's description of the plant 
he gathered at Aguapim. It comes very near to the American 
V* carinalis, Benth. Bot. Sulph., and like that species, the 
V. angustifolia, and some other African and Asiatic species, 
is remarkable for the much-curved oblique keel with a lateral 
spur on one side only, on which character Schumacher and 
Thonning founded their genus Plectrotropis. Although they can 
scarcely be admitted to the generic rank thus accorded, they 
will probably be found to constitute a good sectional group in 
the now extensive genus Vigna. 

Besides the above eight species, West Tropical Africa pos- 
sesses at least three others, viz. : V. gracilis, Hook. fil. {Do- 
lichos, Guill. et Perr.), from Senegambia ; V. Nilotica, Hook, 
fil- {Dolichos, Delile), from Senegambia, Nubia and Egypt; 
and V. angustifolia, Hook. fil. {Dolichos, Vahl, Plectrotropis, 
Schum. et Thonn.), from Senegambia and Guinea. 

Of the genus Dolichos, although it be essentially African, no 
true representative appears to have been found within the West 
Tropical region, the D. nervosus, Schum. et Thonn., being 
probably the Lablab vulgaris, Savi, which is common over a 
great part of Africa, and exists in Senegambia and Guinea, either 
wild or cultivated, as well as Pachyrrhizus angnlatus, Rich., 



312 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

Voandzeia subterranea, Dup. Thou., and Cajanus Indicus, Spr., 
to which last must probably be referred the Cytisus Guineensis, 
Schum. et Thonn. — A Senegambian plant, supposed to be a 
Psophocarpus, but of which only the fruit and foliage are 
known, has been published by Desvaux under the name of 
P. palustris, and by Guillemin and Perrottet under that of 
P. palmettornm. It appears, however, to be at least as nearly 
allied to the Brazilian Diedngia as to the Asiatic Psopho- 
carpus. 
1. Cyanospermum calycinum, Hook. fil. — Rhynchosia calycina, 

GuilL et Perr. Fl. Seneg. I. p. 214.— Sierra Leone, Don, 

Vogel. 

Although the caruncle of the seed is extremely small in tins 
species, yet the general habit, the calyx and corolla are those 
of Cyanospermum rather than Rhynchosia, and it has also the 
peculiar blue seed of the former genus. The constricted pod 
occurs also in Rhynchosia phaseoloides, which is in every other 
respect a true Rhynchosia. 

1. Rhynchosia Memnonia, DC. Prod. 2. p. 386.— St. Thomas, 
Don ; Senegal, Nubia, and Upper Egypt. 

2. Rhynchosia dehilis, Hook. fil. ; prostrata v. volubilis, pubes- 
cens, stipulis parvis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis subulatisve, 
foliolis membranaceis rhombeo-orbicularibus abrupte acumi- 
natis lateralibus insequilateris, racemis axillaribus densiflons 
pctiolo multo brevioribus, bracteolis lineari-lanceolatis pedi- 
cello longioribus, calycis laciniis lanceolato-subulatis infima 
elongata, legumine patentim piloso rufo. — Dolichos debihs, 
Don, MSS.— Glycine inacrophylla, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. 
p. 348 ?— St. Thomas, Don. 

Caulis gracilis 2-3-pedalis. Stipula decidua?, 2 lin. longse, 
striata-. Petioli 2-pollicares, graciles, canaliculati. Folio- 
lum terminale 2\ poll, longum, lateralia minora, omnia utrin- 
que puberula et subtus glandulis miminis creberrime punc- 
tata. tfacemU -1 J -pollieares, densiflori. Bracteola stipulis 
angustiores, sjepius rufescentes et rigiduli ; pedicelli suberecti, 
1-2 lin. longi. Calyx 3 lin. longus, anguste campanulatus, 
piibr>cens et glaudulosus, laciniis subulatis tubo bngioribus, 




FLORA NIGRITIANA. 3 i 3 

inferiore ceteris tricnte inajore. Vexillum calycem superans, 

oblongum, basi biauricalatum ; alse angustse, vexillo bre- 

viores, carinse breviori cohserentes. 

Closely allied to the East Indian R. densiflora, it differs 
chiefly in its much smaller calyces. 

The other W. Tropical African species are : 1 . R. minima, 
DC. from Senegambia and Guinea, a common Tropical plant in 
both hemispheres; 2. R. caribcea, DC, a West Indian plant, 
found also in Senegal and Guinea, unless the species alluded to 
under that name in African Floras, be rather the R. Memnonia ; 
3. R. faginea, Guill. et Perr., from Senegambia, a species 
which should perhaps be transferred to Eriosema or Arcyphyl- 
lum ; and 4. R. argentea, Desv., from Angola, which is entirely 
unknown to me. 

1. Eriosema glomeratum, Guill. et Perr. Fl. Seneg. 1. p. 216, 
(sub. Rhynchosia). — Sierra Leone, Don; Cape Palmas and 
Quorra River, Vogel; Senegal and Guinea. 

ft. minor, ram is laxe villosis, foliolis vix pollicaribus. — Sierra 
Leone, Don. 

2. Eriosema spicatum., Hook. fil. ; molliter rufo-pubescens v. 
glabrescens, caule suberecto, stipulis liberis lanceolatis vix 
acuminatis, foliolis elliptico-ovatis obtusis, pedunculis folio 
plurics longioribus apice racemum spiciformem ferentibus, 
noribus reflexis, bracteis minimis, calyce obtuse 5-dentato, 
legumine oblongo-obovato rufo-tomentoso. — Sierra Leone, 
Don ; Senegal. 

Fruticulus pedalis, parce ramosus. Stipulte 2 lin. longse. Tetioli 
pollicares. Foliola rigidula, sesquipollicaria, minute glandu- 
loso-punctata, reticulato-venosa, nervis venulisque subtus 
prominulis, lateralia terminali minora. Pedunculi semi- 
pedales, stricti ; parte florifera 1-2-pollicari. Flores brevis- 
sime pedicellati, arete reflexi, 4 lin. longi. Calyx breviter 
campanulatus, 1 lin. longus, puberulus, sub lente glandulosus. 
Vexillum oblongo-obcordatum, lamina basi biauriculata et 
biappcndicidata, ungue brevi ; alse carinam suba-quaiito. 
Leg amen fere semipollicem longtim, 2 lin. latum, tomciito 
molii rufo subsericcum. 



314 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

3. Eriosema podostachyum, Hook. fil. ; caule erecto piloso v. 
glabrato, stipulis liberis lanceolatis acuminatis, foliolis ovatis 
acutis v. obtusiusculis puberulis v. supra glabratis, peduncu- 
lis folio pluries longioribus puberulis apice racemum spici- 
formem ferentibus, floribus reflexis, bracteis lanceolato-subu- 
latis, calycis 5-fidi dentibus late ovatis acutis, legumine 
patentim sericeo-piloso. — Grand Bassa, Vogel, Ansell. 

- 

Caulis tripedalis, strictus, basi perennis, rufo-fuscus, superne 
praecipue patentim et retrorsum pilosus. Stipulae 4 lin. longse. 
Petioli pollicares, ssepius patentim pilosi et rufo-pubescentes. 
Foliola bipollicaria, viridia, subtus pallidiora, ad nervos pube- 
rula, punctis glandulosis minutis confertis. Pedunculi 8-10- 
pollicares, stricti, pilosi v. glabrati. Flores iis E. spicah 
similes, vexillo alisque apice rubris. Legumen late oblongum, 
semipollicare, pilis patentissimis subsericeis villosum. Semina 
nitida, flavo nigroque irrorata, hilo elongato. 
Near E. spicatum, but a much larger plant, more or less 

clothed with spreading hairs, longer peduncles, larger stipules 

and bractese, and more pointed teeth to the calyx. 

The E. cajanoides, (Rhynchosia Guill. et Perr.) from Sene- 

gambia, is the only other species of the genus known to be a 

native of W. Tropical Africa. 

Don has also described a Flemingia Guineensis, from Guinea, 

but there do not appear any specimens in his collection. 

1. Ecastaphyllum Brownei, Pers. — DC. Prod. 2. p. 241. 
Grand Bassa and Nun River, Vogel ; Senegal and Guinea. 
A plant widely diffused over Tropical America, from the 
West Indies to Brazil. 

1. Dalbergia saxatilis, Hook. fil. ; inflorescentia excepta glabra, 
foliolis 4-jugis oblongis utrinque rotundatis emarginatis 
venoso-reticulatis terminali obovato, paniculis folio ter brevio- 
ribus pilosiusculis, bracteolis parvis lineari-oblongis, calycis 
late campanulati glabrati vix striati dentibus lateralibus bre- 
vibus obtusis inferiore elongato, legumine elliptico-lhieari 
graciliter stipitato.— Sierra Leone, Don ; Senegambia, Heu- 
delot. 

Hamuli nitidi, obscure striati. Petioli 3- 1-pollicares, graciics. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 315 

Foliola pollicaria, subtus glaucescentia. Calyx basi rotun- 
datus, medio constrictus. Stamina ut in congeneribus. 
Ovula 2-3. Legumen 4-4J poll, longum, 1-1 J poll, latum, 
breviter et laxe reticulatum, meinbranaceum, albidum, sti- 
pite subpiloso 4 lin. longo. Semen iu parte centrali suberosa 
unicorn. 

There are two other specimens in a very imperfect state, 

which are either varieties of the preceding, or distinct species, 

differing apparently in the calyx as follows : 

$. Donii, calycis glabriusculi basi obtusi dentibus lateralibus 
longioribus obtusis. — Sierra Leone ? Don, 

y. Ansellii, calycis puberuli basi acutiusculi dentibus latera- 
libus brevioribus acutiusculis. — Cape Palmas, AnselL 

2. Dalbergia pubescens, Hook. fil. ; rufo-pubescens, foliolis 
5-jugis oblongis v. obovato-oblongis utrinque obtusis basi 
ssepe insequalibus, racemis axillaribus terminalibusque folio 
brevioribus, bracteolis parvis, calycis late campanulati velu- 
tini dentibus latis acutis, ovario hirsute — Sierra Leone, 
Don; Senegambia, Heudelot. 

Rami lignosi, cortice fusco, ramulis obscure angulatis. Petioli 
3-4 poll, longi, stricti. Foliola 1-2-pollicaria, coriacea, 
obtusa v. emarginata, basi rotundata v. rarius superiora 
angustata, supra pilis sparsis pubei*ula, subtus pilis run's 
densius vestita. Racemi 1-1^-pollicares. Pedicelli 1^-lineares. 
Calyx 1 Jin. longus, latiusculus, 4-dentatus, dente supe- 
riore latiore emarginato, lateralibus latis brevibus subacutis. 
Veocillum late oblongum, emarginatum, ungue gracili laminae 
scquilongo; alse lineari-oblonga? obtusa? basi hinc hamato- 
auriculatae ;' carina bis latior. Filamentorum tubus more 
generis bipartitus, antheris basifixis didymis. Ovarium longe 
stipitatum, pedicello piloso. 
Two other species of Dalbergia occur in Senegambia, the 

D. melanoxylon, Guill. et Perr., and an apparently undescribed 

one in Heudelot's collection. 

1- Drepanocarpus lunatus, Meyer. — DC. Prod. 2. p. 420. 
Grand Bassa and Nun River, Vogel; Senegal and Guinea. 

1. Ptcrocarpus esculent us, Schiun. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 330- 



316 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

— Quorra River, at Aboh, Vogel, who remarks that the fruit 
is eaten by the negroes, and that the tree forms a thicket 
along one side of the creek. It is found also in Senegal and 
in Guinea. 
The Senegambian collections contain also the P. erinaceus, 

Poir. ; the P. lucens, Lepr., and a fourth apparently undescribed 

species. 

- 

Ostryocarpus, Hook. fil. (nov. gen.) 

Calyx breviter campanulatus, basi contractus, ore obscure 5-den- 
tato. Vexillum late rhomboideum, ungue brevissimo lato, 
glabrum, recurvum. Ala vexillum sequantes, oblongo-cultn- 
formes, basi hinc auriculatse, ungue gracili. Carina petala alis 
eonformia. Stamina 10, diadelpha, antheris ovatis. Ovarium 
sessile, scriceo-pubescens, triovulatum, stylo glabriusculo 
filiforme apice stigmatoso. Legumen orbiculare, plano-com- 
pressum, coriaceum, margine seminifero incrassato canalicu- 
lar, abortu monospermum. Frutex sarmentosus, folus 
impari-pinnatis, floribus paniculatis. 

1. Ostryocarpus riparius, Hook. fil. — Sierra Leone and ter- 
Po, Vogel ; Sierra Leone, Don ; Senegambia, Heudelot. 

Rami lignosi, cortice pallido verrucoso, uti folia glabernnu. 
Petioli stricti, teretes, supra sulcati, 4-8 poll, longi. Follow 
bijuga cum impari, opposita, 6-8-pollicaria, coriacea, petio- 
lulata, oblonga, utrinque rotundata v. subacuta, reticulatim 
venosa. Panicula axillares terminalesque, petiolo sequi- 
longse v. longiores, ramosse, ramis pubescenti-sericeis multi- 
fioris. Flores flavidi, in ramulis propriis glomerati, pedi- 
cellis | Kb. longis. Calyx pubescens 1£ lin. longus, brac- 
teolis parvis rotundatis appressis. Petala 3 lin. longa. 
Legumen in sicco atrum, 2 poll, longum, ut videtur inde- 
hiscens, valvis planis obscure reticulatis. Semen immaturuni 
1 poll, longum, oblongum, in medio legumine situm. 
This plant has the habit of some of the smaller-flowered 

Lonchocarpi, but the stamens are distinctly diadelphous, and 

the pod is remarkable. 

1. Lonchocarpus Formosiam/s, DC. Prod. 2. p. 260.— Robinia 



FLORA NT6RITIANA. 317 

argentiflora, Schum. et Thonn, Beskr. p. 352. — St. Thomas, 

Don ; on the Quorra, Cape Palmas, Grand Bassa, &c, Vogel. 

From Senegal to Guinea, and thence to the east coast, 

where it is said to be planted ; and if, as is probable, this be 

but a mere variety of the R. sericeus, DC, it is an American 

species not uncommon both in the West Indies and in 
Brazil. 

Among the numerous species which have been collected 
under Lonchocarpus, but very few have as yet been described 
in fruit, and in those few so many differences are observable in 
the pod, that almost each has been proposed as the type 
of a separate genus. The present species, although one of 
those on which Kunth's Lonchocarpus was originally founded, 
has not the membranous wingless pod of L. latifolius and 
macraphyllus, which he described, nor the coriaceous wingless 
one of Sphinctolobium virgilioides, nor yet the curiously winged 
one of Neuroscopha Guilleminiana, but one in some measure 
intermediate between those of the two latter. "With the. habit 
and flowers of Neuroscapha, and a pod in general form like 
that of the same genus, the broad wings are replaced by a 
slightly prominent longitudinal nerve on each side of the 
seminal suture. It is, therefore, safer for the present to leave 
the genus Lonchocarpus entire, until a sufficient number of 
fruits shall have been observed, to show whether these slight 

modifications correspond with any real differences in habit or in 
flower. 

*• Lonchocarpus ? macrostachyus, Hook. fil. ; ramis foliisque 
glabris, foliolis 5-7 oblongis obtuse acuminatis basi rotun- 
datis coriaceis, panicula ampla multiflora, ramulis pedicel- 
lisque brevibus velutinis, calycis velutini dentibus 5 brevibus, 
bracteolis late ovatjs, vexillo glaberrimo. — On the Quorra, at 
Ibaddi, Vogel. 

Rami ramulique lignosi, teretes, cortice pallide fusco vcrrucis 
pallidis notato. Petioli 5-8 poll, longi, stricti. Foliola 
6-8 poll, longa, 2 \ poll, lata v. inferiora minora, basi intcr- 
dum subcordata, apice abrupte acuminata, acurnine bicvi 



318 FLORA NIGRTTIANA. 

obtuso, supra nitida, subtus sub lente inter dum pilis adprcs- 
sis subtilissime sericea, ncrvis primariis subtus prominenti- 
bus et reticulatim venulosa, petiolulo 2 lin. longo. Pani- 
culfs terminales v. laterales, ssepe pedales. Flores conferti 
albo-virides, pedicellis 1 lin. longis. Calyx canipanulatus, 
curvatus, 2 lin. longus, dentibus obtusis. Vexillum late 
obovatum, reflexum, basi biauriculatum, ungue gracili ; alae 
vexillo sequilongse, lineari-oblongse, obtusse ; carina paullo 
major, obtusa. Filamentum vexillare ima basi liberum- 
Stylus fere ad apicem sericeus. Ovarium dense sericeum, 
4-ovulatum. 
A very handsome plant, the racemes and calyxes nearly black, 

with a velvety pubescence. The pod is unknown, and it is, 

therefore, doubtful whether it belongs to Lonchocarpus or 

Milletia. 

1. Milletia macrophylla, Hook. fil. ; (Tab. XXXII. XXXIII), fo- 
liolis 11-15 oblongis subtus ferrugineo-pubescentibus, stipelhs 
subnullis, racemo elongato thyrsoideo ferrugineo-tomentoso, 
calycis ore truncato vix dentato, vexillo absque extus glabris, 
carina apice villosa, filamento vexillari hinc ad medium adna- 
to, legumine tomento brevissimo rufo-sericeo. — Fernando 1 o, 
(cultivated), Vogel. 

Arbor parva. Folia 1-2-pedalia ; foliola opposita, 3-6 poll. 
longa, \\-Z\ poll, lata, acuminata, basi angustata v. cuneata, 
petiolulo 3-4 lin. longo, nervis primariis subtus parallels 
prominentibus runs. Pedunculi jam infra medium florifen, 
ramulis nodiformibus v. vix evolutis plurifloris inferioribus 
remotis, summis approximatis. Flores quam in cseteris spc- 
ciebus majores, purpurei, pedicellis 1-2 lin. longis. Calyx 
ferrugineo-velutinus, basi bracteolis 2 parvis appressis stipa- 
tus. Vexillum pollicare, fere orbiculatum, basi late trunca- 
tum, crassum, glabram ; alse lineari-oblonga?, longe unguicu- 
latae, vexillo paullo breviores ; carina petala alis subsimilia* 
paullo latiora. Filamentum vexillare versus medium cum 
cseteris conn at urn, basi apiceque liberum. Legumen lineare 
v. lineari-lanceolatnm, basi angustatum et breviter stipitatum, 



FLORA NIGRITI ANA. * 319 

plano-compressum, coriaceo-lignosum, ad suturam utramque 

prsesertim seminiferam incrassatum, 3-6-spermum. Semina 

orbiculata, funiculo basi carunculato. 

Notwithstanding the coherence of the tenth stamen, we have 
no hesitation in referring this plant to Milletia, an Asiatic and 
African genus, numerous in species, including the two which 
Hochstetter has endeavoured to distinguish under the name of 
Berrebera. The pod, of all the species where it is known, is 
intermediate between that of the shrubby Tephrosiae of the 
section Mundulia, and that of Sphinctolobium virgilioides : the 
valves adhere closely round the seeds till perfect maturity, when 
the pod, in drying up, opens sometimes, if not always, in two 
valves. 
Plate XXXII. XXXIII. Fig. 1. wing of the corolla j /. 2. 

keel ; /. 3. stamens and pistil ; /. 4. pistil : all magnified. 
0, Aboensis, pube copiosiore, foliolis angustioribus, bracteolis 

majoribus ramulis floriferis magis evolutis. — Aboh, Ansell. 

— Very near the Fernando Po form, and not distinguishable 

as a species. The specimens are, however, incomplete and 

without fruit. 

Besides the above, the Senegambian collection contains 
several species of this and allied genera. Among them two, or 
perhaps three, have every appearance of Milletia, though 
without fruit : a fourth, agreeing with Schumacher's and Thon- 
fling's Robinia cyanescens, has a somewhat different habit : a 
-fifth, the Lonchocarpus laxiflorus, Guill. et Perr., appears to be 
congener with the Abyssinian and Nubian Philenoptera ; and a 
sixth, in flower only, is evidently the type of a new genus. To 
some of the above may possibly be referable the Robinia multi- 
flora, Schum. et Thonn., R. Thonningii, Schum., and R. Gui- 

neensis, Willd., all three Guinea plants. 

There is likewise one W. Tropical African species described 

of the American genus Andira, viz. A, Africana, Guill. et Perr. 

from Senegambia. 

Baphia, Afzl. Char. Gen. ref.— Calyx spathaceus, antice fissus, 
postice integer vel 3-5-denticulatus. Corolla aestivatio papi- 
Honacea; vexillum orbiculatum ; ake ovato-oblongse ; carina 



320 FLORA NIGRITJANA. 

falcata. Stamina 10, libera, omnia fertilia, antheris qb- 
longis. Ovarium subsessile, pluriovulatum, stylo incurvo 
brevi apice stigmatifero. Legumen oblongo-lineare, plano- 
compressum, rectum (v. falcatum ?), valvulis coriaceis matu- 
ritate dehiscentibus, marginibus leviter incrassatis. — Frutices 
v. arbores Africans, Dalhousice affines, foliolis ad apicem 
petioli solitariis, pedicellis axillaribus fasciculatis brevibus 
unifioris apice bibracteolatis. 

1. B. spathacea, Hook. fil. ; foliolis oblongis acuminatis caule- 
- que glabris, calyce subcoriaceo ferrugineo-puberulo, brac- 

teolis ovatis. — Bassa Cove, Ansell. 
Rami ramulique virgati, superne interdum leviter puberuli. 
Foliorum petiolus semipollicaris, basi et apice leviter incras- 
satus et articulatus, foliolum 3-4 poll, longum, H latum, 
acuminatum, basi rotundatum, coriaceum, supra nitidulum 
et obscure reticulatum, subtus pallidius, venis prominulis 
reticulatum. Folia floralia superiora minora et caduca, et 
flores in racemum bracteatum dispositos apparent. Pedicelli 
per 2-4 fasciculati, 2 lin. longi. Br act tola lineam longa?, 
calyci adpressse. Calyxs emipollicaris, recurvo- ad seen dens, 
acuminatus, apice obtusiusculus et integer, antice usque ad 
basin fissus, extus pube ferruginea subsericeus. Pet am 
tcnuia, glabra; vexillum calycem vix ?equans, orbiculatum, 
emarginato-bifidum, brevissime unguiculatum ; alse vexillo 
paullo breviores; carina? petala alis sequilonga sed latiora. 
Ovarium villosum, apice attenuatum. 

2. B. pubescens, Hook, fil.; ramulis pedicellisque ferrugineo- 
pubcscentibus, foliolo obovato-oblongo acuminato supra 
glabro nitido subtus pubescente v. glabrato, calyce subcoria- 
ceo puberulo, bracteolis orbiculatis. — In VogeVs collection, 
without the precise station. 

Rami teretes, superne prresertim parce pubescentes. Foliolmn 
2-3 poll, longum, 1-1 J poll, latum, apice in acumen linear e 
obtusum productum, basi subacutum; in petiolo 2-3 lin. 
longo articulatum. Inflorescentia B. spathacea, pedicellis 
plurimis 4-5 lin. longis sessilibus v. rarius pedunculo com- 
muni brcvisshno fultis. Calyx oblique obovato-oblongu* 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 321 

apice obtusus, tenuissime puberulus. Vexillum sessile, or- 
biculatum, emarginato-bifidum, calycem sequans; alaa lineari- 
oblonga?, vexillo sublongiores ; carina? petala alis consimilia 
nisi paullo latiora. Legumen (vix maturum) 3 poll, longum, 
9 lin. latum, rectum, stylo acuminatum, valvulis plants 
coriaceis glaberrimis. Semina circa 3. 

Differs from the preceding species in its smaller flowers, 

with a less coriaceous calyx shorter in proportion to the petals, 

besides the general pubescence of the branches. 

3. Baphia hmmatoxylon, Hook. fil. ; glabra, foliolis ovali- 

oblongis acuminatis, calyce membranaceo glabro tridentato. — 

Podalyria hcematoxylon, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 202. — 

Carpolobia versicolor, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 1. p. 370? — 

Cape Coast, Don, Vogel ; also Guinea, Thonning. 

Although we have no hesitation, at the suggestion of Dr. 

Planchon, in referring the above three plants to the genus 

Baphia of Afzelius, so imperfectly figured and described by 

Loddiges (Bot. Cab. t. 367) ; yet we do not feel justified in 

identifying the B. hcematoxylon as a species with the original 
B. nitida, which is said to have pinnate leaves. Brunner (Flora 
1840, v. 2. Beibl. p, 22), describes a plant which he supposes 
may be B. nitida, which is evidently the Dia/ium nitidum, and 
can hardly be the one Afzelius had in view. Desvaux has 
described, under the name of Delaria pyrifolia, a Guinea plant 
which must belong either to the present or to one of the two 
following genera. The calyx and inflorescence described by him 
are those of Baphia, but the broad leaves and stipitate ovary 
refer rather to Leucomphalus . The same author's Delaria 
ovalifolia is probably very different. We know of no Brazilian 
plant at all like it. 

Bracteolaria, Hochst. Char. Gen. Calyx spathaceus antice 
fissus, demum bipartitus, segmentis reflcxis, sestivatione val- 
vals, integris v. postico bidentato. Petala subsequilonga, 
calycem superantia; vexillum orbiculatum, alse et carina? 
petala ovata. Stamina 10, libera, omnia fertilia, anthens 
oblongis. Ovarium subsessile, villosissimum, biovulatuin, 

Y 



322 FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 

stylo incurvo glabro apice stigmatifero. — Frutices v. arborcs 
Africanse, Baphice similes, foliolis ad apicem petioli solitariis, 
floribus pedicellatis ad axillam bractese solitariis in racemos 
axillares v. ad apicem caulis paniculatos dispositis. 
Though closely allied to Baphia, and like that genus very 

near to Dalhousta, the differences in the calyx and inflorescence 

induce us to maintain these genera as distinct, at any rate until 

the fruit shall be knowu. 

1. Bracteolaria^o/y^a/acea, Hook. fil. ; puberula, foliolis ovah- 
ellipticis acuminatis basi rotundatis cuneatisve supra glabra- 
tis, calycis segment is integris, bracteolis orbiculatis. — Carpo- 
lobia dubia, G. Don, Gard. Did. 1, p. 370.— Sierra Leone, 
Don ; Grand Bassa, Vogel. 

Frutex scan dens, ramulis puberulis, striatis. Petioli 1-2-pol- 
licares, pilosiusculi. Foliolum 3-5 poll, longum, H-2 poll, 
latum, acuminatum, basi rotundatum v. subcor datum, palhde 
virens. Paniculce axillares et terminales, compositse e race- 
mis gracilibus 2-3 poll, longis, puberulis. Bractea niinutse. 
Pedicelli sparsi, 1-2 lin. longi. Calyx 2 lin. longus, ante 
anthesin ovoideus, obtusus, per anthesin iissus in segmenta 2 
reflexa, membranacea, ovata, concava, extus puberula. Brac- 
teolce calyci appressse, parvse, ciliatse. Petala subsequilonga, 
calyce dimidio longiora; vexillum sessile, late obcordatum, 
reflexum, maculis luteis notatum ; alas patentes, late oblongse 
obtusse, brevissime unguiculatse. Ovarium villosum, stylo 



glabro. 



There is another unpublished species of Bracteolaria amongst 
Heudelot's Senegambian plants. 

Leucomphalus, Benth. (nov. gen.) 

Calyx demum bipartitus, segmentis reflexis, sestivatione valva- 
tis integris. Petala subsequilonga, calycem superantia; 
vexillum late obovatum integrum; alas lineari-oblongse ; 
carinse petala alis similia nisi latiora. Stamina 10, libera, 
omnia fertilia, antheris linearibus. Ovarium longe stipita- 
tmn, pluriovulatum. Legumen longe stipitatum oblique 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 323 



semi-orbiculatum, subfalcatum, valvulis coriaceis convexis, 
marginibus vix incrassatis. Semina pauca vel solitaria, 
funiculo in carunculum incrassato. — Frutex Africse tropica?, 
Baphiae et Bracteolarice habitu similis. 

1. Leucomphalus capparideus, Benth. — Planch, in Hook. 
Ic. t. 784. (Tab. XXXI.) Fernando Po, in woods, Vogel. 

Frutex e basi plerumque ramosus, ramulis gracilibus glabris 
laevibus. Folia glabra, unifoliolata. Petiolus J-1-pollica- 
ris. Foliolum ovatum v. ovato-oblongum, acuminatum, basi 

acutum v. rotundatum, 3-5 poll, longum, 1J-2 poll, latum, 
rigide chartaceum, nitidulum, reticulatum. Racemi v. pani- 
culse axillares et terminales, ramis brevibus. Pedicelli breves, 
secus ramos solitarii, sparsi. Bracteolte sub calyce parvse 
orbiculatse. Flores magnitudine Bracteolarice polygalacea et 
iis subsimiles. Legumen § poll, longum, 6 lin. latum, stipite 
pollicari fultum, valvulis glabris flavo-rufescentibus crassius- 
culis. Semen ssepius solitarium, transverse oblongum, funiculo 
brevi crasso fungoso. 

This again is very near to the two preceding genera, and 
especially to Bracteolaria, of which it has the calyx and inflores- 
cence, but the pod is very remarkable, nearer to that of 
Sivartzia than of any other leguminous genus. The aestivation 
of the corolla, however, leaves no doubt as to its place among 
Sophorew, near Baphia and the allied genera. 
Plate XXXI. Fig. 1. calyx unopened; /. 2. flower (an inac- 
curate representation) ;f. 3. anther;/. 4. ovary. 
1. Sophora tomentosa, Linn. DC. Prod. 2. p. 95. — S. crassifo- 
Ha, Duham., et S. littoralis, Schrad. DC. 1. c— S. nitens, 
Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 201.— Cape Palmas, Vogel— A 
common sea-coast plant, both in the New and the Old 
World. 
1. Parkinsonia aculeata, Linn. — Frequent along the west coast 
of Africa, as well as in East India, and in Tropical America, 
from whence it is usually said to have been introduced to the 
Old World. The occurrence, however, of a second species 
amongst Zeyhcr's South African plants, would rather tend to 

v 2 



324 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

show that Africa may be also the native country of P. acn- 

leata. 

1. Guilandina Bonduc, Linn. — Cape Palmas, Vogel. — Abun- 
dant along the west coast, and like the Parkinsonia, found 
also in Asia and America. 

1. Csesalpinia pulcherrima, Sw. — Sierra Leone, Vogel, Don. 
Cultivated here, as in other Tropical countries, for the beauty 
of its flowers. 
An undescribed species of the Asiatic genus Mezoneurum 

occurs in Heudelot's Senegambian collection. 

1. Cassia Sieberiana, DC. Prod. 2. p. 489.— Cathartocarpus 
conspicua, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 2. p. 453.— Sierra Leone, 
Don; Senegal. 

2. Cassia laevigata, Willd.— Vog. Syn. Cass. p. 19.— Sierra 
Leone and Fernando Po (cultivated), Vogel. — An American 
species found from Mexico to Brazil, but perhaps in some 
instances cultivated. 

3. Cassia Occident alls, Linn. — Vog. Syn. Cass. p. 21. — Abun- 
dant along the coast, Vogel, Don, &c. ; common also in 
Tropical America and East India, but often in cultivation 
only. Among the numerous varieties observed of this species, 
two occur most frequently in W. Tropical Africa, the one 
with smaller leaflets, and shorter and straighter pods, the 
other with larger leaflets and longer curved pods. To the 
latter form belongs the Chamcefistula contorta, G. Don, Gard. 
Diet. 2. p. 452. 

4. Cassia obtusifolia, Linn. — Vog. Syn. Cass. p. 24.— Fer- 
nando Po, Cape Palmas, &c. ; abundant near habitations, 
Vogel ; Senegambia ; frequent in America. It may not be 
specifically distinct from the E. Indian C. Tora, Linn., 
which is also found in Senegambia, and other parts of West 
Africa. 

5. Cassia Absus, lAim.— Vog. Syn. p. 50.— C. viscosa, Schurti. 
et Thonn. Beskr. p. 205.— On the Quorra at Attah, Vogel; 
Senegambia, also Abyssinia and Egypt, and frequent in East 
India. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 325 



6. Cassia mimosoides, Linn. — Vog. Syn. p. 68. — Cape Coast, 

and Accra, Vogel ; Cape Palmas, AnselL Common along 

the west coast of Africa, as well as in East India. Besides 

the C. microphylla, Willd , and the other synonyms adduced 

by Vogel, this species includes also the C. geminata, Vahl, 

described by Schumacher and Thonning. 

The other W. African Cassia, are : C. Afzeliana, Vog. from 

Sierra Leone, C. podocarpa, Guill. et Perr. from Senegambia, 

and C. obovata, Linn., and C. micrantha, Guill. et Perr., both 

of which extend from Senegambia to Egypt and Arabia. 

■ The Cordyla calycandra from Senegambia, and the Swartzia 
marginata, Benth., from Angola, are the only known West 
African species of the sub-tribe Swartzieae. The authors of 
the Flora Senegambia? had already recognized, in their addenda 
to the first volume, that their Calycandra was congener with 
Loureiro's Cordyla, but it does not appear that Walpers was 
justified in identifying the Senegambian plant with Loureiro's 
East African species. 

The Tamarind (Tamarindus Indicus, Linn.) is not uncom- 
mon on the W. African coast, but most probably in cultivation 
only. 

1. Afzelia bracteata, Vog. MS. (Plate XXXIV. XXXV.) ramis 
foliisque glabris, foliolis 4-5-jugis oblongo-ellipticis obova- 
tisve obtusis supra nitidis subtus subglaucis, paniculis termi- 
nalibus subsimplicibus cano-pubescentibus, bracteis ovatis 
reflexis, petali summi ungue lobis calycinis triplo longiore. 
Sierra Leone, Vogel ; Senegambia, Heudelot. 

Arbor mediocris, ramis teretibus, ramulis pendulis striatis 
verruculatis. Petiolus communis 3-4-pollicaris, supra obscure 
sulcatus. Foliola opposita, brevissime petiolulata, 2-3 poll, 
longa, \-\\ poll, lata, coriacea. Panicula erecta, folio sequi- 
longa, basi tantum divisa in racemos dense floridos, rhachide 
bracteis calycibusque ut in A. Africana, pube brevi canescen- 
tibus. Bractea 3-4 lin. longa?, ovatse, obtusse, diu persis- 
tentcs et per anthesin reflexa?. Flores (teste Heudelot) pul- 
chre coccinei et odorati, pedicellis suberectis quam bractea 
subtendens paullo longioribus. Bracteola ad apicem pedi- 



— 

326 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

celli bracteis similes sed paullo ininores. Calycis tubus 
4-5 lin. longus, cylindricus, lobi 4 lin. longi, ovati, obtusi, 
extus pubescentes, intus color ati. Pet alum, summum seu 
vexillum erectum, ungue demum ultra pollicem Ion go pube- 
rulo, lamina late rotundata bifida; petala lateralia minima. 
Stamina 6-8, vexillo breviora. Ovarium stipitatum, oblique 
lanceolatum, pubescens, in stylum filiformem incurvum 
dcsinens, 8-10-ovulatum. 
Plate XXXIV. XXXV. Fig. 1. flower ;/. 2. pistil; both mag- 
nified. 

The original A. Africana, Sm., from Sierra Leone, gathered 
also by Heudelot in Senegambia, has much larger leaves and 
leaflets, and the flowers considerably smaller; a third unde- 
scribed species was found by Heudelot in Senegambia, and u, 
as is supposed, the Pancovia of Willdenow, from Guinea, belongs 
to this genus, it constitutes a fourth species. 
1. Anthonota, sp. n. ? — Sierra Leone, Don. The specimen is 
not in a state to describe. 

Besides the above and the original A. macrophylla, Pal. de 
Beauv., from Oware, there are two other undescribed species ot 
Anthonota, both in Heudelot's Senegambian collection. 

Berlinia, Soland. (nov. gen.) 

Char. Gen.— A labastrum bracteolis 2 tandem bivalvatim apertis 
persistentibus inclusum. Calycis tubus cylindricus, limbus 
5-partitus. Petala 5, summum longissime unguiculatum, 
csetera lineari-spathulata, sessilia, calyci subsequalia. Sta- 
mina 10, longe exserta, omnia fertilia. Ovarium stipitatum, 
pluriovulatum, in stylum filiformem attenuatum. — Arbor 
Africae tropica* Afzelia et Anthonota affinis, ramulis pen- 
dulis, foliis abrupte pinnatis, racemis v. paniculis sessilibus 
terminalibus. 

1. Berlinia acuminata, Soland. in Herb. Ba?iks MS. (tide 
Planchon in Herb. Hook.) — Bassa Cove, Ansell, also from 
Senegambia, Heudelot. 

Arbor (fide Il» udelot) 20-30-pedalis, ramulis pendulis glabn> 
n ovcllis ferrugineo-puberulis. Folio rum petiolus communis v. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 327 

semipedalis, subteres, glaber; foliola 3-4-juga brevissime 
petiolulata^ pleraque opposita v. subalterna, oblonga, acumi- 
nata, basi angustiora at obtusa, ssepius insequilatera et sub- 
falcata 4-7 poll, longa, circa 2 poll, lata, coriacea, nitidula, 
glabra, subtus reticulato-venosa. Racemi terminates, nunc 
6-8-pollicares subsimplices nunc a basi ramosi et breviores, 
corymbum foliis breviorem formantes, pube brevissima canes- 
centes. Bractece brevissimse, orbiculatse, ante anthesin caducse. 
Pedicelli fere pollicares, rigiduli. Bracteolte pollicem exce- 
dentes, ante anthesin clausse, alabastrum simulantes oblique 
clavatum obtusum basi longe attenuatum, per anthesin apertse, 
obovato-spathulata?, obtusissimse, crassse, intus extusque pube- 
scentes. Flores albi, usque ad anthesin intra bracteolas om- 
nino reconditi. Calycis tubus semipollicaris, glaber ; laeinise 
paullo breviores, oblongse, obtusse, fere glabrae, petaloidese. 
Petalum summum 2-2£-pollicare, extus pilosum, basi in un- 
guem Ion gum canaliculatum et subulatum angustatum, lamina 
late orbiculata, profunde bifida, margine crispula; lateralia 
et inferiora inter se conformia, lineari-lanceolata, calycem 
sequantia. Stamina basi pilosula, summum a cseteris dis- 
cretum ; filamenta apice attenuata ; antherse ovato-oblongse, 
versatiles. Ovarium breviter stipitatum, villosum. 
Ansell's specimen has larger leaves and flowers, and a longer 
simple raceme than Heudelot's, where the raceme is branched 
and forms a panicle, and possibly the two may belong to distinct 
species, although in every other respect they appear identical. 
The fruit is unknown, and therefore its exact relation to the 
two preceding African genera, Afzelia and Anthonota, to the 
Asiatic Intsia Amboinensis, {Outea bijuga, Wall. ?), and to the 
American Eperua, Parivoa and Outea, cannot at present be 
determined, although there is no one of these genera to which it 
could be united more than to the other. The distinctions drawn 
from the flower between the three African genera may thus be 
shortly stated : 

Afzelia. Flores jam ante anthesin e bracteolis exserti. Calycis 
segmenta 4. Petala 1-5. Stamina fertilia 6-10. 



328 FLORA N1GRITIANA. 

Anthonota. Flores ante anthesin intra bracteolas inelusi. Ca- 

lycis segiuenta 4. Petala 1-3. Stamina fertilia 3-8. 
Berlinia. Flores ante anthesin intra bracteolas inclusi. Ca- 

lycis segmenta 5. Petala 5. Stamina fertilia 10. 

Schumacher and Thonning describe a species of Schotia, from 
Guinea, under the name of S. simplicifolia, which is entirely 
unknown to us. 

Three species of Bauhinia are natives of West Tropical Africa, 
B. rufescens, Lam., from Senegambia, found also in South 
Africa and the Mauritius; B. Adansoniana, Guill. et Pen*., and 
B. reticulata, DC., both from Senegal. The B. Thonningih 
Schum., appears to be a variety of the latter, distinguished by 
the leaves slightly downy underneath, and the pods densely 
covered with rusty down, it occurs both in Senegal and Guinea. 
The Nubian B. tamarindacea, Delile, supposed by the authors 
of the Flora Senegambise to be the same species, has a very dif- 
ferent pod. 
1. Cynometra Vogelii, Hook, fil.; glaberrima, foliolis unijugis 

» # 

elliptico-oblongis utrinque obtusis apice emarginatis avenns, 
floribus in racemos axillares fasciculatis breve pedicellatis 
decandris, ovario villoso, legumine oblongo falcato rugo- 
sissimo. — On the Niger, at the confluence, Vogel, Ansell; 
also in Senegambia. 
Arbor teste Vogelio habitu Mali, nunc frutex arborescens (15- 
20-pedalis ex Heudelot), Ramuli cortice griseo tecti ver- 
ruculosi. Petiolus 2 lin. longus. Foliola 2-2f poll, longa, 
9-12 lin. lata, plana, coriacea, eglandulosa : Gemma floriferse 
axillares, obtectse bracteis imbricatis ovato-cymbiformibus ob- 
tusis scariosis ciliatis. Pedicelti graciles, 2 lin. longi, pubc- 
ruli. Flores 3 lin. diametro, rosei et odori ex Heudelot, albi 
teste Vogel. Sepala 4, petaloidea, lineari-oblonga, subciliata, 
extus puberula. Petala 4, patula, sepalis paullo longiora, 
oblonga, obtusa. Filamenta petalis dimidio longiora, antheris 
parvis. Ovarium breviter stipitatum, uniovulatum, stylo 
laeviusculo curvato. Legumen \-\\ poll, longum, | poH- 
latum, utrinque obtusum, valde convexum, dorso canalicu- 



FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 329 



latum, suberosum. Seminum testa tenuis, cotyledones siccse 
atrse. 

2. Cynometra ? tetraphylla, Hook. fil. ; glaberrima, foliolis bi- 
jugis valde insequilateris obtusis coriaceis subtus reticulatis jugi 
inferioris ovato-rotundatis, jugi superioribus majoribus ovato- 
oblongis. — Sierra Leone, on the ascent to the Sugar-loaf 
Mountain, Don. 

A single specimen, in a very imperfect state, without flowers 
or fruit, but most probably a Cynometra. The lower pair of 
leaflets are from half an inch to an inch long, the upper ones 
twice as long. In one of the axilla? are several of the scariose 
bracts, which usually surround the inflorescence in the genus. 

Heudelot's collection contains a third undescribed species of 
Cynometra, from Senegambia. 

1. Dialium Guineense, Willd. — D. nitidum, Guilt, et Perr. Ft. 
Seneg. 1. p. 267. t. 58. — St. Thomas and Sierra Leone, Dow ; 
from Senegal to Guinea. All the flowers we have opened 
have one petal, as observed by Bennett in his valuable notes 
on the genus, PI. Jav. Ear. p. 136 et seq. 

2. Dialium discolor, Hook. fil. — Codarium discolor, DC. Prod. 
2. p. 520. — On the Quorra, Vogel, Ansell. 

Besides the differences in foliage mentioned by De Candolle, 
the panicle is looser, with fewer flowers than in D. Guineense, 
the ultimate cymes more compact, the flowers rather smaller, 
containing two petals instead of one, and the anthers are nearly 
sessile. 

The Senegambian collections contain also two species of 
Detarium : D. Senegalense, Gmel., and D. microcarpon, Guill. 
et Perr., and an undescribed species of the American genus, 
Crudya. 
!'• Parkia Africana, Br. App. Oudn. p. 234.— Sierra Leone, 

Don, and apparently frequent along the coast, 
1. Erythrophleum Guineense, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 2. p. 424. 

Pillsea suaveolens, Guill. et Perr. Ft. Seneg. \.p. 242. /. 55. 
Sierra Leone, Don ; Senegal and Guinea. 
1. Pentaclethra macrophylla, Benth. in Hook. Joum. But. 4. 

p. 330. — Fernando Po, Vogel ; Senegal. 



330 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

The Entada scandens occurs among Heudelot's Senegambian 

plants, and a second species from the same country is described 

in the Flora Senegambia?, under the name of E. Africana. 

1. Piptadenia ? Africana, Hook. fil. ; inermis, ramulis petiolis 

inflorescentiaque puberulis demum glabratis, glandulis nullis, 

pinnis 10-12 jugis, foliolis multijugis linearibus supra nitidis, 

floribus glabris, ovario subsessili glabro. — On the Niger, at 

Ab6h, Vogel, Ansell. 

Arbor excelsa. Folia iis P. communis simillima; pinnae 2-3- 

pollicares ; foliola 4 lin. longa, leviter falcata, obtusa v. acu- 

tiuscula, basi valde obliqua, glabra v. minute ciliata, supra 

nitidula, subtus subrufescentia. Spicee bipollicares, in pani- 

culas axillares v. terminales dispositse. Flores polygami secus 

rhachin sessiles, albidi, cum staminibus 2 lin. longi. Calyx 

brevis, cupuliformis, ore truncato leviter undulato. Pctala 

lineari-lanceolata, acuta. Stamina 10, antheris apice glandu- 

liferis. Ovarium subsessile, glabrum, pluriovulatum . 

These specimens, in flower only, can only be distinguished 

from the Brazilian P. communis by the absence of all glands on 

the petiole, and by the nearly sessile ovary ; characters which 

may possibly prove not to be absolutely constant in the 

genus. 

Four other Mimosece, with glanduliferous anthers, are natives 
of West Tropical Africa, viz. : Tetrapleura Thonningii, Benth.,* 
from Guinea ; Prosopis ? oblong a, Benth., from Senegambia, to 
which may perhaps be referred the Coulteria Africana, Guill. et 
Perr. ; Dichrostachys nutans, Benth., from Senegambia, ex- 
tending through a considerable portion of Tropical Africa ; and 
Neptunia oleracea, Lour., a common aquatic plant, both in the 
New and the Old World. 
1. Mimosa asperata, Linn. — On the Niger, Vogel. — Abundant 

• In the Spicilegia Gorgonea, above, p. 131, Parlatore has given the 
name of Tetrapleura to an Umbelliferous genus, not being then aware of 
my having previously published the Mimoseous plant referred to in the 
text under the same name. The volume of Hooker's Journal of Botany, 
in which it is described, though published in 1842, did not reach Florence 
till 1847.— (G. B.) 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 331 



on the west coast, as well as in East Tropical Africa and 

America. 

1. Schranckia leptocarpa, DC. Prod. 2. p. 443. — Accra, Don; 

Cape Coast, Vogel. — An American plant, not unfrequent in 
Guinea and Brazil, the only species of the genus hitherto 

found in the Old World. 
1. Leucsena glauca, Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 4. p. 416. 
Fernando Po, Vogel. — Cultivated here, as in many parts of 
Africa and Asia. Its native country is probably either Tro- 
pical America, or some of the islands of the Pacific. 

1. Acacia Farnesiana, Willd. — Sierra Leone, Vogel, probably 
cultivated here, as in other parts of Africa. Asia, America, and 
the south of Europe. It is indigenous to America, and said to 
be also a true native of East India. 

2. Acacia Adansonii, Guill. et Perr. FL Seneg. 1. p. 251. 
Sierra Leone, Don, judging from a very imperfect specimen ; 
Senegal and Guinea. 

3. Acacia Arabica, Willd., var. tomentosa, Benth. in Lond. 
Journ. Bot. 1. p. 500. — On the Niger, Vogel; Senegal to 
Egypt and Arabia, and thence to the East Indies. 

4. Acacia ataxacantha, DC. Prod. 2. p. 459. — On the Quorra, 
Vogel; Senegal. 

5. Acacia pentagona, Hook. fil. — Mimosa pentagona, Schum. et 
Thonn. Beskr. p. 324 ; fruticosa, glabra, aculeis plurimis 
sparsis recurvis, stipulis lineari-lanceolatis striatis persistenti- 
bus, glandula petiolari elevata, pinnis 6-10-jugis, foliolis ultra 
20-jugis linearibus, capitulis globosis subpaniculatis, calyce 
corolla parum breviore, ovario glabrato. — Cape Coast, Vogel ; 
Guinea. 

Very near to the Asiatic A. pennata, but easily recognized by 
the rigid stipules, from 2 to 4 lines long. 

The other West Tropical African species of Acacia are A. Sie- 
beriana, DC, A. Sing, Guill. et Perr., and Prosopis dubia, 
Guill. et Perr., all three from Senegal, and most probably closely 
allied to each other, if not forming but one species; A. Seyal, 
DeUc, extending from Senegal to Nubia and Upper Egypt ; 
t.fasciculata, Guill. et Perr., from Senegal; A. albida, Delile, 



332 FLORA N1GRITIANA. 

from Senegal to Upper Egypt; and A. saccharata, Benth., 
A. Verek, Guill. et Perr., and A. macrostachya, Reichb., all three 
from Senegal. 

1. Albizzia altissima, Hook. fil. ; ramulis petiolisque ferrugineo- 
puberulis, stipulis subulatis deeiduis, pinnis 5-6-jugis, foliolis 
8-multijugis lineari-oblongis insequilateris glabris, glandula 
in petiolo et inter pinnas supremas, pedunculis solitariis axil- 
laribus, capitulis amplis multifloris, floribus sessilibus glabris, 
calyce tubuloso 5-fido corolla dimidio breviore. — Cape Coast 
and Aboh, Vogel. 
Arbor ex Vog. altissima. Folia 4-6 poll, longa ; foliolis 4-5 lm. 
longis, 1^-2 lin. latis, obtusis v. acuthisculis. Pedunculi gra- 
ciles, in specimine solitarii (an tamen et fasciculati more 
affinium occurrunt ?) pollicares. Flores albi. Affinis A. amara 
et A. myriophyllce. 

Besides the above, the following Albizzia have been found 
in West Tropical Africa : A. Lebbek, Benth., from Senegambia, 
a common Asiatic and Egyptian plant, perhaps cultivated in 
West Africa; A. rhombifolia, Benth., from Senegambia, which 
may not be distinct from A. glaberrima, Benth., from Guinea; 
and A, ferruginea, Benth., extending from Senegambia to 
Abyssinia. 

The Calliandra portoricensis, Benth., is described by Schu- 
macher and Thonning from Guinea, under the name of Mimosa 
Guineensis. It is a Tropical American tree, frequently cul- 
tivated for ornament in Egypt and other countries bordering on 
the Mediterranean, and probably introduced into Guinea. 

Two species of Zygia complete the list of West Tropical 
African Leguminosa : 1. Inga Zygia, figured by De Candolle, 
and named by Walpers Zygia Broumei, although it may he 
doubtful whether Browne's Jamaica plant be the same, and 
2. Mimosa adiantifolia , Schum. et Thonn., which appears to 
be identical with E. Meyer's South African Zygia fastigiata. 



FLORA ^IGRITIANA. 333 



XLVIL Chrysobalane^:.* 

1. Parinarium excelsum, Sab. — DC. Prod. 2. p. 527. — St. 
Thomas and Sierra Leone, Don ; Senegal. 

The structure of the flower, both of this species and of the 
P. Senegalense, has been accurately described in the Flora 
Senegambise, but in the plates of both species the artist has 
misrepresented several analytical details, especially as to the in- 
sertion and arrangement of the stamens. 

2. Parinarium curate] l&folium, Planch, in Herb, Hook. ; foliis 
oblongo-ellipticis obtusis basi insequalibus, novellis subtus 
niveis, adultis concoloribus coriaceis margine undulatis supra 
scabrellis subtus tomentellis, calycis vix ineequalis laciniis 
lanceolatis acutis, staminibus fertilibus circa 8 unilateralibus. 
— On the Quorra, at Patteh, Vogel ; Senegal, Heudelot. 

Arbor mediocris. Hamuli teretes tomentosi. Stipulce lineari- 
lanceolatae, caducissimse. Folia 2-3 poll, longa, 1-1J poll, 
lata, margine undulata et obscure crenata, basi obtusa et 
inaequalia, petiolo 2-4 lin. longo eglanduloso, novella supra 
puberula subtus niveo-tomentosa, adulta supra subglabra sub- 
tus vix pallidiora. Panicuke 3-4-pollicares, tomentosse, cymis 

. laxe paucifloris secus ramos racemosim dispositse. Bract ea> 
ovato-lanceolatae, acuminata?, concavae, caducissimae. Flores 
magnitudine P. excelste. Calyx molliter tomentosus, tubo 
basi hinc paullo amplior, laciniis acuminatis tubo aequilongis. 
Petala ovata, calyce breviora. Stamina fertilia vix calyce 
longiora, sterilia plura, brevia, valde inaequalia. Ovarium et 
stylus P. excelsce. 
I describe this chiefly from Heudelot's specimen, which is in 

flower, with young leaves. VogePs has only old leaves and 

some peduncles, from which the fruit has fallen off, but I have 

little doubt of both belonging to one species. 

3. Parinarium polyandrum, Benth. ; foliolis oblongis ovatisve 

* This and the succeeding Orders have been entirely worked up by 
Mr. Bentham, although he has generally been much assisted by the 
Previous determinations of most of the species in the Hookerian Her- 
barium. 



334 FLORA NIGJUTIANA. 

coriaceis glabris nitidis basi biglandulosis, calycis subsequali* 
crassi laciniis petalisque orbiculatis obtusis, staminibus nume- 
rosis (circa 40) in orbem fere completam dispositis. — On the 
Quorra, at Attah, Vogel. 
Frutece arborescens, prseter inflorcscentiam glaber, ramis verru- 
cosis, ramulis brevibus. Stipula ovatse, caducissimse. Folia 
breviter petiolata, 3-4 poll, longa, 1 -2 poll, lata, apice obtusa, 
basi cuneata v. rotundata, margine recurvo, utrinque glaber- 
rima ; glandulis ad apicem pctioli sitis parvis scutellrcformi- 
bus. Panicula terininalis, brevis, cymoso-ramosissima, flori- 
bunda, ramis crassis, brevibus, pubescentibus. Bractea or- 
biculatse, caducissimae. Calyx fere 4 lin. longus, tubo crasso- 
carnoso turbinato-campanulato subsequali, extus tomentoso 
intus glabro; lacinia3 2£ lin. longse, ovato-orbiculatse, con- 
cavae, obtusissimse, intus glabrae, extus pubescentes, aestiva- 
tione valde imbricatse. Petala orbiculata, calycem subasquantia, 
caducissima. Stamina circa 40, fertilia, petalis plus duplo 
longiora, basi in orbem completum disposita et brevissime et 
oblique connata, ad latus pistilliferum floris dejecta, ad latus 
oppositum rariora, sterilia tamen nulla detexi. Ovaria in 
floribus 2 examinavi, in altero duo vidi in altero tria, distincta, 
omnia lateri calycis adnata et villosissima, singula more generis 
biovulata, ovulis dissepimcnto spurio sejunctis. Stylus inter 
ovaria a basi eorum natus, glaber, adscendens, more generis 
flexuosus. 

The multiplication of ovaries is singular among Chrysoba- 
lanece, but may not be constant even in the species, as there is 
but a single specimen and I could only dissect two unopened 
flowers. The glandular leaves, fleshy calyx, and numerous 
stamens, might at first suggest the establishmont of a distinct 
genus, but in a Malacca plant gathered by the late Dr. Griffith,* 
which has also coriaceous biglandular leaves and a similar calyx* 
there are but about twenty-five fertile stamens, with somes hort 

• P. Griffithianum, foliis oblongis acuminatis coriaceis glabris nitidis 
basi biglandulosis, calycis subaequalis crassi laciniis petalisque orbiculatis 
obtusis, staminibus fertilibus numerosis (circa 25) unilateralibus, sterili- 
bus paucis minimis. 



FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 335 

abortive ones on the opposite side, forming a gradual passage 

through Jack's and other Eastern species to the more common 

forms of Parinarium. On the other hand, those species which 

De Candolle had placed in his section Neocarya, characterized 

chiefly by the stamens being all fertile, prove to have in fact 

fertile ones on one side, and sterile on the other, as in Petro- 

carya; and the genus must, if at all, be divided on other prin- 
ciples. 

Taking as the essential character of Parinarium, among Chry- 
sobalanece, the spurious dissepiment which separates the ovules, 
the species we are acquainted with may be distributed into three 
sections, viz. : 

§. 1. Petrocarya (Balantium, Desv.) Calyce sequali v. vix 
gibbo, laciniis acutis, staminibus fertilibus ssepius paucis 
(7-8 v. rarius 10-15.) — To this section belong the African 
P. excelsvm and P. curatelkefolium, the whole of the 
known American species, (four from Guiana or the West 
Indies, and three or four from Brazil), and most probably 
among Asiatic ones the P. Sumatranum {Petrocarya, Jack.), 
P. glaberrimum, Hassk., and P. scabrum, Hassk., which 
three last 1 have not seen. 

§. 2. Sarcostegia. Calyce sequali v. vix gibbo carnoso laciniis 

obtusis, staminibus numerosis (25-40, rarius 11 ?), foliis 
basi biglandulosis. — To this belong the African P. poly- 
andrum, the Asiatic P. Griffithianum, and possibly also 
P. Jackianum, (Petrocarya excelsa, Jack.) which is un- 
known to me. 
§.3. Neocarya. Calyce basi hinc gibboso-saccato, laciniis 
obtusis, staminibus plurimis fertilibus (circa 15). — Con- 
fined to the two following African species. 
4. Parinarium macrophyllum, Brown, G. Don, Trans. Hort. 
Soc. 5. p. 452. — St. Thomas and Sierra Leone, Don. 
The leaves are as much as nine inches long and five broad, 
closely sessile and broadly cordate at the base ; in other respects 
they much resemble those of P. Senegalense. The down of 
the stem, leaves and inflorescence, the inflorescence itself and 
the flowers are so much alike in the two species as to suggest 



336 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



the idea that, notwithstanding the difference in the form of 
the leaves, they may be mere varieties of one. 

The P. Senegalense, Perr., has hitherto been found in Sene- 
gambia only, 

1, Chrysobalanus Icaco, Linn. — Grand Bassa and Cape Palmas, 
very common, Vogel; Senegal and Guinea, also in the West 
Indies and in Tropical America, but possibly introduced there 
from Africa. "What is frequently mistaken for it is the C. 
pellocarpus, which is truly indigenous and frequent in Tropical 
America, and which, as well as the C. oblongifolia , from the 
United States, has a much less fleshy fruit than the African 
species. 

2. Chrysobalanus ellipticus, Soland. — DC. Prod. 2. p. 526.— 
Sierra Leone, Don. 

The C. luteus, from Sierra Leone, mentioned by Sabine, is 
not amongst Don's plants. 

Besides the above Chrysobalanea, no species of the extensive 
Order of Rosacea appears to have been founded in West Tropi- 
cal Africa, although there is scarcely another district of the 
globe where it is not more or less numerously represented. 

XLVIII. CoMBRETACE^E. 

1. Terminalia (Catappa) glaucescens, Planch, in Herb. Hook. 
foliis sparsis longiuscule petiolatis ovali-ellipticis breviter 
supra acuminatis basi obtusis v. insequaliter acutis eglan- 
dulosis nitidis subtus glaucescentibus, drupa samaroidea glau- 
cescente ala longa apice retusa. — On the Quorra, at Attah, 
Vogel. 

Arbor mediocris, ramulis crassiusculis apice pubescentibus mo* 
glabratis. Folia secus ramulos sparsa, adulta semipedalia, 8f-» 
poll, lata, in acumen breve obtusum producta, basi ssepiu s 
rotundata, interdum valde inaequaliter angustata, coriacea, 
supra glabra et demum lucida, pube brevissima marginata, 
subtus glaucescentia ad costam venasque primarias puberula, 
cseterum glabra v. pilis brevibus conspersa ; petioli l-l£-p°| - 
Hcares. Flores desunt. Pedunculi fructiferi axillares, polU- 
cares, pubescentes, a medio ad apicem cicatrices ostendunt 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 337 

* 

crebras floruui delapsorum. Drupce samaroideie, stipite 2-3 
lin. longo fultse, cum alis l|-2 poll, longae, 7-9 lin. latae, 
apice obtusissimse et ssepe e margin a tee, basi rotundatse v. sub- 
cuneatse ; drupa ipsa in media ala oblonga, sarcocarpio cras- 
siusculo carnoso, endocarpio osseo. Semina perfecta non 
vidi. 

Two otber species are mentioned as West African, T. ma- 
croptera and T. avicennoides, Guill. et Perr., both from Se- 
negambia. 
1. Conocarpus erecta, Jacq., /3. procumbens, DC. Prod. 3. p. 

16. — Sierra Leone, Vogel-, on the Gambia, Don. 

According to Vogel, the woody stems of this species spread 
over the ground for a considerable space, sending up a number of 
erect branches. 

The Anogeissus leiocarpus, Guill. et Perr., is a native of Sene- 
gambia . 

1. Laguncularia racemosa, Gsertn. til.— DC. Prod. 3. p. 17. 
Grand Bassa and Fernando Po, Vogel. Also in Senegal, and 
a common maritime plant in Tropical America. 

The Giriera Senegalensis, Lam., extends from Senegal to 
Cordofan. 

L Poivrea grandiflora, Walp. Rep. 2. p. 64. — Combretum 
grandiflorum, Don, DC. Prod. 3. p. 21.— C. Afzelii, Don, 
Linn. Trans. 15. p. 437. — Sierra Leone, Don, Whitfield, 
Miss Turner; Munrovia, Vogel. — Fructus late 5-alatus. 
Embryo 5-angulatus, cotyledonibus crassiusculis convolutis, 
minus tamen quam in P. comosa. 

It appears to have been by mistake that Don placed his 
C. grandiflorum in his octandrous division of Combretum, for 
although a tetramerous flower may have been found by chance, 
by far the greater part, all indeed that 1 have seen, are penta- 
ftierous, and the seed has the cotyledons certainly convolute. 
The thorns in this and other Poivrece are formed of the lower 
portion of the petiole, which remains attached to the stem, 
becoming hard and prickly after the upper portion has fallen off 
*ith the leaf. 

2. Poivrea constricta, Benth. ; glabra in iiiflorescentiam pu- 

tt 



338 FLORA. NIGRITIANA. 

berula, spinifera, foliis obovali-ellipticis vix acuminatis basi 
obtusis, spicis brevibus simplicibus confertifloris, bracteis sub- 
nullis, calycis tubo adnato elongato, limbo infundibuliformi 
supra basin in collum contracto, petalis cuneato-oblongis 
extus villosis. — On tbe Quorra, at Abah, often growing in the 
water, Vogel. 

Frutex erectus (ramis nunc sarmentosis ? ex Vog.) cortice albido. 
Petiolorum bases persistentes indurato-spinescentes. Folia 
alterna v. rarius opposita, adulta 3-4 poll, longa, 2 poll, lata, 
obtusa cum acumine brevissimo, basi rotundata v. rarius obso- 
lete cordata, rigidule chartacea, utrinque viridia, reticulato- 
venosa et creberrime minuteque punctata. Spicce terminates, 
rbacbide vix pollice longiore puberula. Bractece minutissimze 
v. omnino desunt. Flores pentameri, semel tamen etiam te- 
tramerum vidi. Ovarium (seu calycis tubus adnatus) 3 lin. 
longum, 5-striatum, tenue, pubescens. Calycis pars libera 
(limbus seu fauces) infundibulif oralis, 6 lin. longa, supra 
ovarium inflata, dein in collum longum constricta, apice cam- 
panulata et 5-loba, extus parce pubescens, lobis triangularibus 
acutis sestivatione valvatis. Petala \\ lin. longa, coccinea . 
Stamina longiuscule exserta. Ovula 2, a funiculis longis 
suspensa. Fructus non visus. 

3. Poivrea conferta, Benth. ; scan dens, glabra v. vix puberula, 
spinifera, foliis obovali-ellipticis acuminatis basi obtusis, ra- 
cemis brevissimis multifloris in paniculam capituliformem 

. confertis, floribus pedicellatis tubo adnato elongato limbo 
tubuloso-campanulato, petalis late ovatis glabris.— In woods, 
Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Frutex super arbores volubilis. Ramuli et petioli jumores 
minute puberuli, mox glabrati. Petiolorum bases persis- 
tentes, indurato-spinescentes. Folia opposita, 3-5 poll, 
longa, 2-2£ poll, lata, cbartacea, reticulata, utrinque vi- 
ridia et creberrime puncticulata, petiolo semipollicari. P&- 
niculce fere corymbiformes, subsessiles v. ramulos breves ter- 
minantes, 1£ poll, latse, e racemulis pluribus composite 
quorum rhachides vix 5 lin. longi. Bractece parvae setacese. 
Flores pentameri, breviter pedicellati. Ovarium (seu calycis 



FLORA NIGRIT1ANA. 339 



tubus adnatus) 2£ lin. longum, puberulum. Calycis limbus 

(seu pars libera) glaber, 2 J lin. longus, dentibus breviter et 

late triaii gularibus. Petala coccinea, linea breviora, fere orbi- 

culata. Stamina longe exserta. Ovula 2. 
4. Poivrea comosa, Walp. Rep. 2. p. 64. — Combretum comosum, 

G. Don, DC. Prod. 3. p. 20. — Ejusdem var. bracteis latiori- 

bus qua? Combretum intermedium, G. Don, et DC. 1. c. 

Sierra Leone, Don. 

In both varieties the flowers are pentamerous, and in the 
seeds of the first variety at least, the cotyledons are thin and 
convolute. 

The only other W. Tropical African species is the P. aculeata^ 
DC, from Senegal, which is also found in Cordofan. 
1- Combretum spinosum, Don. — DC. Prod. 3. p. 20. — Sierra 

Leone, Don. 

The bases of the petioles remain on the branches, and harden 
mto thorns, as in most Poivrece ; but the flowers are tetramerous, 
and the cotyledons fleshy and not convolute. As in all the 
Combreta and Poivrea I have examined, the seed is marked 
with as many angles as the fruit has wings, and even the 
embryo is moulded as it were into the same form, for the angles 
retain their position with regard to the seed, whatever be the 
texture or arrangement of the cotyledons. 

2. Combretum racemosum, Pal. de Beauv. — DC. Prod. 3. p. 
20.— To the synonyms adduced by Guillemin and Perrottet 
(Fl. Seneg. p. 285) must be added that of C. leucophyllum, 
Don, DC. 1. c. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

3. Combretum fuscum, Planch, in Herb. Hook. ; scandens, 
inermis, ramulis inflorescentiaque ferrugineo-puberulis, foliis 
oppositis oblongis ellipticisve breviter acuminatis basi rotun- 
datis demum glabratis, spicis brevibus densis paniculatis, 
bracteis minimis, calycis limbo tubuloso-campanulato, petalis 
spathulatis limbo caJycino pluries brevioribus. — Sierra Leone, 
Vogel; Grand Bassa, Ansell. 

Frutex scandens, ramis teretibus v. ad nodos compressius- 
cuhs. Folia majora 6-8 poll, longa, 2±-3 poll, lata, apice 
in acumen breve angustata, utrinque siccitate fuaca <t 

z 2 



340 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



glabra, superiora minora, floralia nuraerosa parva, in vivo ex 
Vog. alba et e longinquo nitentia, siccitate tamen pariter ac 
caulina fusca et opaca. Petioll omnino decidui, 2-4 lin. 
longi. Paniculce breves, floribunda? ; spica? ultimse peduncu- 
late, 6-8 lin. longce, floribus confertis. Bracteolce lineares, 
crassse, 1-2 lin. longse, caducissimse. Flores tetrameri. Ca- 
lycis tubus adnatus brevissimus, limbus 1 \ lin. longus, disco 
staminigero tomentoso usque ad medium limbi attingente, 
dentibus triangularibus acutis. Petala minima, glabra. 
Ovula 2. 

This agrees in many respects with Don's description of C. 
micranthum from the same country ; but he describes the flower 
spikes as simple and axillary ; and if the Senegal plant referred 
to Don's species in the Flora Senegambise be really his, it is 
very different from ours in the petals and other details of the 
flower. 

4. Combretum cuspidatum, Planch, in Herb. Hook. ; scandens, 
inermis, ramulis inflorescentiaque ferrugineo-puberulis, iolns 
oppositis ovali-ellipticis acuminatis basi rotundatis demum 
glabris, spicis paniculatis, bracteis minimis, calycis limbo cya- 
thiformi minute dentato, petalis orbiculatis concavis mtegerri- 
mis limbo calycis multo brevioribus. — Sierra Leone, Vogel. 
Frutex scandens, ramuli ad nodos compressiusculi, novelli uti 
. petioli et pedunculi fen-ugineo-pubescentes, demum glabrati. 
Petioli 3-4 lin. longi, cum foliis ex toto decidui. Folia ma- 
jora semipedalia, 3 poll, lata, summa minora, omnia siccitate 
supra fusca et glabra, subtus pallidiora, glabra sed creberrime 
glanduloso-punctata, apice in acumen semipollicare obtusum 
abrupte producta, basi rotundata. Paniculce axillares v. 
terminales, basi foliatse, apice nudse, semipedales v. longiores, 
pluries ramosa3, spicis ultimis 1-2-pollicaribus laxis. Brae- 
teolce perpauca? adsunt lineares, parva?, crassse. Flores 4- 
meri, parvi. Calycis tubus adnatus semilineam longus, hir- 
sutus, limbus (seu fauces) cyathiformi-campanulatus, | lm- 
longus, dentibus brevissimis. Petala semilinea breviora, 
reflexa, glabra, concava, integerrima, vix unguiculata. Stamtna 
fere 2 lin. longa. Ovula 2. 



FLORA NTGRITIANA. 341 

5. Combretum sericeum, Don. — DC. Prod. 3. p. 21. — C. her- 

baceum, Don, I. c. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

Stems herbaceous, simple, a foot, or a foot and a half high, 
proceeding from a woody trunk, approaching in that respect to 
the habit of the East Indian C. nanum. The flowers are gene- 
rally tetramerous, but probably sometimes pentamerous, as 
Don places the species in the decandrous division of the genus, 
and I have occasionally seen one of the petals much broader 
than the other, or even divided into two, with a very small 
calycine tooth between the two ; but I have never observed more 
than eight stamens. 

Besides the above species, nine Combreta have been described 
from W. Tropical Africa, viz. : C. mucronatum, Thonn., from 
Senegal and Guinea, from which however must be excluded 
C. intermedium, Don, which is a mere variety of Poivrea co- 
mosa ; C. micranthum, Don, from Senegal and Sierra Leone ; 
C. paniculatum, Vent., from Senegal, which is certainly distinct 
from Poivrea comosa, referred to it by Guillemin and Perrottet; 
C altum, Perr. ; C. glutinosum, Perr. ; C. chrysophyllum, Guill. 
et Pen*., and C. nigricans, Lepr., all from Senegal ; C. tomen- 
tosum, Don, from Sierra Leone ; and C. macrocarpon, Beauv., 
from Oware. 

1. Quisqualis ebracteata, Pal. de Beauv. — DC, Prod. 3. p. 23. 
Q. obovata, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 218. — On the 

Quorra, Vogel ; Senegal and Guinea. 



XLIX. Rhizophore^:. 

1. Rhizophora Mangle, Linn. — DC. Prod. 3. p. 32. — Sene- 
gambian coast, Don, and others. 

2. Rhizophora racemosa, Mey. — DC. Prod. 3. p. 32. — Sierra 
Leone and Grand Bassa, Vogel ; Guinea Coast, Herb. Hook. 
Both these are American species, at least as far as the speci- 
mens show, I can detect no differences. The Asiatic species, 
some of which are found on the eastern coasts of Africa do not 
appear any of them to have spread to the western coast. 

1. Cassipourea Africana, Benth. ; glabra, foliis obovali-ellipticis 
oblongisve apice rotundatis vel brevissime obtuseque acurm- 



342 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

natis integerrimis v. pauciserratis coriaceis. — On the Quorra, 

opposite Stirling, Vogel. 
Folia 2 v. raro 3 poll, longa. Inflor escentia C. elliptic^. Flores 
desunt. Pedicelli fructiferi lineam longi. Calyx persistens, 
2^ lin. longus, coriaceus, glaber, ultra medium in laeinias 5 ob- 
longas valvatim fissus. Capsula glabra, calyce brevior, obtuse 
trigona, apice depressa, trivalvis, trilocularis, dissepimentis 
membranaceis. Semina in loculis solitaria, (adjecto tamen ovulo 
abortivo) pendula, ovoidea: testa chartacea; albumen carnosum; 
embryo albumini fere aequilongus, rectus ; cotyledones foliacese, 
late ovatse ; radicula cotyledonibus sequilonga, ad hilum spec- 
tans. Stylus in fructu persistens, flexuosus, apice incrassatus. 
This may possibly be the species alluded to by Brown in the 
Appendix to Tuckey's Congo, and named by De Candolle C. 
Congensis, but not described. Without the flowers, (of which 
the buds in the specimen are still in the earliest stage), this 
plant can only be distinguished from the West Indian C. ellip- 
tica by the smaller and more coriaceous leaves. 

Anisophyllum, Don, (gen. nov.) 

Calyx liber v. basi breviter adnatus, cyathiformis, 4-fidus, lobis 
restivatione valvatis. Discus carnosus fundum calycis occu- 
pans, inter stamina et ovarium glandulosus. Petala 4, 
lobis calycinis alterna, disco inserta, biloba, lobis laciniato- 
fimbriatis, laciniis subulatis apice inflexis. Stamina nu- 
mero petalorum dupla, disco inserta ; antherse versatiles, bi- 
loculares, loculis longitudinaliter dehiscentibus. Ovarium tri- 
lobum, triloculare, in speciminibus a me visis semiabortivum. 
Frutices v. arbores, foliis stipulatis alternis integerrimis co- 
riaceis, 5-nervibus, floribus secus pedunculos supra-axillares 
sessilibus parvis. 

1. Anisophyllum laurinum, Don MS. ; foliis quintuplinervibus, 
spicis ebracteatis. — Sierra Leone, Don; Senegambia, Le- 
prieur, ex Herb. Hook. 

Frutex v. arbor, partibus novellis pube rara minuta appressa 
conspersis, demum glabratus. Stipuke lanceolata?, aliae nii- 
ninue, aliie 2-3 lin. longse, caducissima?. Folia adulta 3-4 
poll, longa, 1-1 J poll, lata, ovata v. oblonga, acuta, basi 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 343 



cuneata, coriacea, siccitate flavescentia, opaca et impunctata, 
costis 5 subtus prominentibus, quarum 2, ad basin attin- 
gentes, ssepe fere marginales sunt v. cum margin e confluunt 
et vix conspicuse, 2 cum costa media paullo altius et insequa- 
liter confluunt, venulis transversis numerosis. Pedunculi 



prope basin innovationum supra axillas inferiores solitarn, 
2-3-pollicares, tenues, jam infra medium usque ad apicem 
interrupte floriferi. Bracteae omnino deesse videntur. Flores 
arete sessiles, 1^ lin. diametro. Calyx glaber v. minute pu- 
berulus, ultra medium fissus in lobos 4 late ovato-triangulares, 
asstivatione valvatos. Petala calyce paullo longiora, glabra, 
ad medium biloba, lobis irregulariter fissis in lacinias subu- 
latas quarum plerseque apice inflexse. Stamina petala sub- 
aequantia, glabra, filamentis apice inflexis, antheris ovatis. 
Ovarium disco impositum, villosum, depresso-trilobum et 
obsolete triloculare ; nee ovula nee stylum detexi. 
A remarkable plant, evidently allied to Cassipourea, not- 
withstanding its alternate leaves and apparently polygamous 
flowers. Its exact affinity cannot however be determined, until 
the perfect ovary and fruit shall have been seen. A second 
species,* with the same foliage and structure of flowers, but 
unfortunately with the like imperfection in the ovaries in the 
only flower I could examine, is among Mrs. General Walker's 
Ceylon plants. It differs specifically from the African one in 
the presence of small bracts, in the form of the petals and some 
other slight points. 

L. ONAGRARIiE. 

h Jussiaea villosa, Lam. — W. et Arn. Fl Penins. 1./*. 336. — 

St. Thomas, Don. — A common East Indian plant. 
2 - Jussiaea acuminata, Sw.— -DC. Prod. 3. p. 54.— On the 

Quorra, at Attah, Vogel ; St. Thomas, Don.—X West Indian 

species. 
3. Jussiaea linearis, Willd.— DC. Prod. 3.p. 55.— Grand Bassa, 

Vogel ; Senegal and Guinea. 

* Anisophyllum Zeylanicum ; foliis fere a basi 5-nervibus, spicis te- 
ftuiter bracteolatis. 



344 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



The 



are Ju&siaa stolonifera, Lepr. et Perr., and /. altissima, Lepr., 



'emis 



rottet as another species of Jussiaa, and Isnardia multiflora, 
Guill. et Perr., all from Senegal. 

LI. Lythkarie.e. 

There are no specimens belonging to this Order either in the 
Niger collection or in those of Don from West Tropical Africa, 
although no less than fifteen species are enumerated in the 
Senegambian Flora, viz. : Ameletia tenella and elatinoides, (both 
described under Ammannia), Ammannia jiliformis, DC, A. Se- 
negalensis, Lam., A. auriculata, Willd., A. gracilis, Guill. et 
Perr., A. salsuginosa, Guill. et Perr., A. floribunda, Guill. et 
Perr., A. pruinosa, Guill. et Perr., A. crassicaulis, Guill. et 
Perr., A. aspera, Guill. et Perr., Nesea erecta. radicans and 
Candollei, Guill. et Perr., and Lawsonia alba, Lam. 

LII. Tamariseinjs. 

This small Order or genus is also, in West Tropical Africa, 
as far as hitherto known, confined to Senegambia, from whence 
a species has been described under the name of Tamarix Sene- 
galensis, but which is probably, as suggested by Webb, a mere 
variety of the T. Gallica, so widely diffused over South Europe, 
North Africa, and the temperate regions of Asia. 

LIII. Melastomace^. 

Nearly the whole of the West African plants of this Order 
belong to the tribe Osbeckiea, and though hitherto chiefly 
referred to the two Asiatic genera, Osbeckia and Melastoma, 
a closer examination shows them to belon«- to groups, generic 
or sectional, perfectly distinct from both the Asiatic and Ameri- 
can ones, although perhaps nearer allied to the former. The 
chief characters which separate them from Osbeckia and Melas- 
toma, as now limited, will be best seen from the following 
synopsis : 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 345 

Osbeckia.* Calycis laciniae deciduae, appendicibus squamae- 
formibus setosis in tubo sparsis. Antherae uniformes. Cap- 
sula loculicide dehiscens. — (Sect. 1. Osbeckia. Species 
Asiaticae, antherarum loculo in filamentum subsessili connec- 
tive ad insertionem biauriculata. — Sect. 2. Podoccelia. Species 
Africanae, antherarum loculo in filamentum stipitato mediante 
connectivo basi breviter producto.) 

Dissotis. Calycis laciniae deciduae, appendicibus squainaeformi- 
bus setosis in tubo sparsis. Antherae biformes. Capsula 
loculicide dehiscens. Species Africanae. 

Heterotis. Calycis lacinise persistentes, appendicibus squamae- 
formibus vel in tubo sparsis vel sub limbo numero definito in 
annulum dispositis v. omnino nullis. Antherae biformes. 
Capsula loculicide dehiscens. Species Africanae. 

Tristemma. Calycis laciniae persistentes, tubo ciliarum annulis 
1-5 cincto v. nudo. Antherae uniformes. Capsula irregula- 
riter disrupta. Species Africanae. 

Melastoma. Calycis laciniae deciduae, tubo squamis paleaceis 
setisve imbricatis obtecto. Antherae biformes. Capsula irre- 
gulariter disrupta. Species Asiaticae. 
In all the African species of the above genera, excepting the 

Senegambian plants of doubtful affinity mentioned below, I have 

always found the flowers pentamerous; in several of the Asiatic 

on es, especially among the Osbeckia*, they are tetramerous or 

variable. 

*• Osbeckia tubulosa, Sm. in Rees' CycL—DC. Prod. 3. p. 143. 
Sierra Leone, Vogel, Don. 

Caulis adscendens, 1-2-pedalis, annuus (nee fruticosus). Flores 
pauci, subsessiles, saepe in spicam interruptam unilateralem 
aphyllam dispositi. Bractece ovatae, acutae, membranaceo- 
scariosse v. coloratae, calyce multo breviores, decidual. Squama 
calycis breves, apice palmatim setosae, duas tertias calycis ob- 

* It will be observed that I do not concur entirely with M. Ch. 
Naudin in his generic character of Osbeckia, given above, p. 130, which 
»> several points is not applicable to the majority of the Asiatic species. 
T hese, whether as genera or sections, must surely be distinguished from 
tn e majority at least of the American ones. 



346 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

tegentes, calycis collo subnudo. Lacinice calycinae, petala, et 
stamina caducissima. Antherce erostres, uniporosae, uni- 
formes, connectivo infra loculum breviter producto, in fila- 
ment urn articulator ad insertionem subintegro. 
Although, as already stated, this plant may be separated 
from the Asiatic Osbeckia by the form of the connectivum of 
the anther, yet this character is so slight, and the anthers of 
some of the Asiatic species are as yet so little known, that I 
have preferred considering it as forming with the following 
species a section of Osbeckia to establishing it as a distinct 
genus. The form of the calyx brings it nearest to those 
species which Korthals proposes to separate under the name of 
Ceramiocalyx, on account of characters which do not appear to 
me to be either definite or constant enough to found a genus. 
2. Osbeckia multiflora, Sm. in Rees' Cycl. — DC. Prod. 3. p. 
143. — Melastoma Afzelianum, Don, in Trans. Wern. Soc- 
DC. L c, p. 147. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

The stem of this species, although hard, is probably herba- 
ceous, not frutescent. I have been able to examine the anthers 
but very imperfectly, on account of the insufficiency of the 
specimens. 

The Osbeckia Senegambiensis, Guill. et Perr., from Sene- 
gambia, if the anthers are really all equal and similar, is pro- 
bably a third species of this group, the two small appendages, 
mentioned as being on the filaments near the summit, being 
probably the extremity of the connectivum where it is inserted 
on the filament. 

Dissotis, (gen. nov.) 

Calyx ovoideo-tubulosus, ovario mediantibus costis adnatus v. 
demum liber, limbi laciniae 5, deciduse, apice pluri-setosse ; 
squamae palmatim setosae in tubum sparsae v. subseriatim dis- 
positae. Petala 5, ampla. Stamina 10, antheris lineari-fal- 
catis rostratis uniporosis, 5, petalis opposita, connectivo Jon- 
gissimo filiformi postice in appendices 2 tenues producto, o, 
laciniis calycinis opposita, antheris dimidio minoribus connec- 
tivo brevi sed pariter filiformi ct bicalcarato. Ovarium disco 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 347 

setoso coronatum, 5-loculare. Stylus sequalis v. superne le- 
viter incrassatus, apice truncato-dilatatus et stigmatosus. Cap- 
sula calyce inclusa, fere libera, 5-locularis, valvulis 5 loculi- 
cide dehiscens. Semina numerosa, cochleata. — Herba Afri- 
cana, erecta, habitu Chcetogastris Americanis approximans. 

1. Dissotis grandiftora, Benth.— Osbeckia grandiflora, Sm. in 
Rees> CycL—DC. Prod. 3. p. 1 43.— Melastoma elongatum, 
Don, in Mem. Wern. Soc. — DC. I. c. p. 147.— Sierra Leone, 
Don; and apparently the same species in Heudelot's Sene- 
gambian collection. 

Radix ex Don tuberosa. Caules stricti, parum ramosi, 1-1 J- 
pedales. Bractea scarioso-membranacese, calyce multo bre- 
viores. Calycis tubus 4 lin. longus, squamis vix seriatis ; 
lacinige 3 lin. Ion g9e, anguste oblongse, rigid ule subscariosse, 
margine ciliolatse, apice stellato-setosse. Flores ampli. An- 
t her arum majorum loculus fere 5 lin. longus, connectivo 
semipollicari sustensus. 
lne very long connectivum and dissimilar anthers are the 

chief points which distinguish this plant from Osbeckia. 

Heterotis, (gen. nov.) 

Qlyci8 tubus ovatus v. oblongus, ovario mediantibus costis 
adnatus v. demum liber ; limbi lacinise 5, persistentes, mem- 
°ranaceae, reflexse, apice uni- pluri-setosse ; squamae seti- 
er3e m tubo sparsse, vel sub limbo numero definite (calycis 
lacmiarum sequali v. duplo) in annulum dispositse v. omnino 
deficientes. Petala 5, ampla. Stamina 10, antheris lineari- 
lalcatis subrostratis uniporosis, 5, petalis opposita, connectivo 
elongato filiformi postice in appendices 2 obtusas v. in unam 
tofidam producto, 5, laciniis calycinis opposita, antheris mi- 
"oribus, connectivo brevi postice leviter emarginato. Ovarium 
disco setoso coronatum, 5-loculare. Stylus sequalis v. su- 
perne leviter emarginatus, apice truncatus stigmatosus. Cap- 
s*la calyce inclusa, fere libera, 5-locularis, valvulis 5 loculicide 
dehiscens. Semina numerosa, cochleata.— Herba suffruti- 
cesve Africans?, procumbentes v. ascendentes, rarius erecta?. 
rlores terminales, solitarii v. capitati. 



348 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



§. 1. Floribus solitariis v. distinctis, intra bracteas parvas 
sape deciduas breviter pedicellatis, squamis in tubo calycis 
spar sis, — Heterotis. 

1. Heterotis lavis, Benth. ; glabra, procumbens, foliis ovatis or- 
biculatisve, floribus solitariis, calycis squamis sparsis paucis 
parvis 1-3-setosis, summis cum laciniis calycinis alternantibus. 

On the Nun, Vogel. 
Caules 1-2-pedales, basi humifusi et radieantes, ramis breviter 
adscendentibus, praeter cilias interpetiolares glaberrimis. Folia 
semipollicaria vel raro fere pollicaria, acutiuscula, basi acuta 
rotundata v. subtruncata, integerrima, membranacea, glabra, 
trinervia v. rarius sub-5-nervia, petiolo gracili 3-6 lin. longo 
glabro nudo v. parce setoso, linea setarum utrinque cum 
petiolo opposito juncto more plerumque Osbeckiarum. Flores 
ad apices ramulorum solitarii, majusculi, intra folia summa 
approximata et bractearum par parvum pedicello lineam longo 
fulti. Calycis tubus ovoideus, 4 lin. longus, basi attenuatus, 
sub limbo leviter contractus, membranaceus ; squama? in tubo 
sparsae paucae, plerseque ad setam simplicem v. tripartitam 
reductae, 5 summae laciniis calycinis alternantes paullo ma- 
jores palmatim trisetiferae ; laciniae limbi anguste lanceolate, 
tubo fere aequilongae, reflexae, margine minute ciliolatae, apice 
unisetae. Petala late obovata, purpurea, (8-9 lin. longa). 
Staminum filamenta laciniis calycinis subaequilonga ; connectiva 
majorum loculo aequilonga, appendicibus posticis dilatatis $ 
lin. longis, minorum vix latitudine loculi longiora; loculus 
ipse 4 lin. longus. Capsula calyce paullo aucto inclusa, 
supra medium sparse pilosa et annulo pilorum seu setarum 
coronata, basi plus minus calyci adherens, supeme loculicide 
dehiscens. 

2. Heterotis plumosa, Benth. ; procumbens, foliis ovatis subor- 
biculatisve cauleque pilosis, floribus solitariis, calycis squamis 
sparsis numerosis plumoso-setosis summis cum laciniis caly- 
cinis alternantibus. — Melastoma plumosum, Don, in M etn - 
Wern. Soc.—DC. Prod. 3. p. 147.— Osbeckia rotundifolia, 
Sm. in Rees 9 Cycl.—DC. Prod. 3. p. 143.— Sierra Leone, 
Vogel; Accra, Don. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 349 



Habitus et foliorum forma H. laws, sed tota planta piloso- 
setosa, calyces breviores, squamse numerosse setis numerosis 
plumosse quarum summse stellatim dispositse, lacinise limbi 
longius ciliatse. Flores rubri. 
3. Heterotis prostrata, Benth. ; caule procumbente strigoso- 
pubescente, foliis ovatis oblongisve glabriusculis, floribus 
solitariis, calycis squamis numerosis sparsis ciliatis apice stel- 
lato-setosis, summis cum laciniis calycinis alternantibus. — 
Melastoma prostrata, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 220. — On 
the Quorra, at Patteh, Vogel ; Guinea. 
Rami elongati, pube in parte inferiore fere pulveracea, superne 
stngosa. Folia l-l|-pollicaria, utrinque acutiuscula, mem- 
branacea, trinervia v. rarius 5-nervia, nervis basi petioloque 
tenui strigoso-setosis, caeterum glabra. Calyces magnitudine 
eorum H. lavis, sed obtecti squamis numerosis linearibus 
plumoso-ciliatis. Petala (ex Vog.) carnea. 
The Melastoma decumbens, Pal. de Beauv. Fl. Ow. et Ben. v. 
*•/?. 69. /. 21, or Osbeckia decumbens, DC, is evidently another 
species of Heterotis, belonging probably to the present section, 
but the details of his figure and description are too vague and 
too little to be relied on to establish the characters satisfactorily 
without seeing his specimens. 

§« 2. Floribus solitariis v. distinctis intra bracteas parvas bre- 
vissime pedicellatis, calycis squamis 10 sub limbo in annulum 
dispositis.— Cyclostemma. 
4- Heterotis antennina, Benth. ; caule decumbente setoso-ci- 
hato, foliis lanceolatis ovatisve^ petiolo dilatato longe ciliato, 
floribus paucis distinctis, calycis squamis 10 sub limbo in 
annulum dispositis longe pectinato-ciliatis. — Osbeckia an- 
tennina, Sm. in Bees' Cycl.—DC Prod. 3. p. 143.— Sierra 
Leone, Bon. 
C aulis nt videtur humilis, basi decumbens, superne divaricato- 
ramosus, setis longis prsesertim ad nodos ciliatus. Folia 1-3- 
pollicaria, supra setis longis hirsuta, subtus glabriora. Flores 
Sfcpius gemini v. terni, intra bracteas parvas et folia gumma 
approximate brevissime pedicellati. Calycis tubus prater 



350 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



squamarum annulum omnino glaber et lsevis, membranaceus, 
fere omnino ab ovario liber ; squamse lineares, basi dilatatse, 
lacinias calycinas ssepius sequantes v. superantes ; lacinise 
parce ciliatse, apice paucisetse. Stamina et fructus omnino 
praecedentium. 

§.3. Floribus solitaries v. distinctis singulis bracteis scariosis in- 
volute, calyce kevi nudo. — Leiocalyx, Planch, in Herb, Hook. 

5. Heterotis segregata, Benth. ; suffruticosa, appresse strigil- 
losa, foliis oblongis subovatisve 5-nervibus, floribns ad apices 
ramulorum 1-3-nis distinctis, singulis bracteis scariosis invo- 
lutes, calyce lsevi nudo.— On the Nun and at Abdh, Vogel; at 
the confluence, Ansell. 

Caulis basi frutescens subbipedalis ; rami (erecti ?) tetragoni, 
uti folia strigis arete appressis adnatisque* parum conspicuis 
obtecti; cilise intrapetiolares breves v. obsolete. Folia 2-4 
poll, longa, 8-18 lin. lata, acutiuscula, v. breviter acumi- 
nata, basi rotundata v. acutiuscula, rigidule membranacea, 
strigis paginse superioris longioribus arcuatis, inferioris ra- 
mealibus similibus ; costa3 subtus valde prominentes. Flores 
ad apices ramulorum 1-3, singuli brevissime pedicellati v. 
sessiles, at non capitati. Bractea 4, scariosae, brunnese, per 
paria oppositse et imbricantes, calycis tubum sequantes v. 
paullo breviores et eum arete includentes, obovatse, concavtf, 
truncatse, glabra, laeves ; adsunt etiam interdum 2 extenores 
angustiores longiores et laxiores subfoliacese et dorso strigil- 
losse. Intra bracteas cilia nonnullse observantur ut in pie- 
risque affinibus, calycis basin cingentes sed e receptaculo 
seu pedicelli summitate nee e calyce ipso ortse. Calyx cseterum 
omnino nudus, tubus oblongo-ovoideus fere semipollicaris, 
sub limbo contractus ; limbi laciniae lanceolatse, acutse, mar- 
gine ciliolatse, rellexse, vix 3 lin. longa. Petala perfecta mihi 
desunt, sed ex alabastro ampla videntur, et sec. Vog. pur- 

* In a large number of Melastomacea, the hairs of the upper side of 
the leaves and of other parts, where they appear to be appressed, are in 
fact annate in the greater part of their length. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 351 

purea sunt. Capsula calyce parum aucto inclusa, loculicide 

demscens, calycis tubo membranaceo irregulariter disrupto 

obtecta. Semina numerosissima, minuta. 

§. 4. Floribus capitatis, cum bracteis scariosis calyces includen- 

tibus intermixtis , calyce tubo nudo v. squamis paucis stellato- 

setosis in tubo sparsis. — Wedeliopsis, Planch, in Herb. 
Hook. 

6. Heterotis thecefolia, Bentb. ; caule erecto glabro v. ad 
angulos scabro, ciliis intrapetiolaribus longis rigidis, foliis 
oblongis, novellis pilosis, floribus capitatis bracteis scariosis 
involutes, calyce lsevi nudo. — Melastoma thecefolia, G. Don, 
Gard. Diet. 2. p. 764. — Sierra Leone, Bon ; a single very im- 
perfect specimen. 

taulis validus, cortice albo lsevissimo, angulis solis exasperatis. 
bolia novella jam pollicaria, ciliis interpetiolaribus usque ad 
4 lin. longis, adulta desunt. Flores in capitulo ultra 6, arete 
imbneati, bracteis calyces sequantibus intermixti, nil tamen 
superest nisi capsulae 6-7 lin. longse, calycium bractearumque 
reliquiis obtecta}. 

»• Heterotis cornifolia, Bentb.; caule subglabro, ciliis inter- 
petiolaribus tenuibus, foliis brevissime petiolatis oblongis 5- 
nervibus parce strigosis ad costas ciliatis, floribus capitatis 
bracteis scariosis involutis, calycis tubo versus medium 
squamis paucis stellato-setosis onusto, laciniis glabris.— Grand 
Bassa, Vogel 

wffrutex videtur, ramulis plerisque glabris etiam ad angulos 
tevibus, ciliis interpetiolaribus paucis 1-2 lin. longis. Folia 
bipollicaria, acuta, basi rotundata et in petiolum vix liueam 
longum contracta. Capitula pauciflora, intra folia suprema 
sessilia. Bractece lata;, calyce longiores, apice subfoliaceae, 
dorso costatae et secus costam setosse. Calycis tubus ovoideo- 
°blongus, 7 lin. longus, sub limbo contractus ; squamse se- 
tosas interdum ad setam unicam reducta? pauca?, in zona 
calycis medium circumdante sparsae ; limbi laciniae lanceolatae, 
acutae, glabra et vix ciliolatse, fere 3 lin. longa>. Corolla 
a^pla, rubro-purpurea. Stamina quam in affinibus ma- 
j°ra, antheris Wiuscule rostratis. Capsula calycis tubo 



352 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

inclusa et eo brevior, annulo pilorum more aflinium co- 
ronata. 

8. Heterotis Vogelii, Benth. ; caule minute strigilloso ciliis 
interpetiolaribus parvis, foliis petiolatis ovatis 5-7-nervibus 
supra sparse strigosis subtus pallidis subnudis, floribus capi- 
tatis bracteis subfoliaceis involucratis, calycis tubo nudo lacinns 
ad costam strigillosis. — Sierra Leone, Vogel. 

Caulis basi lignosus, laxe flexuoso-ramosus. Folia pauca, dis- 
tantia vel ad apices ramorum approximata, 2-3-pollicaria, 
subtus siccitate pallida v. albido-flavicantia. Flores in capi- 
tulo pauci, bracteis vel omnino foliaceis vel basi plus minus 
scarioso-dilatatis involucrati, majusculi sed minores quam in 
speciebus prsecedentibus. Calycis tubus ovoideo-globosus, 
vix 5 lin. longus, basi ciliis numerosis circumdatus, ipse tamen 
nudus ; laciniae 4 lin. longse, acute acuminata margine mi- 
nute ciliolatse, dorso percursse costa strigoso-ciliata. 
. There is an imperfect specimen in the Senegambian collection 
which Dr. Planchon considers as belonging to the same species, 
although it appears to have rather smaller flowers. 

9. Heterotis capitata, Benth. ; caule pubescente, foliis breviter 
petiolatis late ovatis 5-nervibus supra sparse strigosis subtus 
glabriusculis pallidis, floribus capitatis bracteis scariosis v. 
apice foliaceis involucratis, calycis tubo nudo laciniisque gla- 
bris.— Melastoma capitatum, G. Don, Gard. Did. 2. p. 764. 

Sierra Leone, Don. 

This species is evidently allied to H. Vogeln, but the leaves 
are broader, the stem covered on the sides, as well as the angles, 
with numerous short hairs, and the calyx without hairs or ap- 
pendages, except the long cilise, with which it is surrounded at 
its insertion on the stalk. The flowers appear to be about the 
size of those of H. Vogelii, but are fewer in the head, as far 
one can judge from the specimens. 

Beside the above, the Melastoma cymosum, DC, or >/• co- 
rymbosum, Bot. Mag. t. 904, from Sierra Leone, to judge from 
the figure and description, may be referred to Heterotis, although 
it does not agree in habit or inflorescence with any of the 
foregoing groups. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 353 



8 



Tristemma, Jws. 

Char. Gen. — Calycis tubus ovatus v. oblongus, ovario basi om- 
nmo adnatus et altius cohserens mediantibus eostis, cinctus 
annulis ciliarum parallelis 1-5 vel rarius nudus ; limbi lacinise 
5, persistentes, reflexse. Petala 5, mediocria. Stamina 10, 
conformia; antheris lineari-falcatis subrostratis uniporosis, 
connectivo brevi postice bidentato. Ovarium disco setoso 
coronatum, 5-loculare. Stylus sequalis v. superne leviter in- 
crassatus, apice truncato-stigmatosus. Capsula calyce in- 
clusa et ei plus minus adnata, maturitate irregulariter dis- 
ni pta, rarius subvalvatim dehiscens. Semina numerosa. 
Herba suffruticesve African*, decumbentes ascendentes v. 

» 

rarius erectse. Flores terminales, capitati, v. rarius solitarii, 
smguli bractearum paribus 1-3 involuti. 

As far as can be judged from dried specimens, the placenta 
m tnis genus appear to be more fleshy than in the precedin 
genera, or almost pulpy, and the general affinity is much rather 
with Melastoma than with Osbeckia or Heterotis. The rings 
°* cihae in most of the species are very remarkable in their 
arrangement, 

*• Tristemma littorale, Benth. ; caule adsccndente ramoso ob- 
tuse tetragono parce strigoso v. Isevi, foliis ovatis oblongisve 
o-nervibus parce strigosis, floribus capitatis, bracteis imbri- 
eatis exterioribus foliaceis calycibusque glabris Isevibus nudis. 
Fernando Po, on the sea-shore, Vogel. 
*. albifloro simile sed glabrius, petioli longiores, florum capi- 
tula breviter pedicellata, bracteae angustiores omnino glabrae 
v - extimae rarius dorso strigis paucissimis onustse. Herba 
est ex Vog. annua, procumbens, ramis adscendentibus 1-2- 
pedalibus. Petala rosea. Folia in speciminibus aliis semi- 
pedalia, in aliis 2-3-pollicaria. 
2 - Tristemma albiflorum, Benth. ; caule adscendente ramoso 
acute tetragono parce strigoso, foliis ovatis oblongisve 5- 
ttervibus supra strigosis, floribus capitatis, bracteis imbricatis 
latis dorso strip-osis, calvcibus laevibus nudis v. corona pilorum 

A A 



354 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

incompleta cinctis. — Mclastoma albiflorum, G. Don, Gard. 
Diet. 2. p. 7G4. — Sierra Leone, Vogel, Don. 
Folia 2-3-pollicaria, ad apices ramulorum approximata. Capitula 
sessilia, 1-6-flora. Bractece calyces sequantes et ei appressse 
v. rarius apice breviter foliaceo-productse. Calycis tubus 
ovario longior, superne contractus, lacinise lato-lanceolatae, 
tubo duplo breviores, minute ciliolatse. Antherarum connec- 
tiva breviter biauriculata. 

3. Tristemma Schumacheri, Guill. et Perr. Fl. Seneg. p. 311 
Benguelen, Curror, in Herb. Hook. ; Gaboon coast, Middleton, 
in Herb. Benth. ; Senegambia and Guinea. 

This species very mucb resembles in habit the two preceding 
and the following one, but is readily known by the single ring 
of hairs surrounding the calyx. The T. incompletum, Br v 
from Congo, may possibly, as suggested by the authors of the 
Flora Senegambia, be a variety of the same species with slight 
traces of a second ring of hairs, which, however, I have not 
observed on the more usual form. 

4. Tristemma coronatum, Benth. ; caule ascendente minute 
strigoso, foliis ovatis supra strigosis, floribus subcapitals, 
bracteis oblongis lanceolatisque laxiusculis apice foliaceis, 
calycis tubo globoso ciliarum annulis 4 distinctis cmcto 
Sierra Leone, Don. 

This again, judging from a single specimen, is very near the 
three preceding ones in appearance, but remarkable from the 
four completely distinct parallel rings of hairs which surround 
the calyx at the distance of above half a line from each other. 

5. Tristemma hirtum, Vent, ex DC. Prod. 3. p. 144.— Pal 
de Beauv. Fl. Ow. et Ben. Lj>. 94. t. 57 ; caule suffruticoso, 
ramis acute tetragonis vel quadrialatis longe barbato-pilosis, 
foliis ovatis hirsutis, floribus capitatis, bracteis imbricatis latis 
strigosis apice subfoliaceis, calycis tubo ovato ciliarum annulis 
3 distinctis cincto. — On the Nun, Vogel. 

6. Tristemma involucratum, Benth. ; caule procumbente, ranus 
longe barbato-pilosis, foliis ovatis acuminatis hirtis, floribus 
subcapitals, bracteis scariosis appressis pilosis, calycis tubo 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 355 

urccolato cincto pilis numerosis in zonam unicam dense 
imbricatis. — Melastoma involucratum, Don, in Mem. Wern, 
Soc.—DC. Prod. 3. p. 147.— Sierra Leone. Don. 
i only find a single flower on the specimen, which is re- 
markable by the hairs or cilise, not arranged in any distinct 
rings, but thickly collected in one broad belt surrounding the 
middle of the calyx, forming in this respect a transition to the 
hairs or scales which cover the calyx of the true Melastomas : 
the stamens, however, as far as I could judge, appear to be 
those of a Tristemma. 

In the Senegambian Flora another species is described, under 
the name of T. erectum; and Heudelot's collection contains an 
undescribed plant belonging to the tribe of Osbeckiea, but 
scarcely referrible to any of the foregoing genera. It is a small 
erect annual, with tetramerous flowers, resembling rather the 
American Arthrostemmas than the Asiatic Osbeckia. 

Dinophora, (gen. nov.) e tribu Rhaxiearum. 

^alyx urceolato-turbinatus basi ovario adha?rens, apice liber 
membranaceus brevissime sinuato-dentatus. Petala 5, late 
°vata, acutiuscula. Stamina 10, conformia, antheris subros- 
tratis uniporosis, conncctivo basi breviter producto postice 
ieviter dilatato emarginato. Ovarium 5-loculare, apice 
nudum. Capsula membranacea, cum calyce membranaceo 
Riaturitate irregulariter disrupta ? Semina numerosissima, 
placentis carnosulis affixa, cochleata, vix rugosula.— Sujfrutex 
Africanus, habitu Spenneris simillhnus, floribus majoribus. 

'• Dinophora spenneroides, Bent h.— Fernando Po, Vogel. 

wiilis 3-5-pedalis, ramosissimus, basi frutescens ; rami divari- 
c ati, herbacei, tetragoni, ad angulos pilis interdum glandu- 
•osib rariter ciliati, caeterum glabri. Folia cujusve paris paullo 
JRfcqualia, majora 2-4-pollicaria, ovata v. oblonga, acuta v. 
acuminata, margine ciliato-serrata, basi cordata, membranacea, 
°-7-nervia, supra strigis paucis conspcrsa, caeteruni glabra ; 
petiolo altero sgepe pollicari, altcro dimidio brcviore. Intio- 
rescentia Spe?inera>. Panicula laxa, ramis gracilis op- 
Positis laxe dichotomis, floribus in dichotomiis v. ad 

A A 2 



356 FLORA N1GRITIANA. 

apices ramulorum pedicello 3-4 lin. longo fultis. Bract ea 
minutse, subulatse. Calyx fere 3 lin. longus, glaberriinus, 
lsevis, basi acutus, supra ovarium paullulum constrictus; 
dentes lati obtusissimi brevissimi v. fere obsoleti. Petala 3 
lin. longa. Ovarium glaberrimum, per anthesin mediantibus 
costis fere ad apicem calyci adnatum, vertice libero nudo 
calyce tamen breviore. Stylus basi attenuates, apice trun- 
catus. Capsula membranacea, vix valvatim dehiscere videtur 
sed pericarpium membranaceum cum calyce tenuissimo saltern 
in speciminibus siccis disrumpitur. 

This plant is so very near in most respects to the American 
genus Spennera, that I should have considered it as a species 
of it, but that in the present state of our knowledge of 
Melastomacece it seems necessary to keep separate those genera 
where the cells of the ovary are reduced below the number ot 
parts of the floral envelope, from those which are strictly iso- 
merous. 

1. Spathandra coerulea, Guill. et Perr. FL Seneg.p. 113. t. 71. 
—Sierra Leone, Vogel, Don ; Senegambia. 
It is to the tribe of Memecylea, not to that of Charianthea, 
that this genus should be referred; indeed it is only to be 
distinguished from Memecylon itself by the three-ribbed leaves 
and the cotyledons, which are more fleshy and less plaited, 
although in Spathandra coerulea they are to a considerable 
degree irregularly wrinkled and folded. The unilocular ovary 
is not alluded to in the ordinal character either in Endlicher s 
Genera or in Lindley's Vegetable Kingdom, although in both 
works Spathandra and Memecylon are included among Melas- 
tomacea : the little importance, however, of this anomaly m 
certain calyciflorous Orders is shown, as well by its occasional 
occurrence among Myrtacea* and Rubiacea, as by the very 
natural genus Mouriria, (the American representative of Meme- 
cylon), which includes both unilocular and plurilocular species. 
This circumstance is much in favour of the supposition, that 
in these Orders the placenta? often proceed on Schleiden's 
theory from a prolongation of the axis, and not from the 
margins of the carpellary leaves. 



FLORA NJGRITIANA. 357 

2. Spathandra memecy hides , Benth. ; foliis breviter petiolatis 
ovatis vix coriaceis, corymbis breviter pedunculatis paucifloris, 
baccis oblongis. — Fernando Po, VogcL 

Tota glabra. Folia majora 6-8 poll, longa, 3-4 poll, lata, apice 
in acumen latum angustata, basi rotundata, rigide membra- 
nacea v. subcoriacea, multo tamen tenuiora quam in S. 
ccerulea, trinervia v. interdum sub-5-nervia, petiolo 2-3 lin. 
longo. Flores desunt. Fructus in corymbis parvis pauci ad 
axillas foliorum annotinorum. Pedunculus communis semi- 
pollicaris, pedicellis unifloris oppositis 2-3 lin. longis, bracteis 
nullis v. jam delapsis. Baccce nondum mature bvoideo- 
oblongse, 3-4 lin. longse, apice constricts, calycis limbo 4- 
sinuato coronatse, intus uniloculares, ovulis paucis quorum 
unum auctum, csetera abortientia. 

3. Spathandra fascicularis , Planch, in Herb. Hook. ; foliis 
breviter petiolatis ovatis coriaceis, floribus in umbella bre- 
vissime pedicellata fasciculatis, bracteis persistentibus, baccis 
globosis.— Sierra Leone, Don. 

Tota glabra. Folia fere S. ccerulece, nisi petiolo longiore, per- 
fecta tamen non vidi. Umbella axillares, fere sessiles v. pe- 
dunculo communi 1-2 lin. longo fultse, floribus ultra 10, 
pedicellis 1 lin. longis receptaculo incrassato insertis et brac- 
teis intermixtis brevibus latis membranaceis fuscis persistenti- 
bus. Baccae globosa?, lineam diametro, calycis limbo amplo 
4-dentato coronatse, intus uniloculars. Ovula plurima 
abortiva. Semen unum grandefactum, cavitatem implens, ei 
& caerulei simile, sed in fructu a me aperto nondum ma- 
tunim erat. 

!• Memecylon Donianum, Planch, in Herb. Hort. Soc. ; ra- 
oiulis teretiusculis, foliis subsessilibus oblongis acuminatis 
basi acutis coriaceis uninervibus, corymbis brevibus laxe 
paucifloris, baccis globosis.— Pavetta lateriflora, G. Don, Gard. 
Diet. S.p. 575. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

Folia pleraque 5 poll, longa, 2 poll, lata, rigide coriacea, acu- 
mine brevi abrupto acutiusculo, marginibus recurvis, costa 
subtus promincnte, venis transversis inconspicuis v. ranus in 
pagina supcriore obscuris in vcnulam marginalcm tenucm 



358 FLORA NIGRITIANA 



confluentibus. Pedunculi axillares, gemini, 2-3-chotomi, 
crassi, breves. Flores desunt. Pedicelli fructiferi 2-3 lin. 
longi. Bacca 6-8 lin. diametro, l-2-spcrm8e. Seminum 
testa Crustacea, cotyledones quain maxime irregulariter pli- 
eatse ; radicula erassa, carnosa, incur va, ad hilum spectans. 



LIV. Myrtace^e. 

1. Psidi um pomiferum, Linn. (theGuava). — Sierra Leone, Don ; 
Cape Coast, Vogel, who states it to be a shrub common in 
thickets ; although it is probably introduced. The peduncles 
in both specimens are one-flowered, but the fruit, at least in 
Don's specimen, is globose. 

The Psidium Guineense, Sw., cultivated in the West Indies, 
is said to have been introduced there from Guinea, but it doefr 
not appear that any African specimens have been found. 

1. Eugenia Michelii, Lam.— DC. Prod. 3. p. 263.— Cape 
Coast, Vogel, cultivated under the name of Barbadocs 
Cherry. 

2. Eugenia coronata, Vahl,— DC. Prod. 3. p. 271—Schum. et 
Thonn. Beskr.p. 230. — Accra, Don. 

Pedicelli 3 lin. longi, intra bracteas parvas ovatas acutas con- 
cavas ciliatas orti, apice sub calyce bibracteolati, bracteohs 
ovatis rigidulis \ lin. longis cum pedicello subcontinuis. 
Ovarium biloculare, ovulis in quoque loculo circa 4. 

3. Eugenia calycina, Benth. ; ramis glabris, foliis ovatis elhp- 
ticis oblongisve basi acutis breviter petiolatis glabris nitidis, 
pedunculis in axillis superioribus unifloris folio brevioribus 
apice bibracteolatis, calycis tubo hemisphserico tomentoso, 
lobis amplis orbiculatis glabratis. — Grand Bassa, Vogel. 

Folia 2-3-pollicaria, obtusa v. brevissime acuminata, margmibus 
recurvis, costa subtus prominula, venis primariis paucis con- 
spicuis juxta marginem confluentibus. Pedunculi in axilhs 
summis solitarii, vel ad apices ramulorum foliis noralibus 
abortientibus fasciculati, basi bractea oblonga lineam longa 
stipati, 8-9 lin. longi, rigiduli, minute puberuli. Bracteote 
sub flore orbiculata-, concava?, 1-1 ^ lin. longre. Alabastrum 



FLORA NIGRITIANA, 359 

globosum, 4 lin. diametro, album. Calycis tubus hemisphse- 
ricus, linea paullo longior, pilis brevibus appressis rufescen- 
tibus dense obtectus, lobi orbiculati, concavi, fere 5 lin. lati, 
2 exteriores ciliolati, 2 interiores nudi. Petala calyce majora, 
ciliolata, in specimine nondum expansa. Ovarium biloculare, 
ovulis in quoque loculo 6-8. 
4. Eugenia memecyloides, Benth. ; glabra, ramulis compressis, 
foliis amplis oblongis acuminatis basi acutis breviter petiolatis, 
pedunculis petiolo brevioribus axillaribus congestis unifloris 
ebracteolatis, bacca depresso-globosa. — Grand Bassa, VogeL 
Frutex ex Vog. 4-pedalis, emittens e summitatibus ramulos nu- 
merosos virgatos pi ant am quamdam parasiticam simul antes. 
Specimen adest unicum ramuli foliati et fructiferi, ad nodos 
compressi. Folia 5-6-pollicaria, 2-2| poll, lata, coriacea at 
non nitida, marginibus revolutis, subtus pennivenia et crebre 
punctulata. Pedicelli fructiferi 1-1£ lin. longi. Bacca 4-5 
lin. diametro, calycis limbo brevi 4-lobo coronatse. Semen 
abortu solitarium, cotyledonibus crassis conferruminatis. 
The Eugenia caryophylloides, DC, from Sierra Leone, must 
be very near the last species, especially in the form and size of the 
leaves and in inflorescence, but the leaves are said to be im- 
punctate, and the branches, nerves of the leaves, peduncles and 
tube of the calyx to be downy. 
1- Jambosa vulgaris, DC. Prod. 3. p. 286. — Sierra Leone and 

St. Thomas, Don ; probably cultivated. 
I. Syzygium Owariense, Benth. — Eugenia Owariensis, Pal. 
Beauv. Fl. (ho. et Ben. 2. p. 20. t. 70. — Jambosa Owariensis, 
DC. Prod. 3. p. 287. — Grand Bassa, Vogel ; Oware. 
The only other West Tropical African species of true Myrtea 
hitherto described is the Syzygium Guineense, DC., from Senegal 
and Guinea, which is very nearly allied to the preceding species. 
Both belong to the genus (or section) Syzygium, admirably 
denned by Wight in his review of Indian Myrtacea. 



360 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



(SlJBORD. NAPOLEONEiE.) 

]. Napoleona Vogelii, Hook, et Planch. (Tab. XLIX, L.) ; 
glaberrima, foliis lanceolato-ellipticis breviter et obtusiuscule 
cuspidatis basi acutis leviter repandis, glandulis 2 impressis 
supra basim folii margini laminae adnatis v. contiguis puncti- 
formibus, floribus axillaribus subsessilibus, corolla flava mtus 
medio rubra, corona? externa? laciniis (70-75) linearibus liberis, 
interna? 40-fida? laciniis sequaliter late linearibus integns, 
bacca depresso-globosa, seminibus intra loculos solitarus 
longe reniformibus v. geminis superpositis brevioribus. — -Cape 
Palmas, Vogel. 
Species a N. imperiali et N. Heudelotii foliis minoribus brevi- 
ellipticis nee oblongis et colore norum distinctissima. Folia 
l±-3 poll, longa, 15-20 lin. lata, petiolis baud crassis 1-2 lin. 
longis. Corolla generis, obsolete 5-loba, lobulis flabellatis, 
crispis, circiter 30. Corona exterioris lacinia? corolla plus 
quam duplo breviores, flavescentes ; interna? flavescenti-albida? 
lacinia? sat profunda?, uninerves, obtusiuscula?. Anthers 10, 
lineari-oblonga?, uniloculars. Discus urceolatus, crassus, 
margine leviter lobatus. Ovarii struct uram internam in flore 
unico imperfecto rite observare non licuit. Bacca corticosa, 
magnitudine et facie fructus Punicce, cortice extus rubescente 
punctulis albis crebre consperso, septis pulposis in specinnni- 
bus nostris exsiccatis et semi- collap sis et cum integumento 
seminum conglutinatis. Semina majora a basi ad apicem 
loculi extensa. — {Planchon.) 

I have here inserted the above brief account of this curiou- 
plant in the words of Dr. Planchon in Hooker's Icones. I* 
had been that botanist's intention to have entered into a detailed 
exposition of his views of its affinities in the present work ; but 
the completion of this Flora having devolved upon me, we 
are deprived of the benefit of his observations. I myself have 
had no opportunity of examining the living specimens which b&* 
flowered in this country, and therefore retrain from adding i»J 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 361 

speculations of my own to all that has been said on the subject. 
I would merely observe that, from the various dissertations 
published, especially by Ad. de Jussieu, (Ann. Sc. Nat. Par. 
Ser. 3. v. 2. p. 22), Lindley, (Veg. Kingd. p. 728), and Hooker, 
(Bot. Mag. t. 387), it would appear that, notwithstanding the 
striking discrepancies of detail in the drawings of Beauvois, 
Jussieu, Lindley and Hooker, the N. Heudelotii and N. Vogelii 
are not really specifically distinct from the original N. imperialis, 
and that of all the different affinities suggested, no hypothesis is 
more plausible than that suggested by Planchon, and partly con- 
curred m by Lindley, that the place of Napoleona is near Barring- 
tomea, among anomalous Myrtacea*. If the corona, or rings 
oi filaments, called by some the intermediate and inner corollae, 
be regarded as sterile stamens, they will be found to be as analo- 
gous to the stamens of Myrtacecu in their insertion on the 
fleshy disk crowning the ovary as in their folded arrangement 
in the bud. In neither respect can they be compared with the 
"ngs of filaments in Passiflora. 
Plate XLIX, L. Fig 1. flower, cut open ; f. 2. upper and 

stigmatic portions of the style ; /. 3. fruit ; /. 4. the same, 

vertical section; /. 5. transverse section of the same; /. 6. 

seed. — Fig. 1 and 2 magnified : the remainder natural size. 

The Asteranthos of Desfontaines, which A. de Jussieu has 
snown to be probably a native of Angola, does not appear to 
have been again found by any collector. 



LV. HOMALINEJE. 



* 

*• Blackwellia Africana, Hook, fil.; foliis ovato-oblongis bre- 
v iter calloso-dentatis glabris coriaceis, racemis paniculatis, 
floribus secus ramos elongatos subsessilibus parvis pentandris, 
petalis calyce subduplo longioribus.— Sierra Leone, Don. 

hamuli et inflorescentia pubescentes. Folia breviter petiolata, 
4-5 poll, longa, 2-2\ poll, lata, obtuse acuminata, marginis 
dentibus glanduloso-callosis ssepius distantibus ct hautl pro- 
fundus, basi obtusa, venis primariis validi* ***«• proiuinulis, 



362 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

utrinque opaca et pallescentia. Stipulai bine inde ad folia 
floralia super sunt lineari-cuneatse, 2-3 lin. longse; foliorum 
ramealium omnes delapsse. Flores secus ramos paniculse 
folio longioris, ad axillas bracteolarum solitarii v. fasciculati, 
singuli vix 1^ lin. diametro. Calycis tubus breviter et late 
turbinatus, ovario adhserens, limbi lacinise crassiusculse, trian- 
gulares, acutse, i lin. longse, sestivatione in primo juventute 
verosimiliter valvatse, sed omnes quas vidi jam alabastro 
increscente apertse erant. Petala (perigonii lacinise interiores) 
ovata, obtusa, concava, crassa, pubescentia, calycis lacinns 
duplo longiora, sestivatione leviter imbricata. Stamina his 
opposita et paullo breviora, glabra. Glandulae breves, latse, 
tomentosse. Sty It brevissimi 4 v. 5. Ovarii placentae to- 
tidem, 3- (v. 4- ?) ovulatse. 



Dissomeria, (gen. nov.) 

Calyx profunde 4-fidus, tubo brevi basi vix ovario adnato, 
laciniis sestivatione imbricatis. Petala 8, persistentia, calycis 
laciniis majora, cum glandulis totidem alternantia, sestivatione 
duplici serie imbricata, per antbesin conniventia. Stamina 
plurima in pbalanges 8 petalis oppositos (singulis 6-andris) 
disposita; antberse subglobosse, connectivo crasso carnoso, 
loculis introrsis longitudinaliter debiscentibus. Ovarium 
fere omnino liberum, uniloculare. Styli 4, rarius 3, hh- 
formes, apice minute stigmatosi. Ovula ex apice cavitatis 
ovarii pendula, placentis tot quot styli parvis vix distinctis, 
singulis 3-4-ovulatis. Capsula indebiscens, crasso-coriacea, 
seminibus abortu solitariis v. paucis. — Frutex ? foliis alternis 
stipulatis, spicis axillaribus interruptis. 

1. Dissomeria crenata, Hook. fil. — At the Confluence, on the 
banks of the Niger, Ansell. 

Frutex ? ramulis verrucosis, novellis inflorescentiaque puberulis. 
Folia alterna, breviter petiolata, ovata, irregulariter crenata 
et hinc inde sinuato-lobata, crenaturis ssepe minute glandu- 
losis, basi acuta v. obtusa, subcoriacca, penniiuivia it rcticu- 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 363 

lato-venosa, axillis venarum subtus fasciculum pilorum fo- 
ventibus, cseterum glabra v. juniora minute puberula. Stipulce 
hneares, foliaceae, 2 lin. longse, valde caducse. Spicat in 
axillis superioribus cum pedunculo 3-5-pollicares, jam infra 
medium interrupte floriferse, floribus arete sessilibus, infe-- 
noribus dissitis, superioribus approximatis, singulis subglo- 
bosis fere 5 lin. diametro. Bractea 3, fusco-membranaceae, 
una exteriore (bractea subtendens), duse (bracteolse) interiores 
oppositse. Sepala 3 lin. longa, lato-ovata, obtusissima, basi 
breviter connata, mai'gine ciliolata, membranacea, venulosa, 
dorso puberula. Petala consistentia et pube sepalis similia 
sed duplo majora, basi angustata et distincta, circa fructum 
persistentia et globoso-conniventia. Glandulce breves, lata?, 
cum petalis discum hypogynum et subperigynum margi- 
nantes. Stamina intra petala fasciculatim inserta, sacpissime 
ad quoddam petalum sex, rarius 5 ; filamenta filiformia, pilis 
longis patentibus barbata, petalis sequilonga v. vix longiora. 
Ovarium dense hirsutum. Styli exserti, ultra medium pilis 
longis barbati, apicem versus fere glabri. 
Abe almost entirely free ovary, and the number of petals, 
as well as that of the glands and of the bundles of stamens, 
being double that of the calycine segments, sufficiently dis- 
tinguish this genus from Blackwellia and Homalium, inde- 
pendently of the remarkable size and form of the flowers. 
**• Brown mentions a Madagascar genus with a free ovary, but 

Without any further indications to show how far it differs from 
ours. 

Two other Homalinece have been described from W. Tropical 
Africa; Homalium anyustifolium, Sm., from Sierra Leone, (of 
w hich the true genus is doubtful), and Byrsanthus Brownei, 
Quillem., from Senegambia. The generic name of the latter 
,l as been changed by Endlicher to Anetia, on account of the 
pre-existence of PresPs Byrsanthus among Lobeliacea ; but if, 
as is suspected, with every probability of correctness, by A. Dc 
Candolle, the latter should prove to be really not different 
from Siphocampylos , the name of Byrsanthus should be re- 
tained for Guillemin's plant. 



364 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



The close affinity, so well pointed ont by Brown between 
this Order and Passiflorecs, has been objected to by Lindley, 
(Veg. Kingd. p. 742), on account of their " inferior ovary, to say 
nothing of their want of stipules and glands on the leaves, of 
the presence of glands at the base of the floral envelopes, and 
of their erect and very different habit ;" but besides Dissomeria 
and the Madagascar plant alluded to by Brown, in which the 
ovary is truly free, the other genera offer, as observed by 
Brown, very different degrees of adherence, and in almost all 
cases the summit, which is the only placentiferous portion, is 
free ; stipules, though very deciduous, may be found on the 
young branches of most, if not all the species ; glands exist in 
the crenatures of the leaves of several species, and are not universal 
in Passiflorece ; and the habit is surely much nearer to that of 
Smeathmannia and the allied genera than to any Cactea or 
Loasece. The glands of the flower, combined with the insertion 
of the stamens, remain the only essential characters which pre- 
vent the actual union of Homalinece with Passiflorecs. 



LVI. Passiflorece. 

1. Smeathmannia pubescens, Sol. — DC. Prod. 3. p. 322. — Bu- 
lowia insignis, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 247 ? — Sierra 
Leone, Don ; Ab6h, Vogel. 

2. Smeathmannia lavigata, Sol. — DC. 1. c. — Sierra Leone, 
Vogel, Don ; Senegambia. 

Brown has described a third species, a variety of S. lavigata, 
from Sierra Leone, under the name of S. media. 

Crossostemma, (gen. nov.) 

Calycis tubus brevissimus patelliformis, lacinise 5, ovatse, ob- 
scure uninerves, sestivatione valde imbricata. Petala 5, tubo 
calycino inserta, sepalis subconformia sed majora et magis 
colorata, et distincte 3-5-nervia. Corona e filamentorum 
serie unica ad basin petalorum composite. Gynophorinii bre- 
vissimuin, cxpansum in discum depressum, dentibus seu ap- 
pendicibus iiiHi^inalibus 5 brcvibus erectis acutis cum sta- 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 365 

minibus alternantibus. Stamina 5, ad marginem disci inter 
dentes insert a, filamento in alabastro brevissimo, anthera 
magna oblongo-lineari. Ovarium in medio disco sessile, 
oblong o-triquetrum, superne in stylum brevem attenuatum, 
stigmate magno dilatato integro coronatum, intus uniloculare, 
placentis 3 parietalibus, ovulis in quaque placenta plurimis 
biseriatis. 

1. Crossostemma laurifolium, Planch, in Herb. Soc. Hort. 

Land. — Sierra Leone, Don. 
Frutex scandens, glaberrimus. Folia alterna, petiolata, ob- 
longa, breviter acuminata, integerrima, basi acuta, 3-4 poll, 
longa, subcoriacea, nitidula, utrinque venosissima, eglandulosa 
v. ad apicem petioli obscure biglandulosa. Cirrhi ex axillis 
sterilibus orti. Inflorescentice axillares, solitarise, pedunculo 
communi semipollicare cymam ferente laxe paucifloram 
nexuosam, ramis ultimis 3 lin. longis, medio articulatis (pedi- 
cellis unifloris terminatis) . Bractece minuta? setacese v. nulla?. 
Flores ex scheda Doniana lutei, (semipollicem diametro ?) 
m specimine nondum aperti. Sepala et petala in alabastro 
subsimilia late ovata, obtusa, concava, et crebre lineato-punc- 
tata, haec vero evidentius colorata et venis 3-5 percursa, ilia 
viridiora, extima minora, et vena unica brevi additis rarius 2 
brevissimis lateralibus notata. Fructum haud vidi. 
Though closely allied to some of the numerous forms oi 
Passiflora, this genus is at once distinguished by the very 
short gynophorum, and the entire style. The collection con- 
tains but a single specimen, with £ew buds in a perfect 
state. I n the only one I dissected I could not ascertain very 
precisely whether the delicate ring of filaments forming the 
corona at the base of the petals was continuous or interrupted 
opposite each petal. 

*• Modecca cissampeloides, Planch, in Herd. Hook. ; foliis cor- 
dato-orbiculatis 5-nervibus obsolete 5-lobis integerrimisque 
membranaceis glabris subtus albidis, petiolo apicc glandu- 
Wero, fl. fern, petalis linearibus ad basin loborum calyci- 
norum insertis et ii3 brevioribus.— Fernando Po, Vogel. 
Tota planta tflaberrima. Famuli tcretes, ciiierasccntes v. albidi. 



366 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

Cirrhi axillares, simplices v. ramosi, interdum floriferi. Folia 
2-3 poll, longa et lata, petiolo subpollicari, glandula majus- 
cula ad summum apicem petioli in facie superiori. Panicuk 
vel terminates vel axillares supra cirrhos enatse, laxse, e cymis 
paucis secus rhachin alternis breviter pedunculatis composite, 
rhachi interdum in cirrhum abeunte. Flores foeminei tantum 
adsunt, 5-6 lin. diametro, tubo late hemisphserico, lacinus 
calycinis ovato-lanceolatis acutis integerrimis, a3stivatione sub- 
valvatis, lineis coloratis crebris pereursis. Petala fere di- 
midio breviora, ad basin laciniarum inserta et cum iis alter- 
nantia, anguste linearia, persistentia, consistentia calyci sinulia 
v. paullo tenuiora. Corona pilorum brevissimorum sub 
petalorum insertione vix conspicua. Squama (seu stamina 
abortiva ?) 5, breves, acutse, disco hypogyno tenui in fundo 
calycis inserts. Ovarium fere sessile, ovato-globosum, sub- 
triquetrum, glaberrimum. Stigmata 3, subsessilia, flabellata, 
crenata. Placenta 3, parietales, pluriovulatse. 

2. Modecca cynanchifolia, Benth. ; foliis cordato-ovatis oblon- 
gisve acuminatis vix sinuatis membranaceis concoloribus, 
petiolo apice glandulifero, fl. masc. petalis oblongo-linearibus 
margine fimbricatis ad basin loborum calycinorum insertis et 
eos subsequantibus. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Tota planta glaberrima. Rami tenues. Cirrhi et inflorescentia 
M. cissampeloidis. Folia Iretevirentia, 2-4 poll, longa, 1-2 
poll, lata, basi late cordata, subtrinervia, margine integernni;i 
v. obsolete sinuata. Glandula nunc ad apicem petioli, nunc 
in limbo ipso ad insertionem petioli sita. Flores quam m 
M. cissampeloidi minora videntur, sed in specimine unic<> 
mascula et vix aperta. Calycis lacinise anguste ovato-oblongtf, 
lineato-punctatae, margine membranaceo-hyalina?, integral, 
sestivatione valvata> v. vix angustissime imbricatse. Petala 
membranaceo-alba, tenuia et vix punctata, obtusa, marginibus 
breviter lacero-fimbriatis. Corona e filis paucis brevissimis 
compositse. Antherm 5, majusculse, oblonga?, filamentis bre- 
vissimis. Ovarii rudimentum minimum. 

3. Modecca? tenuifolia, Planch, in Herb. Hook; foliis cordato- 
ovatis acuminatis integris v. sinuato-lobatis membranaceis 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 367 

concoloribus, petiolo sub apice biglanduloso, fl. masc. petalis 
ovatis fimbriatis prope basin tubi calycini insertis et calyce 
plus duplo brevioribus. — Sierra Leone, Vogel. % 

Planta tota glaberrima. Folia ampla, majora semipedalia, 3-5- 
nervia, glandulis petioli majusculis, a limbo distinctis. Cirrhi 
floriferi, cymis in medio cirrho 2-3 alternis breviter peduncu- 
latis laxifloris. Flores quam in prsecedentibus majores ; calyx 
8 lin. longus, tubuloso-campanulatus, ad tertiam partem 5- 
lobus, laciniis ovatis obtusis sestivatione leviter imbricatis ; 2 
exteriores margine integerrimse, tertia hinc integerrima hinc 
mflexa membranacea et leviter fimbriata, 2 interiores ad mar- 
gmem utrumque inflexa et leviter fimbriata. Petala 5, prope 
basin calycis inserta, tubo calycino subbreviora, breviter un- 
guiculata, margine pectinato-lacera. Corona e filamentis 
brevibus composita ad basin petalorum. Anther a 5, oblongse, 
nlamentis brevissimis. Ovarii rudimentum parvum. 
A second specimen from Grand Bassa appears to belong to 

the same species. It is a female, of which the fruit is fallen off, 

which, according to Vogel, was a berry with three parietal 

placentae. 

The only other West Tropical African Passiflorea known are 
Modecca diversifolia, Schum. et Thonn., from Guinea, and 
M. lobata, Jacq., from Sierra Leone, and the very imperfectly 
described Kolbia elegans, Pal. de Beauv., from Benin. 



LVII. CUCURBITACEM. 

1- Melothria triangularis, Benth.; foliis late deltoideis acutis 
denticulatis membranaceis scabris, floribus longe pedicellatis 
in eadem axilla solitariis v. geminis monoicis, corolla glabra 
lobis integris, fructibus globosis glabris. — Aboh and Fer- 
nando Po, Vogel 

Caules filiformes, glabri v. scabrelli. Cirrhi apice ssepius bifidi. 
folia exacte triangularia v. basi subangulata, lateribus li-2 
poll, longis, 5-nervia, utrinque glabra sed tubcrculis crebris 
scabra, denticulis marginalibus irregularibus reniotis. Pedicelh 
filiformes, ex eadem axilla ssepius gemini, alter masculus 8-10 



368 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

lin. longus, alter foemineus duplo longior. Flares masciili 
lincam longi, campanulati, tubo calycis corollseque in unum 
arete connato, dentes calycini minuti, cum lobis corollims 
ovatis integris albis tubo suo paullo longioribus alternantes. 
Stamina 3, medio tubo inserta; filamenta brevia; antherae 
biloculares, loculi duarum magis discreti connectivo apiculato, 
tertise magis approximati connectivo crassiore mutico, oranes 
dorso minute ciliolatse. Glandula in fundo corolla? majuscula, 
globosa. Floresfceminei : ovarium subglobosum, pedicello apice 
incrassato-calloso insidens, apice in collum brevem acuminatum. 
Calyx et corolla quoad pars superior fere maris. Stamina nulla. 
Discus ut in mare globosus, stylum fert corollam fere sequan- 
tem apice trifidum, lobis crasse dilatato-stigmatosis. Bacca 
globosse, 3-4 lin. diametro, seminibus 1^ lin. longis com- 
pressis, et forma iis Cucumeris subsimilibus. 

2. Melotbria deltoidea, Bentb. ; foliis late deltoideis subacutis 
sinuato-dentatis membranaceis scabriusculis, peduncuhs pe- 
tiolo brevioribus ex eadem axilla geminis monoicis v. solitarns, 
corolla glabra lobis integris, fructibus (ovoideis ?) subglabris. 
Bryonia deltoidea, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p- 429? non 
Am. — Ab6h, Vogel, and Guinea, if I am correct in referring 
Vogel's specimen to Thonning^s species. 

Specimen cum illis M. triangularis intermixtum, sed certe 
diversum. Caulis multo firmior, costis clevatis angulatus. 
Folia usque ad 3 poll, lata, evidentius dentata. Pediceln 
multo breviores. Flores masculi paullo majores, dentibus 
calycinis setiformibus dimidium limbi corollini sequantibus. 
Antherte latiores, breviores. Ovarium pilosiusculum. Fructus 
nondum maturus jam longior et apice attenuatus nee globosus, 
demum glabratus. 

1. Bryonia? sp. ? — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Tbe male flowers, so far as I can judge from very young 
buds, are those of a Bryonia ; but the inflorescence is different, 
and there are no female flowers : I therefore refrain from de- 
scribing the plant. 

2. Bryonia* sp. ? — Fernando Po, Vogel. A small fragment, with 
the remains of fruitstalks, but no flowers. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 369 

There are three supposed species of Bryonia described from 
West Tropical Africa, viz. : B. Perrottetiana, Ser., from Senegal, 
and B.fcetidissima, and B. capillaris, Schum. et Thonn., from 
Guinea. None of them agree with either of the above. 
I. iEchmandrae ? v. Rhynchocarpse f sp. — A very imperfect 

specimen in fruit, gathered south of the Line by Curror, and 

not in a state to be described. 

The Rhynchocarpa fcetida, Schrad., is a Guinea plant, not in 
tke collections before us. 

1. Momordica Vogelii, Planch, in Herb. Hook.; foliis ample 
cordato^ovatis integris sinuato-dentatis, floribus monoicis 
ex diversis axillis, masculis umbel latis in involucro longius- 
eule pedicellatis, corolla calyce triplo longiore, tubo echinato, 
icemineis solitariis geminisve, fructibus ovato-acuminatis echi- 
natis.—Fernando Po, VogeL 
Catilis glaber et hevis. Folia pleraque 4 poll, longa et lata, 
remote denticulata et subsinuata, basi late eordata et in 
petiolum angustissime decurrentia, lsetevirentia, membranacea, 
pedatinervia, ad venas marginesque minute puberula, caeterum 
glabra. Cirrhi simplices v. bifidi. Pedunculi petiolum sub- 
aequantes. Involucrum orbiculatum, apice ssepius dentatum, 
3-4 lin. longum, coloratum. Pedicelli masculi ssepius 3-5, 
semipollicares. Calyx profunde 5-fidus, tubo brevi costato 
parce echinato, lobis 2 lin. longis ovatis obtusis medio crassis 
et parce puberulis margine membranaceis. Corolla lutea, 
petalis obovatis, 8-9 lin. longis. Anthers (exsiccatione valdc 
eompressse) vel distinctse vel facile separabiles. Flores fa>- 
*ninei brevius pedicellati; ovarium oblongum, 3 lin. longum, 
echinulatum, in collum attenuatum, intus uniloculare, pla- 
eentis parietalibus membranaceis ovula involventibus. Calyx 
et corolla quam in mare minores. Fructus in specimine im- 
toaturus pollicaris, utrinque acutus, squamis longis muricatus, 
ex Vog. maturus ruber et trilocularis. 

The description of Momordica foetida, Schum. et Thonn., 
from Guinea, agrees so well in most respects with the above 
Plant that I should have considered it the same, but that 
Thonning expressly says that the calycine sc.irmeiits arc acute. 

B B 



370 FLORA. NIGRITIANA. 

2. Momordica Senegalensis, Lam. — DC. Prod. 3. p. 311. — On 
the Gambia, Boteler ; a very bad specimen. The species 
altogether may be a mere variety of M. Charantium. 

3. Momordica cissoides, Planch, in Herb. Hook. ; foliis trisectis, 
segmentis petiolulatis denticulatis, intermedio ovato, laterali- 
bus oblique ovato-rhombeis breviter subbilobis, floribus mas- 
culis umbellulatis, pedicellis involucro brevioribus, calycis la- 
ciniis oblongis uncinato-mucronatis corolla duplo brevioribus. 
— In hedges, at Ab6h, Vogel. 

Planta dioica videtur, tota glabra excepta pube rara minima 
ad venas foliorum vel inflorescentiam. Petioli subpollicares, 
apice trifidi, petiolulis 2-4 lin. longis, segmentum intermedium 
bipollicare, lateralia breviora et valde obliqua, omnia mucro- 
nulata, margine remote denticulata, basi acuta v. truncata, 
membranacea, glabra et punctis minutis scabrella. Pedunculi 
petiolo longiores, floribus in speciminibus nostris omnibus 
masculis. Involucrum reniforme, 9 lin. latum, breviter cre- 
nulato-dentatum v. integerrimum, scabro-puberulum, glan- 
dulis paucis scutellatis per paginam interiorem dispersis, 
praecipue versus marginem. Pedicelli 5-6, puberuli. Calyx 
fere 5-partitus, laciniis ovali-oblongis pubescentibus. Petala 
5 lin. longa, papulosa, alba, basi intus purpureo-maculata. 
Antherce flexuosse, vel distinctse vel facillime separabilcs. 

4. Momordica maculata, Planch, in Herb. Hook. ; foliis tn- 
sectis, segmentis petiolulatis obovali-oblongis sinuato-dentatis 
lateralibus bipartitis, floribus fcemineis in involucro solitarns, 
calycis tubo glabro laciniis subulato-acuminatis.— On the 
Quorra, opposite Adda, Vogel. 

Planta dioica ? caule angulato glabro v. ad nodos villosulo. Petioli 
crassi, striati, pollicares, apice trifidi uti petioluli (3-6 lm. 
longi) pube brevi scabridi. Segmentum intermedium 3-3J 
poll, longum, \\ poll, latum, apice obtusum irregulariter 
sinuatum et dentibus paucis calloso-mucronatis notatum, basi 
acutum, membranaceum, la-viusculum ; lateralia minora, 
usque ad basin in duo divisa, at lobi non v. vix petiolulati. 
Pedunculi petiolum subsequantes. Involucrum orbiculatum. 
F/ores examinare nequivi, alabastrum enim unicum tantum 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 371 

vidi fcemineum, breviter pedicellatum, ovario ovoideo, laciniis 
calycinis longius acuminatis quam in affinibus. 
5. Momordica guttata, Planch, in Herb. Hook. ; foliis trisectis, 
segmentis petiolulatis ovatis acutis v. acuminatis sinuato- 
dentatis lateralibus bipartitis, floribus masculis umbellatis, 
pedicellis involucro brevioribus, calycis laciniis lanceolatis 
subulato-acutis. — Fernando To, Vogel; Sierra Leone, Don. 
M. maculatm valde affinis, sed diversa videtur foliis acutioribus, 
mvolucris majoribus reniformibus. Flores masculi in um- 
bella 5-6, pedicellis calyce brevioribus. Calycis laciniae 2 £ 
«n. longse. Petala multo majora, basi macula ta, in speci- 
mme tamen nostro nondum aperta. Stamina cohserere vi- 
dentur in phalanges duo. 

A>r. Planchon considers Don's plant to belong to a different 
species ; but I can find no essential difference in the very unsa- 
tisfactory specimens in the collections. I have indeed conside- 
rable doubts whether M. maculata may not be merely the 
male individual of M. guttata. Both these species, as well 
tne M. cissoides, differ in some respects from the more usual 
forms of Momordica. They are to all appearance dioecious, the 
leaves decompound, the flowers very shortly pedicelled in the 
involucre, the petals yellowish-white with purple spots at the 
3 ase, and the anthers, if not quite free, yet more distinct than 
J n most species. I have not seen the fruit of cither, nor yet 
been able to examine any female flower. The scutelliform 
glands on the upper surface of the involucres are very irregular 
ln number and in arrangement, and are often wholly wanting. 

The only other known West African species, the M. anthel- 
mntica, Schum. et Thonn., from Guinea, is described as havin 
8t ul more divided leaves than either of the foregoing. 
1. ^nff&scabra, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 405. -Aboh, Vogel; 
Accra, Don ; Fernando Po, very abundantly in hedges, Vogel. 
Dr. Planchon considers the Fernando Po plant to be speci- 
ally distinct, but it agrees as well as the other with Thomiing'a 
description ; and although at first ight there appear to be some 
differences, it is probably owing to the Fernando Po specimens 
king all females, and the Continental ones in the collections 

If] 



rr 
© 



37*2 FLORA NIGRTTIANA. 



before us, all males. Possibly, indeed, the original L. scabra 
itself may be but a variety of the common East Indian L. acu- 
tangula. TJie rudimentary stamens in the female flowers vary 
in number, according to Vogel. In the flowers I opened there 
were n\e. 



Adenopus, (gen. nov.) 

- 

Flores (dioici ?) masculi : Calyx tubulosus 5-dentatus. Petala 
5, ad apicem tubi calycis inserta, margine integra v. leviter 
crispata. Stamina 5, medio tubo calycis inserta, filamentis 
brevissimis, antheris longe linearibus flexuosis diadelphis. 

Flores fceminei Herbse Africanse hinc Luffce hinc Tri- 

chosantki affines. Folia palmatim lobata, petiolo apice bi- 
glanduloso. Flores masculi racemosi. 

1. Adenopus long? fl or us, Benth. ; foliis 5-lobis vix scabriusculis, 
calycis tubo petalis longiore infra medium longe attenuato 
basi dilatato. — Sierra Leone, Vogel, Don. 

Caulis tenuis, striatus, glaber. Cirrhi stipulares unilaterales ; 
stipula altera parva glanduliformis. Foliorum petiolus 6-10 
lin. longus, sub lamina auctus glandulis 2 oppositis linearibus 
divaricatis ; lamina 3 poll, longa et lata, angulato-5-loba, 
lobis 1-3 intermediis productioribus, omnibus acutis et mar- 
gine sinuato-dentatis, dentibus mucronatis, utrinque sub- 
glabra et punctato-scabriuscula, trinervis, nervis lateralibus 
bifurcatis. Flor. masc. ; pedunculi axillares, folio multo 
breviores, breviter 3-5-flori. Bractece parvse, dentatse. Pe- 
dicelli 2-3 lin. longi. Calycis tubus If poll, longus, in- 
curvus, junior puberulus, demum glaber, apice 2 lin. latus, 
sub staminum insertione gradatim contractus, prope basin 
abrupte dilatatus ; limbi lacinise lineari-lanceolatse, glandu- 
loso-dentatse, vix 2 lin. longa?. Petala pollicaria (v. majora?) 
obovata, et, tanquam e specimine male siccato apparet, 
margine crispa sed integra. Antherce 8-9 lin. longse, ex- 
trorsae, mediantibus connect ivis in corpuscula 2 connexse, 
loculis a basi ad apicem flexuosis. 

2. Adenopus breviflorus, Benth. ; foliis 5-lobis scabris, calycis 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 373 

tubo petalis multo breviore basi vix attenuate. — From the 
Niger Expedition, without the precise locality. 
Habitus A. longiflorce, sed folia profundius lobata, inajora et 
scabra, glandulis petiolaribus crassis conicis. Stipula cirrho 
opposita foliacea, subreniformis, denticulata, 3-4 lin. longa. 
Pedunculus florum masculorum crassus, folia subsequans, 
apice racemoso-10-12-florus. Bractece foliacea;, cuneatge v. 
ovatas, acuta?, denticulate, 2-5 lin. longse. Pedicelli semi- 
pollicares. Calycis tubus 9 lin. longus, a basi ad apicem 
gradatim latior. Antherce infra medium tubi insertse, ut 
videtur diadelphse. Petala pollice longiora, ovata, basi in 
unguem brevem contracta, margine crispa. 
At is with great reluctance that I have established this genus 
upon a knowledge of the male flowers only; but the two 
species were so evidently congeners, and so remarkable in the 
peculiar glands of the leaves, that I was unwilling to pass them 
over, and they could not be united with Luffa, Trichosanthes or 

Gymnopetalum, with all of which they have more or less of 
affinity. 

There remain two Cucurbit acece in the collection which I am 
compelled to leave undetermined ; the one, from Fernando Po, 
a Ppears to be a Cucumis with the hairiness of Benincasa : the 
flowers, according to Vogel, are white, but in the specimens are 
not m a state to be examined. The other, also from Fernando 
1 °, with deeply palmately lobed leaves arrd long male racemes, 
has only a few young buds, which in their structure resemble 
tn °se of Luffa ; yet I can scarcely believe the plant to belong 
to that genus. 

The Cucumis arenarius and C. chrysocoma, Sebum, et Thonn., 
°oth from Guinea, complete the list of known Cucurbitacea 
from West Tropical Africa. 



LVIII. Portulace^:. 



*■ I'ortulaca oleracea, Linn. — Accra and Fernando P<>, Voycl. 
A common sea-coast plant, appearing very early on newly 
formed islands. 



374 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

2. Portulaca foliosa, Ker. — DC. Prod. v. 3. p. 353.— P. pro- 
lifera, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 239. — On the Quorra, at 
Attah, and sandy shores of the Nun, Vogel ; Guinea. 

1. Talinum crassifolium, Willd. ? — DC. Prod. v. 3. p. 357? — 
Accra, Vogel. — A very bad specimen, which appears to be 
either this or the T. triangulare, both of them American mari- 
time plants. 

1. Trianthema obcordata, Koxb. FL Ind. v. 2. p. 445.— Cape 
Coast, Vogel. — A common East Indian plant. 
The Sesuvium Portulacastrum, Linn., a common Tropical 

maritime plant, is also a native of Senegal ; and S. brevifolium, 

Schum. et Thonn., from Guinea, may not be specifically distinct 

from it. 



LIX. ParonychiejE. 

1. Polycarpsea stellata, DC. Prod. 3. p. 374.— Accra, Vogel, 
Ansell; on the Quorra, Vogel. 

This species varies much in the calyx, which is more or less 
acuminated, and often more or less covered with longish hair. 

2. Polycarpjea glabrifolia, DC. Prod. 3. p. 374.— Sierra Leone, 
Don ; Grand Bassa, Vogel ; Senegal. 

3. Polycarpjea linear if olia y DC. Prod. 3. p. 374.— On the 
Quorra, Vogel, Ansell ; Whydah, Don ; Senegal. 

De Candolle describes a fourth species from Senegal, P- t e ' 
nuifolia. 

LX. Crassulace^e. 

There are no species belonging to this Order in the collections 
before us, and the only one published from West Tropical 
Africa is the Kalanchoe' crenata, Haw., from Guinea. 

LXI. Saxifrages. 

I. Vahlia silenoides, A. DC. Prod. 4. p. 54.— On the Gambia, 
Don. 

Two other species of Vahlia, V. ramosissima, A. DC, BDi 
V. tomentosa, A. DC, are also natives of Senegambia. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 375 



LXII. Umb£lliferje. 

1. Hydrocotyle petiolaris, DC. Prod. 4. p. 60.— Cape Palmas, 
Grand Bassa, and on the River Nun, Vogel, Ansell ; also 
East Tropical Africa and Madagascar. 

Both this plant and the South African H. Caffra, Meissn., 
are very variable in the length of the petioles and in the crena- 
tures of the leaves, as well as in inflorescence; and there is 
considerable doubt whether either is really distinct from the 
South American H. Bonariensis, Lam. 

2. Hydrocotyle Asiatica, Linn.— DC. Prod, 4. p. 61.— St. 
ihomas, Don. — A common plant within and south of the 
Tropics in both hemispheres. 

LXIII. LORANTHACE^I. 

1. Loranthus Pentagonia, DC. Prod. 4. p. 303. et Coll Mem. 
6. t. 8. — On the Gambia, Don. 

2. Loranthus Belvisii, DC. /. c.—L. lanceolatus, Pal. Beauv. 
Fl- Ow. et Ben. t. 69.— Aboh, Cape Coast and Sierra Leone, 
Vogel, who gathered it at the latter station on Psidium py- 
nferum, and observes that the flowers are red, striped with 
white and tipped with brown, and the fruit red, assuming a 
greenish tinge when quite ripe ; Grand Bassa, Ansell ; Sierra 
Leone, Bon. 

3. Loranthus j(Scurrula) leptolobus, Benth. ; glaber, ramis vix 
compressis, foliis petiolatis ovatis obtusis basi rotundatis, pe- 
dunculis brevissimis fasciculatis umbellatim paucifloris, bracteis 
parvis appressis, corolla tenui scabra basi sequali hinc fissa 
kmbi'lobis 5 angustissime linearibus.— On the Quorra, at 
Attah, Vogel. 

Rami crassiusculi, teretes v. ad nodos leviter compressi, verru- 
culoso-punctati. Folia opposita, magnitudine et forma vana, 
plcraque lato-ovata, 3 poll, longa, 2 poll, lata, apice obtu- 
sissima, basi rotundata, crassa, penninervia, glabra vel sicci- 
tate scabra, superiora ssepe angustiora; petioli seinipollicares 
vel paullo longiores. Flores numerosi, ad axillas congest!, 
fere sessiles ; pedicelli ncmpe rarissime lineam excedunt. 



376 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

Bracteola ovata, concava, crassa, calyce brevior et ei adnata. 
Calyx vix linea longior, margine breviter libero undulato. 
Corolla scsquipollicaris, tenuis, extus leviter papulosa, basi 
haud clilatata, apice paullulum clavata, fere usque ad medium 
flssa in laminam profunde 5-fidam lobis angustissimis ; color 
(ex Vogel) luteus apice ruber. Ovarium per anthesin basi 
cum pedunculo continuum et infra apicem in discum cum 
calyce connatum expansum, cseterum a calyce liberum. Bacca 
(ex Vog.) eupreo-viridis. 
4. Lorantbus Nigritanus, Hook. fil. ; ramis ferrugineo-villosis, 
foliis ovali-ellipticis oblongis sublanceolatisve supra glabns 
subtus fcrrugineo-tomentosis, pedunculis brevissimis umbel- 
latim 3-5-floris, bracteis orbiculatis patentibus ovario lon- 
gioribus, corollse ferrugineo-hirsutaB basi gibbse apice tunc 
fissse laciniis 5 lineari-cuneatis. — On the Quorra, at Patten, 
Vogel ; on the Niger, Mac William. 
Hamuli teretes v. ad nodos leviter compressi, tomcnto sub- 
floccoso rubro-ferrugineo vestiti, novelli pilis longioribus vil- 
losi; rami vetustiores denudati. Folia 1^-2-pollicaria, cras- 
siuscule membranacea, novella utrinque tomcntosa, adulta 
supra glabrata, subtus tomento subfloccoso ferruginea. Flores 
fere sessiles, in axillis congesti, pilis longis rubro-ferrugmeis 
dense vestiti. Bractea exteriores 2 lin. lata?, crassiuscute, 
undulatse, patentes, orbiculatse, basi angustatse, interiores 
minores angustiores apice breviter patentes. Calyx 1-j lin. 
longus, basi ovario adnatus, limbo libero truncato integvo 
quam ovarium longiore. Corolla 15-16 lin. longa, supra 
calycem inflata, dein abrupte contracta, fere ad medium fissa, 
lobis linearibus acutis basi angustatis. 

The ovary of this species is similar in general structure to 
those described by Griffith, in his paper on Loranthus and 
Viscum, in the 18th vol. of the Limuean Transactions. In that 
of L. leptolobus, however, the ovary at the time of flowering, 
enclosed within the calyx, appears to be free from it, excepting 
in a transverse line a little below the top, corresponding with 
the commencement of the epigynoue disc, common to so many 
calyeiflorous Orders. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 377 

The remaining West Tropical African Loranthi are L. cvpu- 
lutus, DC., and L. dodonecefolius, DC., from Senegal, L. Thon- 
ningii, DC, from Guinea, and L. sessilifolius , Beauv., from Oware. 
It is perhaps the only extensive geographical region, especially 
m warm climates, from which no species of Viscum appears to 
have as yet been brought. 



fc * 



LXIV. B,UBiACEiE. 

This large Order, so natural and well defined, and yet so diversi- 
fied in detail, is very abundant in Tropical countries, and more 
especially so in West Africa. Its tribes, as successively proposed 
by De Candolle, Jussieu and A. Richard, and finally adopted in 
the Prodromus, are generally easy of determination, but in some 
or the details perhaps too artificial, and a few slight changes 
and transpositions might render them more conformable to 
nature, without interfering with their practical utility. Too 
much reliance has perhaps been placed on the number of car- 
pellary parts, and not enough on placentation (insertion of 
ovules), which, with the aestivation of the corolla, might in 
many instances better serve, both for the definition and for the 
grouping of genera. The Nauclece, well marked by their in- 
florescence and seeds, form an excellent tribe, if made to 
delude Sarcocephalus, Anthocephalus and Cephalanthus.* In 
ne Vinchonea there is little to alter ; although the line of de- 
marcation between them and the Rondeletiea is at present very 
*B defined. The remainder of the many-ovuled tribes require 
some re-arrangement. The two-celled genera often present a 
third cell, and the many-celled are not unfrequently reduced 
to two. Gardenia itself has not the characters assigned to the 

* The seeds of Cephalanthus, although solitary in each cell, are inserted 
°" a pendulous placenta, as in Stephegyne, and have, like the rest of 
N «ucle<e t a wing-like expansion at their ape*, although it be so small as 
l j> have escaped the notice of most botanists. It appears to me also, 
th *t in the young ovary there are a few additional minute abortive ovules, 
,H 't of that I do not feel certain. 



378 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

tribe to which it gives its name, and the hardening of the 
endocarp, which distinguishes the polypyrenous from the multi- 
locular berry, is but a vague character. It might be better 
to suppress the two last tribes {Isertiece and Hameliece), and 
re-distribute the whole into three : Gardeniece, with fleshy 
indehiscent fruits; Rondeletiae , with dehiscent or pluricoccous 
fruits and interpetiolar stipules ; and Hedyotece, with dehiscent 
or pluricoccous fruits and conpetiolar stipules. For the subdivision 
of Gardeniece, the placentation appears to afford good characters, 
although I have not as yet examined with this view the whole of the 
genera. Probably three distinct forms will be found : Eugar- 
deniece, with parietal placentae not reaching the axis ; Randiece, 
with the ovules more or less immersed in thick fleshy placentae ; 
and Bertierece, (or say Hameliece ?) with thinner placentae, 
superficial ovules, and little or no pulp to the berry. Some 
genera of the last group come into close connection with some 
Rondeletiece, and from the latter the passage is very gradual 
into Hedyotece ; yet I am unable to suggest any better distinction 
between them than those generally adopted. Of the tribe 
Isertiece, DC, Metabolos would take its place among Hedyotece, 
next to Hedyotis (Euhedyotis, Am.), from which it differs but 
slightly as a genus; Gonzalea among Rondeletiece, close to 
Lerchea; Isertia and Bruinsmania among Gardeniece {Ber- 
tierece) . The greater part of the Hameliece would also range in 
the last-mentioned subtribe; for which, on that account, the 
name Hameliece might be retained. Morelia, however, as 
well as Alibertia, Schradera, and perhaps one or two more, 
would be classed in the subtribe Randiece. To the same sub- 
tribe I should refer Cordiera, and a few imperfectly known 
genera allied to it, in which the ovules are said to be large, 
fleshy and peltate, but which have most probably large 
fleshy peltate placenta?, with one or more ovules immersed 
therein, but not easily distinguishable in dried specimens. 
Among the solitary-ovulated tribes, the only alteration of im- 
portance which suggests itself is the consolidation of the two 
tribes of Guettardiece and Coffecece into one, as neither the two- 



FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 379 

or many-celled ovary, nor the drupaceous or baccate fruit 
appear to be sufficiently absolute distinctions to separate them 
as tribes. The whole might take the name of Coffecece, and be 
divided into four or five sub tribes, chiefly according to the 
estivation of the corolla* and insertion of the ovules, viz. : 
Vangueriea, (including Morindece and Canthium) , with a valvate 
estivation and pendulous ovules ; Guettardece, with an imbricate 
estivation and pendulous ovules ; Iocore<e, with an imbricate aesti- 
vation and laterally attached ovules; Psychotriece, (including 
Lepkaelidece), with a valvate aestivation and erect ovules. Possibly 
a fifth might be inserted between Guettardea and Iworea, with 
an imbricate aestivation, like in those two tribes, but differing 
from Guettardea in the baccate, not drupaceous fruit, and from 
locorea in the ovules suspended from the apex, or nearly so, but 
A am not acquainted with the fruits of a sufficient number of 
species of Chomelia, Chiococca, Kraussia, &c, to ascertain 
whether they can be really so separated from Guettardece even as 
a subtribe. I am doubtful also whether the few genera with 
an imbricate aestivation, and ovules erect or ascending, should 
be reckoned among lacore®, or form an intermediate subtribe 
between them and Psychotriece. They are chiefly South Ameri- 
can, and require further examination. 
1. Sarcocephalus esculentus, Sab. — DC. Prod. 4. p. 368.— 

Sierra Leone, Vogel, Don ; Senegal and Guinea. 

The fruit of this plant appears to me to be improperly 
described as an agglomeration of berries. The syncarpium, 
especially the upper portion, consisting chiefly of the epigynous 
discs and summits of the calyxes, is indeed fleshy; but the 
divisions, formed of the combined parietes of adjoining fruits, 
are scarcely so ; the two cells of each fruit have no pulp, and 
the dissepiment which separates them is membranous. The 
placentae are adnate : the seeds (as yet unripe in the fruit I 

* The imbricately sestivated corollae of Rubiacea: are usually convolute 
as in Apocynea; but since it is frequently difficult, if not impossible to as- 
certain whether it is so constantly, I have preferred usinff the more general 
term imbricated (of which the convolute is a modification) in opposition to 
'abate. 



380 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



examined) are short, orbicular, flattened, with a narrow 
wing at their apex, and are suspended by filiform funi- 
culi, sometimes very short, sometimes twice as long as the 
seed. 

A second species of this genus, with broader leaves and 
larger stipules, was found by Kotschy in Nubia. 
1. Stephegyne Africana, Korth. — Nauclea Africana, Willd.— 
DC. Prod. 3. p. 345. — Nauclea platanocarpa, Planch, in 
Hook. Ic. PI. t. 787. — Platanocarpum Africanum, Hook.fil 
MS. (Tab. XXXVII.)— On the Quorra, at Attah, where it 
forms a handsome tree of 30 feet high, and at Accra, where 
it is a bush of little more than a man's height, with 
white flowers, turning yellowish, Vogel ; Sierra Leone, Bon ; 
Senegal and Guinea. 

The confusion which has crept into our synonymy of this 
plant is owing to Vogel's specimens having been mixed with 
those of Sarcocephalus, and Dr. Planchon having unfortunately 
examined a fruit of the latter plant as belonging to the Ste- 
phegyne. The heads of the true Stephegyne are not far ad- 
vanced towards maturity ; but the young capsules are precisely 
as described by Korthals in his generic character, perfectly 
distinct, though closely connected in a head, with linear pendu- 
lous placentae, each bearing several ascending imbricated ovules. 
I cannot either agree with Dr. Planchon in considering this 
plant and Sieber's Senegal specimens as specifically distinct from 
Willdenow's. The receptacle in all our specimens is certainly 
pilose, and Willdenow corrected his first character of " capitulis 
sessilibus" to that of " subsessilibus," the peduncle being usually 
very short beyond the last pair of leaves. 

Tab. XXXVII. Fig. 1. flower with two bracteohe ; /. 2 . the same 
in a more advanced stage ; /. 3. young fruit. 
There is among Vogel's Fernando Po specimens, one without 
flowers or fruit, but which has the appearance of a species of 
Sarcocephalus or Stephegyne. It is a tree, with large leave* 
and very large foliaceous stipules, thus far agreeing with 
Nauclea stipulosa, DC, a Senegambian plant, which may 
veiy possibly be refcrnble to Stephegyne. 



co- 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 381 

1. Uncaria Africana, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 3. p. 471. (Tab. 
XLII.) — SieiTa Leone, Vogel, Don. 

Tab. XLII. Fig. 1. ripe capsule ;/. 2. the same, with one 
valve (one half of the calycine tube ?) removed, showing the 
endocarp (or real capsule ?) and columella ; /. 3. unripe cap- 
sule ; /. 4. seeds : all more or less magnified. 

1. Crossopteryx febrifuga, Benth. ; foliis ovatis glabratis, _. 
rollae tubo limbo suo triplo longiore, staminibus semiexsertis. 
Rondeletia febrifuga, Afz. ex G. Don, Gard. Diet. 3. p. 516. 
— Sierra Leone, Don. 

Ine generic character of Crossopteryx may be completed as 
follows : 

Calycis limbus 5-partitus, lobis dentiformibus erectis. Corolla 
hypocrateriformis, extus villosa, tubo tenui, limbo 5-lobo, 
lacinus oblongis obtusis sestivatione imbricatis, fauce intus 
nuda. Stamina ad apicem tubi inserta, antheris oblongis 
apiculatis plus minus exsertis. Stylus filiformis apice clavato- 
bilobus. Ovarium biloculare, placentis dissepimento adnatis, 
ovulis imbricato-appressis. 

Ueudelot's Senegambian collection contains specimens, both 
m flower and fruit, of C. Kotschyana, a species which extends 
mto Nubia, and specimens, in flower only, of a new species. 

In Don's Sierra Leone collection is an imperfect specimen, 
la fruit only, of a plant belonging to the tribe Cinchonea, which 
rt is impossible to determine for want of flowers, more especially 
^ from the capsules it would appear to form a new genus allied 
to Cascarilla or Remijia. 

1- Gardenia (Macrotheca) Vogelii, Hook. fil. (Tab. XXXVIII. 
XXXIX.); inermis, glabra, foliis membranaceis acuminatis 
subrepandis, floribus sessilibus, calycis dentibus limbo tubu- 
loso multo brevioribus strictis acutis, corollse tubo longissimo, 
Hmbi lobis oblongo-linearibus, fructu cylindraceo-fusiforrni. 

NearAbdh, Vogel. 
Folia oblonga, 6-10 poll, longa, alia basi acuta petiolo 5-8 lin. 
longo sustenta, alia, prsecipue prope basin ramulorum, petiolo 
brevissimo basi subcordata, omnia in acumen breve obtusiim 
v « acutiusculum apice producta, rigiffa mem bran acea, costa 



382 FLORA NIGRITIANA 

venisque primariis utrinque prominulis, rete venularum subter 
prseeipue conspicua. Stipules in vaginam brevem irregu- 
lariter fissam coalitse. Flores ad apices ramulorum solitarn. 
Calycis limbus fere pollicaris. Corolla alba, tubo 5-6 poll, 
longo, lirabi laciniis sesquipollicaribus leviter obliquis paten- 
tibus. Fructus cylmdraceo-fusiforinis, tripollicaris, crassitie 
digitis minoris, sed maturus verosimiliter major, calycis limbo 
persistente coronatus, intus unilocularis, placentis 3 paneta- 
libus stipitatis sed haud ad medium loculi attingentibus. 
Semina compressa, pulpa mixta, in specimine nondum ma- 
tura. 

The Gardenia lutea, Fresen., an Abyssinian and Nubian 
plant, is also contained in Heudelot's collection ; and there is a 
G. nitida, Hook., from Sierra Leone, which I have not seen, 
and of which the ovary is undescribed, but which is never- 
theless most probably a genuine species of the same genus. 
The three ternate-leaved species enumerated in the Prodromus, 
G. triacantha, DC, from Senegambia, and G. fernifolia,Thonn., 
and G. medicinalis, Vahl, from Guinea, are entirely unknown to 
me. 

This genus, Gardenia, well characterised by De Candolle, 
and subsequently by Wight and Arnott, belongs exclusively to 
the Old World. It is readily distinguished by its unilocular 
ovarium and parietal placentae from all others, except perhaps 
some American Amaioua and Genipa, which require further 
examination. De Candolle, however, in his Prodronius, was 
obliged to retain under Gardenia many anomalous species 
which he found there, and of which he had no opportunity 
of examining the ovary, removing to Randia only such species 
as he had ascertained to be bilocular. Thence arose the 
confusion into which these genera have been again thrown by 
subsequent botanists. 

Amongst the bilocular species collected by authors under 
Randia, may be observed at least five groups, which may be 
either considered as distinct genera, or as sections of Randia, 
viz.: 
1. Rothmannia, remarkable for its long funnel-shaped corolla, 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 383 

contains several African and one East Indian species. Amongst 
them, R. Bowieana differs from the others by the calycine 
limb divided to the base. 

* 2. Randia {Ceriscus). Lobes of the calyx not divided to the 
base of the limb, and often foliaceous. Corolla of a thick 
consistence, with a short thick tube, and broad, blunt, often 
undulate lobes. These species are all African or Asiatic, and 
include, amongst others, R. dumetorum and its allies, as well 
as Lachnosiphonium, Hochst., in my specimen of which at 
least the ovary has certainly two cells only. 
«• Randia (Genipantha) . Calycine limb tubular or campanu- 
late, with short teeth. Tube of the corolla cylindrical, not 
twice as long as the calyx, lobes pointed. — African species, 
connecting Randia with Oxyanthus. 

Randia (Oxyceras). Calycine lobes long and narrow, usually 
divided to the base. Tube of the corolla slender and cy- 
lindrical, not much longer than the calycine lobes. — All 
American species. 
5 * Randia (Euclinia). Calycine lobes usually short and not 
divided to the base. Tube of the corolla considerably longer 
than the calycine lobes, and slightly dilated under the limb 
The genuine species are all American, excepting perhaps one 
undescribed one from Senegambia, which comes very near 
to them, and the R. longistyla, differing rather more in 
the remarkable style, which may probably hereafter be consi- 
dered as the type of a sixth group. 
Owyanthus, with its very slender tubed corolla and small 

^lyx, and Griffithia, with a very deciduous limb of the calyx are, 

a gam, in close connection with the above groups. 

*• Rothmannia Stanleyana, Hook.; foliis subcoriaceis nitidis 
glaberrimis, calycis laciniis subulatis strictis tubo suo multo 
brevioribus, corolla- subglabra? v. vix puberulae tubo longis- 
simo.— Gardenia Stanleyana, Hook, Bot. Mag. t. 4185.— 
Sierra Leone, Whitfield. 
A specimen in fruit in the Hookerian Herbarium, gathered 

V Captain Boteler on the Gambia, appears to belong to the 



384 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



O" 



same species. This fruit, the size of R. Bowieana, is distinctly 
ribbed. 

The Rothmannia longiflora, Salisb., may possibly be the 
same as R. Stanleyana ; yet it were better to retain Hooker's 
specific name, in order to avoid confusion with the R. Bowieana, 
which was called Reindict longiflora by Salisbury. 

2. Rothmannia malleifera, Hook. ; foliis coriaceis subnitidis 
laberrimis, calycis laciniis subulatis strictis tubo suo lon- 

gioribus, corolla extus dense tomentosa. — Gardenia malleifera, 
Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4307.— Gardenia Whitfieldi, Lindl. Bat. 
Reg. 1845 sub t. 47.— Sierra Leone, Don, Whitfield, Miss 
Turner. 

Fruit globose, larger than in R. Bowieana, and not ribbed. 
Lindley's synonym, not being taken up in the indexes to the 
Register, had been nearly overlooked by myself, as it has been 
by other botanists. 

3. Rothmannia Bowieana ; foliis membranaceis, novellis hirtelhs 
demum glabratis, calycis limbi 5-partiti laciniis linearibus 
subdilatatis patentibus, corolla glabra. — Gardenia longiflora, 
Ait. — Randia longiflora, Salisb. — Gardenia macrantha, Rami. 
Schult. Syst. 5. p. 237.— Randia macrantha, DC. Prod. 4. 
p. 388.— Randia Bowieana, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3409.— 
Gardenia longifolia, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 3. p. 499.— Sierra 
Leone, Don, Whitfield, and others. 

Fruit globose, or somewhat pear-shaped, not ribbed, and 
nearly an inch and a half in diameter. 

For the history of the synonymy of this plant see Hook. Bot. 
Mag. sub t. 4307; to which I would only add that the Gardeni" 
Devoniana, Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1846, t. 63, appears to be (from 
the figure) a well-marked, broad-leaved variety at least, if n ot a 
good species; and that although both R. malleifera and R- 
Bowieana are in Don's Herbarium, it seems to be the latter 
species only, with membranous leaves, to which he gave the 
name of longifolia. 

The completely bilocular ovary readily distinguishes the 
genus from Gardenia, and the long funnel-shaped throat 



FLORA NTGRITIANA. 385 

of the corolla from Randia- Among the preceding species, 
B. Bowieana and Devoniana differ from the others in their calyx ; 
all agree in their ovules more or less immersed in a fleshy 
placenta, which is either adnate to the dissepiment, or sessile 
and peltate. In the East Indian R. macrophylla, Br., the pla- 
centae of the ovary are stipitate and bifid, nearly as in Mussaenda. 

1 have not had an opportunity of examining the South African 
species. 

A. Randia (Ceriscus) Sherbornite, Hook. — Gardenia Sherbornise, 
Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4044 ; volubilis, foliis glabris coriaceis, 
pediccllis solitariis axillaribus petiolo brevioribus bracteatis 
unifloris, calycis lobis lato-cuneatis foliaceis obtusissimis, 
corolla infundibuliformi-campanulata calyce duplo longiore, 
stylo staminibusque inclusis. — Sierra Leone, Herb. Hooker. 

2. Randia (Ceriscus) Doniana, Benth. — Gardenia calycina, G. 
Don. Gard. Diet. 3. p. 497, (non Randia calycina, Cham. 
Schl.) subscandens ? foliis glabris coriaceis, pedicellis axillari- 
bus solitariis petiolo brevioribus bracteatis unifloris, calycis 
lobis lato-oblongis cuneatisve foliaceis acutiusculis, corolla 
infundibuliformi-campanulata calycem breviter superante, 
stylo staminibusque inclusis. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

I had some doubts whether this might not be the same as 
B. Sherbornia, but the leaves are narrower and more pointed, 
and the corolla considerably smaller. 

3. Randia (Genipantba) acuminata, Benth.; glabra, foliis sub- 
sessilibus longe cuneato-oblongis acuminatis, corymbis axilla- 
ribus breviter pedunculatis, calycis limbo tubuloso minute 
dentato, corolla? tubo cylindrico brevi, lobis acutis. — Gardenia 
acuminata, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 3. p. 499.— Pornatium 
dubium, G. Don, ibid. p. 505. — Sierra Leone, Don; on the 
Nun River, Vogel. 

A rbor parva. Folia 8-9-pollicaria v. fere pedalia, superne 3-4 
poll, lata, a medio ad basin angustata, ibidem oblique sub- 
cordata, apiceabrupte acuminata, rigide membranacea v. char- 
tacea. Stipula lata, breviter cuspidatae. Pedunculi solitarn, 
axillares, £-1 poll, longi, apice divisi in ramos breves cymoso- 
plurifloros. Bractea parva. Pedicelli brevissimi. Ovarium 

c c 



386 FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 



lineam 



Corollam 



apertam non vidi, sed alabastrum mox florendum tubum 
ostendit calyce paullo longiorem, et lacinias iis R. genipaflora 
simillimas. Ovarium biloculare ; placentae stipitatae loculos 
iterum fere dividunt. Ovula numerosa, placentis semummersa. 
Bacca ovoidea bipollicaris, utrinque subacutata, longitudi- 
naliter costis numerosis obtusis percursa. Sernina compressa, 
horizontalia, placentis pulposo-carnosis immersa. 
This species, if I have made no error in matching the flower- 
ing and fruiting specimens, differs remarkably from the three 
following in the size of the fruit, which resembles in some 
particulars that of Owyanthus, of which, however, it has not 
the flowers. The habit is, in some respects, intermediate 
between the two genera. 

4. Randia (Genipantha) geniparflora, DC. Prod. 4. p. 389. 
Niger Expedition, Vogel, without the precise locality ; Sene- 
gambia, Heudelot. 

The fruit is about 4 lines diameter, very much like that oi 
Morelia in appearance, but that it is two-celled only. It ls > 
crowned with the tubular limb of the calyx till very nearly ripe, 
when that part usually falls off. 

5. Randia (Genipantha) reticulata, Benth. ; foliis ovali-oblongis 
acuminatis inter venas transversim reticulatis, floribus axil- 
laribus breviter pedicellatis fasciculatis, bracteolis in cupulam 
connatis, calycis limbo tubuloso breviter dentato. — -Sierra 
Leone, Vogel, Don ; Senegambia, Heudelot. 

Ramuli et folia novella minutissime puberula, planta caeterum 
glabra. Folia breviter petiolata, 3-4-pollicaria, basi acuta, co- 
riacea, iis R. genipceflora primo intuitu simillima, sed venule 
transversa? crebrae utrinque prominent dum in R. genipafl° riB 
evanescunt. Stipulce brevissiinae, latae, breviter setaceo-cuspi- 
datae. Flores in cymas contractas dispositi, ad axillas con- 
gesti, vix petiolum superant. Bractece lineam long«, m 
cupulam brevem connatae. Calyx 2 lin. longus, truncatus, 
dentibus 5-6 brevissimis, in speciminibus floriferis vix con- 
spicuis, in fructiferis evidentioribus. Corolla tubus breviter 
exsertus, faux leviter dilatata, laciniae 5-7, oblongo-lineares, 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 387 

acutae, 2 lin. longae, gestivatione imbricata. Anther a lineares, 

acutae, corollam subaequantes. Ovarium biloculare (rarius 

3-loculare ?) placentis peltatis, ovulis in quoque loculo circa 

sex iminersis. Fructus pisi magnitudine, calycis limbo co- 
ronatus. 

o. Randia (Genipantha) cbriacea, Benth. ; glabra, foliis ovatis 

oblongisve brevissime acuminatis crasso-coriaceis vix venosis, 

noribus axillaribus confertis sessilibus, bracteolis in cupulam 

connatis, calycis limbo cupnlato vix dentato. — Grand Bassa, 
VogeL 

^ ota planta glaberrima videtur. Folia breviter petiolata, 3-4- 

polhcaria, basi saepius acuta, penninervia, rete venularum vix 

conspicua. Stipula breves, lata?, longe setaceo-cuspidatae. 

f lores fere R. reticulata et pariter 5-7- merae, sed sessiliores, 

calycis limbo latiore. Ovarium biloculare. Ovula placentis 

immersa, in quoque loculo sa3pius 4. Fructus ovato-globosus, 

laevis, 3 lin. longus. Seminu in quoque loculo 1-3, omnino 
Randies. 

This and the preceding species have much the habit and 

flowers of Coffea Arabica and its allies, although the structure 

°f the ovary is so different. 

7 - Randia longistyla, DC. Prod. 4. p. 388.— Gardenia longi- 
styla, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4322.— Oxyanthus villosus, G. 
Don. Gard. Diet. 3. p. 494. — Sierra Leone, Don, Whitfield; 
Senegambia. 
In the single ovary I examined, the placentas appeared 

acarcely to cohere in the axis, and I have not seen the fruit. 

Possibly this plant may form the type of a distinct genus. 
There is in Heudelot's Senegambian collection an unpublished 

species of Randia {Genipantha) allied to R. reticulata. 

*• Oxyanthus speciosus, DC. Prod. 4. p. 376.— Sierra Leone, 
Don. — Folia coriacea, basi acuta et subaequalia. 

2 - Oxyanthus formosus, Hook. fil. (Tab. XL. XLL); glaber- 
rimus, foliis amplis oblongis basi obliquis, corymbis irnilti- 
floris, calycis dentibus brevissimis acutis, corollae tubo foliis 

vix breviore. — Cape Pahnas, VogeL 

c c 2 



388 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

Caulis subherbaceus, erectus, subsimplex, ramis tetragonis ad 
nodos superiores compressiusculis. Folia breviter petiolata, 
majora 8-10 poll, longa, 2^-3 poll, lata, apice breviter acu- 
minata v. acutiuscula, basi oblique obtusa v. cordata, coriacea, 
penninervia. Stipulce lato-lanceolata?, interdum fere polli* 
cares. Corymbus axillaris, breviter pedunculatus, divisus in 
ramos plures 2-4-floros et fere in paniculam elongatus. Pe- 
dicelli ebracteati, circiter semipollicares. Calycis tubi pars 
adnata (seu ovarium) lineain longa, limbus ovario fere sequi- 
longus. Corolla tubus tenuis, 4-5 poll, longus, limbi lobis 
angustis pollice brevioribus, scstivatione imbricata. Anthers 
paullo infra apicem tubi subsessiles, lineares, apiculo brevi 
terminate. Ovarium biloculare; placentis peltatis, ovulis 
numerosis haud immersis. Stylus tubum corollas subsequans, 
apice fusiformis et acute brevissimeque bifidus. 

3. Oxyanthus Thonningii, Benth. ; pubescens, foliis oblongis 
basi valde obliquis truncatis, racemis brevibus pluriflons, 
calycis dentibus acuminatissimis. — Ucriana racemosa, Schum. 

et Thonn. Beskr. p. 107. — Accra, Vogel. 

Although the specimen is only in young fruit, without 
flowers, I have no hesitation in referring it to Thonning's plant, 
both from its description, and from the identity of the station. 
The calyx and the form of the leaves at the base prevent the 
uniting it with O. hirsutus, and the pubescence distinguishes it 
from O. speciosus. 
3. Oxyanthus breviflorus, Benth. ; glaberrimus, ramis ad nodos 

compressis, foliis amplis oblongis basi obliquis, corymbis 

multifloris, calycis dentibus brevissimis obsoletisve, corolla? 

tubo brevi. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

The leaves and inflorescence are exactly those of O. formosus, 
the flowers are too young to judge of their exact size, but they 
are evidently so very much shorter than those of O. formosus, 
and the teeth of the calyx so small or so nearly obsolete, that 
the specimens cannot belong to that species, nor yet to either of 
those described in the Prodromus. The branches are also 
much more compressed under the leaves, and the stipules 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 389 

smaller. One specimen is in fruit, which is a hard, almost dry, pear- 
shaped berry, and about an inch long, with two cells separated 
by a thin dissepiment almost obliterated in the pulpy placentae. 

Two other described species, O. tubiflorus, DC, and O. hir- 
sutus, DC, are both from Sierra Leone, and there is an unpub- 
lished one in Heudelot's Senegambian collection. 

The Megacarpha pyriformis, Hochst. Flora, 1844, p. 551, 
from Port Natal, is evidently an Oxyanthus, ciosely allied to O. 
breviflorus. 

1. Morelia Senegalensis, A. Rich.— DC. Prod. 4. p. 617. 
Ab6h, Vogel ; Sierra Leone, Don ; Senegal. 
This genus has considerable affinity with the small-fruited 
ttandia of the section Genipantka, from which it chiefly differs 
in the ovary being completely divided into four perfect cells. The 
ovules, of the shape of those of Randia, are two or three in 
number in each cell^ and more or less immersed in a fleshy 
placenta, peltately attached to the internal angle of the cell. 
The seeds are precisely those of Randia, 

*» Stylocoryne conferta, Benth. ; foliis obovato-oblongis acu- 
niinatis basi acutis subtus ad venas ramulisque minute pube- 
ruhs cseterum glabris, corymbis terminalibus subsessilibus 
densis, calycis pubescentis limbo acute 5-dentato, corolla 
lobis linearibus tubo suo sublongioribus. — On the Nun 
River, Vogel 
frutex humanae altitudinis. Ramuli juniores compresso-tetra- 
g°m, pili s minutis appresse puberuli, demum glabrati sub- 
teretes. Stipules persistentes, lata?, rigide membranaceae, cus- 
pidatae integral v. summse bicuspidata?. Folia 3-4-poIIicaria, 
pleraque obovata cum acumine semipollicari, rarius anguste 
oblonga, omnia basi acuta, petiolo 5-6-lineari, siccitate nigri- 
cantia, consistentia rigidule chartacea, supra nitidula. Co- 
rymbus intra folia summa tripartitus, ramis brevibus apice 
dense cymiferis, cymis singulis 10-20-floris, pedunculis com- 
pressis bracteisque minutis pubesccrtibus. Calycis tubus 
(seu ovarium) semilineam longus, limbus lineam longus, ad 
medium divisus in dentes 5 acutos subpatentcs, in frueta 
juniore pcrsistens, in maturo oblitcrjitus. Corolla cxtui 



390 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

glabra, alboviridis ex Vogel ; tubus tenuis, 2£ lin. longus, 
intus superne leviter pubescens ; limbi lacinia? 3 lin. longse, 
acuta?, sestivatione valde imbricata?. Anther ce lineares, ad 
faucem mediante filamento brevissimo inserta?, corolla? lacinus 
paullo breviores. Stylus corolla paullo longior, apice longe 
subclavatus, integer, medio minute papuloso-pubescens. Bacca 
junior calyce coronata, matura nuda, globosa, 4 lin. diametro, 
pericarpio tenuiter carnoso. Semina in quoque loculo plu- 
rima, irregulariter bemispha?rica, hilo lato ovato, placenta? 
peltatim affixa. 

2. Stylocoryne nitidula, Bentb. ; ramis glaberrimis, foliis ob- 
longis longe acuminatis basi acutis ad axillas venarum subtus 
barbulatis ca3terum glaberrimis, corymbis laxis tcrminalibus 
v. demum axillaribus, calycis glabri v. apice minute puberun 
limbo acute 5-dentato, corolla? lobis oblongo-linearibus tubo 
suo sublongioribus. — Sierra Leone, Vogel, Whitfield. 

Primo intuitu S. conferta simillima, sed folia angustiora, longius 
acuminata, axillae venarum plerseque minute foveolata? v. bar- 
bata?; pubes venarum et ramulorum omnino deest, et vix 
in inflorescentia apparet, et inflorescentia laxior. Calyces 
puberuli, lineam longi, dentibus brevissimis. Corolla fere 
S. confertce. Bacca juniores calyce coronata?, demum sub- 
nuda?. 

3. Stylocoryne grandiflora, Benth. ; glaberrima, foliis oblongis 
ellipticisve acuminatis basi acutis, corymbis laxis terminalibus 
sessilibus, calycis glabri limbo truncato obsolete dentato. 
Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Tota planta vel omnino pilis destituta, v. paucissimis munita 
ramulos inflorescentia?. Ramuli la?ves, teretes v. vix coni- 
pressi. Stipulce brevissima?, truncata?, margine subciliata? v. 
brevissime cuspidata?. Folia 4-6-pollicaria v. etiam longiora, 
basi longiuscule angustata, apice breviter acuminata, mem- 
branaceo-chartacea, utrinque viridia, la?via. Corymhi intra 
folia summa v. in axillis supremis sessiles, laxe trichotomo- 
ramosi, foliis multo breviores. Calyx 1£ lin. longus, turbi- 
nato-globosus, vix obsoletissime dentatus. Corolla tiibu> 
virens, pollicc paullo longior, consistentia quam in affinib^ 



in 



FLORA. NIGRITIANA. 391 

crassiore, vix superne latior ; limbi lacinise 4 lin. longae, ob- 
longae, obtusae, albidae, extus virescentes, sestivatione valde 
imbricata. Antherce ad faucem subsessiles, lineares, lacinias 
subaequantes. Stylus breviter exsertus, superne leviter in- 
crassatus. Ovarium 2-loculare, ovulis in quoque loculo 6, 
placenta membranacea v. vix carnosa immersis. Bacca de- 
presso-globosa. 

The three preceding species, as indeed the whole genus 
Stylocoryne, are closely allied to Pavetta in habit as well as in 
flowers, although so far removed by the many-ovulated cells 
of their ovary. 

1. Heinsia jasminiflora, DC. Prod. 4>. p. 390. — Sierra Leone, 
Don, Vogelj and others ; Fernando Po, Vogel. — A plant very 
nearly allied to the Mussaendte of the section Landia, es- 
pecially to M. elegans. The flowers, according to Vogel, are 
white with a yellow eye. 

1. Mussaenda Afzelii, G.Don, Gard. Diet. 3. p. 490 ; abortu 
dioica, ferrugineo-pubescens v. villosa, foliis petiolatis ellip- 
tico-oblongis breviter acuminatis basi subobtusis, cymis densis 
masculis multifloris corymbosis, foeminies solitariis paucifloris, 
sepalo bracteaeformi amplo albido villoso, calycis limbi lobis 
ovatis foliaceis ovario fcemineo multo brevioribus, corolla 
dense villosa. — Sierra Leone, Don; Aboh, Vogel; South of 
the Line, Curror. 
Prutex videtur subscandens. Ramuli teretes, pilis brevibus 
ferrugineis plus minus vestiti. Stipulce latae, bifida?, caducae. 
Folia 3-5-pollicaria v. raro longiora, latitudine varia, ad venas 
utrinque ferrugineo-pubescentia et inter venas pilis parvis 
conspersa, supra siccitate fusca, subtus pallida, veins paral- 
lelis prominentibus ; petioli 3-5 lin. longi. Cynue ad apices 
ramorum densiflorse, pilis aureis v. ferrugineis dense vestitse, 
masculaj saepius 3-4 in corymbum brevem dispositae, foennnese 
fere semper solitariae videntur. Bractea parvae. Calycis 
tubus per anthesin in fl. masculis 1J lin. longus, turbinatus, 
ovarium 2-3-loculare semiabortivum includens; limbus stel- 
lato-patens, 4-5 lin. diametro, lobis ovatis acuminatis utrinque 
villosis; calycis ex timi lobus bracteajfornm ssepe 3-poIlicans, 



392 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

in vivo (ex Vogel) albus, in sicco flavicans ; fioris foeminei 
calycis tubus 5-6 lin. longus, ovarium perfectum 2-3-loculare 
multiovulatum fovens. Corolla tubus pollicaris, basi tenuis, 
supra medium amplior, extus pilis reflexis dense vestitus, 
intus superne pilis longis aureis reflexis clausus. Anthera 
inclusse, lineares, in flore foemineo minores. Discus parvus 
glaber. Stylus apice 2-3-fidus, in flore masculo abbreviates, 
nunc brevissimus. Fructus oblongo-fusiformis, \\ poll, lon- 
gus, calycis vestigiis coronatus, durus, siccus, indehiscens, 

extus dense villosus. 

2. Mussaenda grandiflora, Benth. ; (abortu dioica ?) ferrugineo- 
villosa, foliis brevissime petiolatis ovatis oblongisve acuuu- 
natis basi obtusis, cymis (maseulis?) confertis corymbosis, 
calycis laciniis maximis ovato-oblongis acuminatis foliaceis 
tubo (masculo ?) pluries longioribus, extima bracteseformi 
maxima villosa, corolla villosissima. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

Ramuli teretes, superne prsesertim pilis longis ferrugmeis re- 
flexo-patentibus dense vestiti. Folia 3-4-pollicaria, utrinque 
praecipue ad venas ferrugineo-pilosa. Cymes in specimine 
plures, dense 5-6-flora3. Bract ece lineares 3-5 lin. longse. 
Calycis tubus 1£ lin. longus, limbi lobi 9 lin. longi, 31m. 
lati, basi angustiores, apice acute acuminati membranaceo- 

. foliacei (colorati?) utrinque villosi. Corollam apertam non 
vidi, alabastra jam calyces excedunt, villosissima sunt, tubo 
medio dilatato, pili interiores, stamina et stylus omnmo 
florum masculorum M. AfzeJii. 

3. Mussaenda tenuiflora, Benth. ; abortu dioica, scabro-hirtella, 
foliis petiolatis oblongo-ellipticis basi acutis, cymis multifloris 
masculis pluribus pedunculatis fcemineis paucioribus, calycis 
laciniis subulatis tubo sublongioribus, corolla calyce pluries 
longiore tenui extus villosa, fructu oblongo villoso ecostato 
calycis laciniis coronato. — Fernando Po, on the sea coast, 
Vogel. 

Rami et folia pilis brevibus rigidis plus minus conspersa v. 
vestita. Folia 3-5-pollicaria, breviter et acute acuminata, 
concoloria v. subtus pallida, petiolo brevi rarius polhcar 1 - 
Stipula acuta?, bifida?. Flores masculi in cymas densas con- 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 393 

gesti, sessiles. Bract ea parvse. Calycis tubus turbinatus, 
li lin. longus, villosus, laciniis subulatis basi subdilatatis 
2 lin. longis dernum stellato-patentibus ; lacinia bracteseformis 
longe petiolata 2-3-pollicaris. pubescens, albovirens. Corolla 
pollicaris, tubus tenuis, medio ampliatus, extus viridis, intus 
a medio ad apicem pilis flavis clausus; limbi lacinise 1^ lin. 
lougse, cuspidata?, reflexo-patentes, aurantiacse. Anther & 
Imeares, inclusae. Stylus brevis, nunc brevissimus. Ovarium 
biloculare, multiovulatum, sed post anthesin non grandescit 
et ovula abortiunt. Flores fceminei in corymbum laxiusculum 
simpliciorem dispositi, singuli breviter pedicellati, ovario seu 
Calycis tubo per antbesin ovato-oblongo jam 2-3 lin. Ion go. 
Calycis laciniae quam in mare tenuiores. Corolla maris sed 
in medio minus ampliata, antberis minoribus. Stylus tubo 
corolla? aequilongus, apice breviter bifidus. Fructus coriaceus, 
exsuccus, bilocularis, semipollicaris. 
4. Mussaenda Isertiana, DC. Prod. 4. p. 371. — Sierra Leone, 
Don ; Fernando Po, Vogel 

I hough generally smooth, or nearly so, this plant appears 
to be occasionally hairy. The flowers are like those of M. tenui- 
flora, from which however it is readily distinguished by the very 
s roall, broadly-lanceolate, pointed divisions or teeth of the calyx. 
P - laxiflora, pilis longis hispida, inflorescentia laxa. — Sierra 
Leone, Vogel.— A single specimen, with a few leaves and two 
fruits remaining on it. These are about 9 lines long, hairy, 
without ribs, and crowned by the very short teeth of the 
c »lyx. It may possibly be a distinct species, or, on the other 
hand, the mere female individual of M, Isertiana. 
5 - Mussaenda (Landia) elegans, Schum. — DC. Prod. 4. p. 372. 
— Bertiera coccinea, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 3. p. 506.— Sierra 
Leone, Aguapim, and Accra, Vogel, Don, and others ; Senegal 
and Guinea. 

A beautiful plant, with fiery red flowers, near 2 inches 
diameter when expanded, apparently variable in the hairiness 
and form of the leaves. The calycine lobes are usually sightly 
Elated above the middle, and occasionally one of them shows a 
tendency to expand into a green leaf. 



394 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

The M. erythrophylla, Schum. et Thonn., from Guinea, is 
the only remaining West African species of Mussaenda pub- 
lished. 

1. Bertiera Pomatium, Benth. — Pomatium spicatum, Gcsrtn. — 
DC. Prod. 4. p. 391.— Wendlandia pilosa, G. Don, Gard. 
Diet. 3. p. 519. — Sierra Leone, Vogel, Don; Senegal. 

I cannot find the slightest character to distinguish Pomativm 
as a genus from Bertiera. The teeth of the calyx are not really 
deciduous, but, originally very short, they become worn away as 
the fruit ripens. 

2. Bertiera laxa, Benth.; ramulis inflorescentiaque puberulis, 
foliis oblongis acuminatis basi angustatis supra glabns 
subtus minute puberulis, thyrsis laxis ilexuosis, floribus secus 
ramos paucis sessilibus, dentibus calycinis minimis, fructibus 
puberulis obscure striatis. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Ramuli novelli pube minuta subferruginei, rami annotini gla- 
brati. Stipulae foliacese, utrinque solitarise, et inter se basi 
brevissime connatse, vaginantes, semipollicares, oblongo-lan- 
ceolatse, acutse, ferrugineo-puberulse. Folia 4-7 poll, longa, 
li-2 poll, lata, membranacea v. demum subcoriacea, petiolo 
3-6 lin. longo. Panicula thyrsoidese, terminates, solitaria? 
v. geminse, foliis summis ssepius breviores, rhachide ilexu 
compressa ferrugineo-pubescente, bracteis parvis subu a 
acutis, ramis paucis simplicibus v. bifidis 3-8-flons. " i0 
solitarii, secus ramos sessiles v. ramos terminantes. ^a y 
pubescens, lineam longus, dentibus minutis obtusiuscuhs vi 
discum floris superantibus. Corolla (quam ipse non viai) 
icone a J. D. Hookero ad florem unicum depicto, calyce o-i 
longior, infundibuliformis, extus villosa, tubo tenui, luu 
5-lobo, sestivatione imbricata. Anthera lineares, basi sagi 
tatae. Fructus eo B. Guianensis paullo major, costis mmu 
prominentibus, cseterum omnino conformis, bilocularis, uis 
pimento tenui, seminibus angulatis placenta? parvis affixis. 

3. Bertiera? macrocarpa, Benth. — Wendlandia racemosa, 
Don, Gard. Diet. 3. p. 519. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

The fruit, on Don's specimen, is not a capsule, but fleshy an 
indehisccnt, ovate, about 4 lines long, crowned with the remains 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 395 

of a small cup-shaped calycine limb ; it is two-celled, with 
stipitate bifid placentae, and innumerable small flat angular 
seeds, not imbedded in pulp. The plant is therefore not a 
Wendiandia any more than the other West African species 
referred to that genus by Don. The specimen is without 
flowers, the habit and inflorescence are those of Bertiera, the 
leaves are 8 or 10 inches long, the branches of the thyrsus very 
short. The fruit, however, is much larger, and differently 
shaped from that of any Bertiera I am acquainted with ; the 
genus must therefore remain in some measure doubtful. 
I. Pouchetia Africana, DC. Prod. 4. p. 393.— Wendiandia 
virgata, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 3. p. 519.— Sierra Leone, 
Vogel.Don; Senegal. 
"edicelli calyce duplo longiores. Ovula in quoque loculo plu- 

rima, ab apice loculi pendula. 
*• rouchetia parviflora, Benth. ; foliis ovatis acuminatis, stipulis 
petiolo sublongioribus, floribus sessilibus in paniculis axilla- 
ribus fasciculatis.— Fernando Po, Vogel. 
Arbor parva, ramis horizontal ibus foliisque distichis ex Vog. 
folia pinnata simulantibus, tota glaberrima excepta pube in 
mflorescentia parca, ramulis teretibus ad nodos compressis. 
Folia breviter petiolata, 3-4-pollicaria, acumine ssepe semi- 
pollicari v. longiore, basi acuta, chartacea, siccitate fusca, 
subtus pallida. Stipulce lata?, longiuscule acuminata?, ca- 
nnatse, integral, 2-4 lin. longse. Panicula opposite, folia 
8ubaequantes, parum ramosae, floribus interrupte fasciculatis 
sessilibus quam in P. Africana multo minoribus. Bractea* 
minute. Calyces semilineam longi,- dentibus 5 acutis. 
Corolla alba, infundibuliformis, tubo f lin. longo, limbo tubo 
*quilongo 5-fido, laciniis oblongis patentibus, a?stivatione im- 
bricatis. Stamina ad faucem inserta, filamentis brevissimis, 
antheris oblongo-linearibus exsertis. Stylus supra medium 
bifidus. Ovarium biloculare, ovulis in quoque loculo ge- 
minis, ab apice loculi pendulis. Fructus non vidi. 
Wendiandia sulcata, of Don, from Sierra Leone, may be 
another Bertiera or Pouchetia, but there is no specimen in his 
collection which I can identify with his description. The labels 



396 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

" Hedyotis sulcata" and " Hedyotis pilosa" were botli with the 

specimens of Bertiera Pomatium, the former, however, had 

evidently been misplaced. 

1. Urophyllum rubens, Benth. ; foliispetiolatis elliptico-oblongis 
vix acuminatis basi acutis coriaceis nitidis ramisque gla- 
berrimis, cymis multifloris petiolos vix sequantibus, calycis 

limbo integerrimo. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 
Frutex orgyalis, ramis teretibus v. vix compressis. Stipula 
foliacese, lineari-oblongse v. obovatse, 4-6 lin. Ion gas. Folia 
4-5 poll, longa, 2-2£ poll, lata, margine leviter revoluta, 
coriacea, nitidula, penninervia, siccitate rubentia, in vivo 
utrinque viridia; petiolo semipollicari v. paullo longiore. 
Pedunculi axillares, 3-4 lin. longi, minute puberuli, apice 
cymam ferentes 10-20-floram. Flores fere U. glabri. Calyx 
brevis, limbo cyathiformi truncato edentulo. Corolla 1 2 nn ' 
longa, extus glabra, tubo brevi, intus ad faucem villosissimo, 
laciniis 5 sestivatione valvatis. Ovarium 4-loculare, disco 
crasso umbilicato P radiatim sulcato coronatum. Stylus 5-sul- 
catus, apice fusiformis acutiusculus subbilobus. Ovula m 
loculis numerosa, placentis axilibus vix carnosis affixa. 
There is no doubt that this plant is congener with Uro- 
phyllum, Wall., (1824), which includes Axanthes, Blum., 
(1825), and in many respects allied to U. glabrum, although the 
ovary is only four- celled in the flowers I have examined, and the 
style entire, but apparently divisible into two lobes. The 
number of cells varies in some of the Eastern species from four 
to five, in others I find, as in this species, 4 cells with a two- 
lobed style, and sometimes two of the dissepiments have ap- 
peared to me to be not quite complete. The external furrows, 
in this, as in other thickened styles, depend, not on the number 
of its divisions, but upon the pressure of the external organs^ 
the stamens or the edges of the petals, with which they 
generally agree in number. The genus extends over the whole 
of the East, from Madagascar to the Philippine Islands, and 
is apparently numerous in species ; it corresponds among mul- 
tiovulate Rubiacea to Lusianthus and Vangueria among the 
uniovulate genera. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 397 

2. Urophyllum hirtellum, Benth. ; ramis puberulis, foliis ainplis 
obovali-ellipticis subacuminatis basi acutis chartaceis subtus 
hirtis, cymis multinoris fructiferis laxis petiolos subaequanti- 
bus, calycis limbo integro. — Abob, Vogel. 

Hamuli obscure quadrilaterals. Folia 8-10 poll, longa, 3-4 
poll, lata, acumine brevi acutissimo, basi longe angustata in 
petiolum 1-2-pollicarem, consistentia cbartacea, supra minute 
et sparse puberula, subtus pilis sparsis hirta, venis parallelis 
more fere Dilleniacearum subtus valde prominentibus. Nee 
stipulas nee flores vidi. Baccce magnitudine Ribesios rubra, 
jumores limbo ealycino tandem fere obliterato coronatse, 4-5- 
loculares. Semina numerosa, ut in cseteris speciebus foveo- 
lato-exculpta. 

1. Sabicea ferruyinea, Bentb.; ramulis villosis, foliis ovatis 
oblongisve subtus ferrugineo-tomentosis, stipulis subcordato- 
ovatis magnis, floribus in capitulo longe pedunculato involu- 
crato numerosis sessilibus, calycis laciniis lineari-subulatis 
tubo subduplo longioribus. — Cepbaelis ferruginea, G. Don, 
Card. Did. 3. p. 605.— Sierra Leone, Don. 

Kami scandentes ?, ramuli teretes, uti petioli et nervi foliorum 
pilis ferrugineis appressis dense vestiti. Folia 3-5-pollicaria, 
petiolo semipollicari, latius v. angustius ovata, acuminata, basi 
obtusa, supra siccitate nigricantia, ad venas birtella et pilis 
paucis parvis conspersa, subtus dense obtecta tomento ferru- 
gmeo molli. Stipules petiolo aequilongae v. longiores, foliaceae, 
mtus glabrae, extus pilosa?, 3-5-costata?, integne et acutius- 
culae v. superiores bicuspidatse. Pedunculi in axillis solitarii, 
3-4-pollicares, ad apicem capitulum ferunt depresso-globosum, 
H-2 poll, diametro, 30-50-florum. Bractea involucrantes 
6-10, foliaceae, ovato-lanceolatae, acute acuminata?, flores sub- 
aequantes, uninerves, pilosa?, extima? latiores intima? angustae. 
Flores subsessiles, omnino Sabicea, 4-5-meri. Calycis pilosi 
tubus adba?rens 1 lin. longus, pars limbi tubulosa 1 tin* 
lacinia? subulata? molles pilosa? 4 lin. longa?. Corolla semi- 
pollicaris, tubulosa, extus basi glabra superne appressc pilosa, 
intus basi glabra supra medium pilosa, laciniis extus villosis 
intus basi glaberrimis, aestivatione valvatis. Stamina infra 



398 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



) 



medium tubi inserta, inclusa, filamentis brevissimis, antheris 
oblongo-linearibus. Stylus corollam sequans, apice 4-5-fidus, 
lobis spathulatis intus stigmatosis. Ovarium 4-5-loculare, 
loculis niultiovulatis. 

2. Sabicea capitellata, Benth. ; ramulis villosis, foliis ovatis 
oblongisve subtus dense albido-tomentosis, stipulis brevibus 
late rotundatis, floribus in capitulis oppositis breviter pedun- 
culatis pluribns sessilibus, calycis laciniis linearibus tubo vix 
longioribus. — Fernando Po, on tbe sea shore, Vogel. 

Frutex sarmentosus S. cinerea, Aubl., simillima. Folia 3-4- 
pollicaria, late v. anguste ovata, plus minus acuminata, basi 
rotundata v. superiora angustata, supra pilis brevibus raris 
conspersa, subtus tomento albido v. lev iter ferrugineo vestita 
petiolo semipollicari v. longiore. Stipulce (saltern superiores) 
latiores quam longse, obtusissimae, undulatse. Capitula 6-10- 
flora, pedunculo 1-3 lin. longo fulta, globosa, semipolliceDi 
diametro. Bractece involucrantes 4-6, ovatse, acutse, villo- 
sissima3, exteriores lata3 concavse. Flores 5-meri. Calycis 
villosissimi lacinise demum stellato-patentes. Corolla 5 un» 
longa, extus superne villosa, laciniis paten tibus crassiusculi 
intus glabris, sestivatione valvata. Fructus pisi magnitudinis, 
globosus, villosissimus, calycis limbo coronatus, 5-loculan», 
polyspermus. 

3. Sabicea Vogelii, Benth.; foliis ovatis oblongisve utrinque 
viridibus ramulisque birtis, stipulis ovatis, umbellis breviter 
pedunculatis multifloris, calycis laciniis linearibus submenu 
branaceis tubo suo pluries longioribus. — Sierra Leone, 
Vogel. 

Frutex sarmentosus, habitu et foliis S. hirta, Sw., simil- 
limus. Ramuli tenues, nunc dense birsuti, nunc fere 
glabri. Folia 2-3-pollicaria, rarius longiora, plus niinu 8 
acuminata, basi rotundata v. acuta, utrinque pilis longiuscul. 
hirta, subtus pallidiora, at minime albida nee tomentosa. 
StipuUe quam in S. hirta minus dilatatae. Pedunculi 2-6 
lin. longi, apice 10-20-flori. Bractece involucrantes 2 v. *, 
oblongse. Flores omnes pedicellati, pedicellis valde in«qua- 
libus (1-4 lin. longis) hirtis. Calycis tubus birsutissimus, 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 399 

vix lineam longus, laciniae 3-4 lin. longae, subfoliaceae, supra 

glabrae, subtus hirsute, |-f lin. lata*. Corolla calycis lacinias 

aequans (v. breviter superans ?), laciniae 5, extus villosae, intus 

glabrae, aestivatione valvata. Ovarium 5-loculare, multiovu- 

latum. Fructus globosus, \\ lin. diametro, calycis limbo 
coronatus. 

p. villosior, floribus in capitulo [subsessilibus.— Sierra Leone, 
Don. 

4. Sabicea venosa, Benth. ; foliis ovatis utrinque viridibus ra- 
mulisque hirsutis, stipulis ovatis, corymbis breviter peduncu- 
latis oppositis laxe multifloris, calycis laciniis linear i-lanceo- 
latis tubo suo duplo longioribus corollae tubo multo breviori- 
bus.— Virecta lutea, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 3. p. 521 ?— Sierra 
Leone, Don ; Senegambia, Heudelot. 

Pnecedenti et S. hirtce quoad babitus et folia similis ; hsec vero 
8ubtus magis villosa, venis parallelis numerosis in pagina 
mferiore prominent ibus. Pedunculi 2-4 lin. longi. Flares 
Bee in capitulum nee in umbellam conferti, sed pedunculi 
ramuli plus minus evolvuntur et cymam formant petiolo 
sublongiorem. Bracteae paucae, parvse, lanceolate. Pedi- 
celli ultimi calycis tubo breviores. Calycis tubus villosus, 
flin. longus; laciniae 4 v. 5, inaequales, majores 1^ v. raro 
2 lin. longae. Corolla tubus villosus, 4 lin. longus, laciniae 
4-5, intus glabrae. Fructus 1£ lin. diametro, 4-5-locuIaris. 

5 - Sabicea calycina, Bentb. ; foliis ovali-oblongis cordatis utrin- 
que viridibus ramulisque hirtellis, stipulis ovatis, umbcllis 
longe pedunculatis multifloris, calycis laciniis majoribus ovatis 
coloratis tubo multoties longioribus. — Fernando Po, VogeL 

Rami volubiles, pilis appressis plus minus hirti. Folia 3-4- 
pollicaria, acuminata, basi auriculis rotundatis cordata, mem- 
branacea, utrinque viridia, ad venas birsuta et inter venas 
pilis paucis conspersa. Petioli saepe pollicares. Stipule fo- 
liaceae, 3-4 lin. longae. Pedunculi fere glabri, 2-3-pollicares, 
apice 10-20-flori. Bracteas involucrantes semipollicares, ob- 
tusse, 4 exteriores latissime subcordatae, interiores ovate, 
membranaceae, virentes v. subcoloratae. Pedicelli valde mse- 
quales, uti calyces fere glabri. Calycis tubus lineam longus, 



400 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

lacinise 3-5, valde insequales, membranaceae, foliaceae, rubi- 
cundae, majores 6-7 lin. longae, 3 lin. latae. Corolla 8-9 lin. 
longa, alba, saepius pentamera, glabra, laciniis brevibus ovatis, 
aestivatione ut videtur valvata. Fructus \\ lin. longus, car- 
nosulus, 4-5-locularis. 



Peltospermum, (gen. nov.) e tribu Rondeletiarum. 

* 

Calycis dentes 5, breves, persistentes. Corolla infundibuh- 
formis faux intus villosa, limbi lobi 5, subpatentes, sesti- 
vatione valvata. Stamina versus apicem tubi inserta, fila- 
mentis brevibus. Ovarium biloeulare loculis pluriovulatis, 
disco crasso coronatum, stylo apice oblongo-clavato subm- 
tegro. Capsula dicocca, coccis apice loculicide dehiscentibus. 
Semina plurima, placentae carnosae peltatim affixa, orbiculata, 
margine hyalina at non alata. — Frutex Africanus. Stipute 
utrinque solitariae latae cuspidatae. Panicula terminally 
ramis oppositis bifidis, floribus secus ramulos sessilibus. 

1. Peltospermum paniculatum, Benth. —Fernando Po, on the 
sea coast, Vogel ; Senegambia, Heudelot. 

Frutex ex Vog., arborescens, ramis teretibus v. compressius- 
culis. novellis minute bifariam puberulis, adultis glabratis. 
Stipules breves, lata?, herbaceae, acumine subulato breu 
cuspidatae, glabra?, decidual v. potius aetate obliterate. 
Folia ovato-lanceolata v. oblonga, acuta, basi cuneata, 3-4 
poll, longa, membranacea, penninetvia, glabra v. ad venas 
subtus puberula, petiolo 3-6 lin. longo. Panicula ter- 
minalis, laxe thyrsoidea, semipedalis ad pedalem, glabra * 
minute puberula, ramis oppositis inter se distantibus rigiclis 
2-4-pollicaribus infra medium bifidis v. inferioribus itcrum 
paniculatis. Folia floralia infima interdum caulinis sub- 
similia, caetera ad bracteas reducta. Bractea ramulorum 
minutae. Flores secus ramulos 1-3-natim sessiles, uno s?epe 
in bifurcation alari. Calyx | lin. longus, tubo omnino 
adnato, limbo in dentes 5 parvos acutos <aequales diviso. 
Corolla 4 lin. longa, extus glabra, intus supra medium pilosa, 
tubus tenuis supra medium in faucem ampliatus; li™ bl 



FLORA N1GRITIANA. 401 

lacinise breves, acutse, vix patentes, intus extusque glabrae, apice 
brevissime inflexo-mucronatse. Anthers parvse, versus apicein 
tubi (ad basin faucis) subsessiles, omnino inclusa3. Stylus 
apice diktat us in massam oblongam vix brevissime emargi- 
natam. Capsula subglobosa, dura, l|-2 lin. longa, dentibus 
calycmis coronata, maturitate septicide bipartita, coccis apice 
breviter transversim dehiscentibus. Placenta dissepimento 
pejtatini affixse, crassse, carnosse. Semina in quaque placenta 
circa 15, semiimmersa, irregulariter orbiculato-depressa, testa 
membranacea in marginem periphericam hyalinam sed crassi- 
usculam nee vere alseformem dilatata. Embryo brevis. 
The affinity of this genus with Lerchea is evident, but 
independently of the great difference in habit and inflo- 
rescence, the fruit of Lerchea consists rather of the in- 
dehiscent cocci of Metabolos and Gonzalea than of the 
dehiscent capsules of the majority of Ron dele tie<e, and the 
included stamens, the seeds and placentation will supply suf- 
ficient distinctive characters between the two genera; whilst 
those indicated by Bennett as separating Lerchea from Wend- 
landia and other Rondeletiece , will also serve to separate Pelto- 
*permum from them. The margin of the seed shows (at least 
m the dry state) an approach to the wings of some Cinchoneous 
seeds, but less decided than in several plants retained among 
Rondeletiece. The inflorescence of our genus is that of Bertiera, 
but the carpological, as well as floral characters, are very 
different. 

*- V irecta procumbens, Sm. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

Of the Virecta multiflora, Sm., I have a Sierra Leone spe- 
cimen, but not from either of the collections now described. 
T he V. paniculata, Don, from Sierra Leone, is not in his her- 
barium under that name, and probably does not belong to 
th e genus. V. elatior, DC, from Angola, is unknown to me, 
and may possibly be a Pentas. 

The Argostemma pumilum, Benn., from Sierra Leone, is not 
m our collections. 
*• Pentas parviflora, Benth. in Bot. Mag. sub t. 4086.— Accra, 

VogeL 

D D 



402 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

Rami volubiles, novelli pilis paucis brevibus subglandulosis hir- 
telli, demum glabrati. Stipulae breviter vaginantes, setis 
utrinque 2-3 glandulosis. Folia 2-3 poll, longa, circa pol- 
licem lata, acutiuscule acuminata, basi in petiolum brevem 
angustata, membranacea, utrinque viridia, subtus pallidiora, 
supra pilis brevibus raris conspersa, subtus ad costas pinnatas 
elevatas pubescentia, inter costas subavenia, glabra. Cyma 
terminales, pedunculate v. rarius foliis floralibus 2 stipatae 
quam folia caulina multo angustioribus. Flores secus cymtf 
ramos breves subfasciculatos subsessiles. Bractea parvse, 

■ 

lanceolate. Calycis extus glanduloso-hirtelli tubus semi- 
lineam longus, limbi lacinise 6, lineares, subfoliacese, ra«- 
quales, majores lineam longse. Corolla, ex Vog. ccerulescens, 
extus glabra ; tubus 3 lin. longus, intus supra medium bar- 
batus, caeterum glaber ; lacinise 5, vix f lin. longse, acutius- 
culse, utrinque glabrae, sestivatione valvata v. vix leviter inibri- 
cata. Stamina tubo inclusa, in parte superiore intra puo s 
inserta, filamentis brevibus, antneris linearibus medinxis. 
Ovarium biloculare, placentis peltatis, ovulis numerosis non 
immersis. Stylus apice clavatus, bifidus. Capsula septicide 
breviter divisa, coccis intus apice dehiscentibus. Semina 



angulata. 



This genus was founded on the Pent as carnea of our gardens, 
the origin of which is unknown, but is most probably Tropical 
African. Two other W. African species, Virecta elatior, DC, 
from Angola, and Hedyotis pentandra, Schum. et Thonn., fr° m 
Guinea, have been referred to the same genus, though witb 
some doubt. 

1. Kohautia rigida, Benth. ; ramis trichotomis fasciculatis di- 
varicatis, foliis anguste linearibus obtusis, stipulis vaginanti- 
bus breviter setiferis v. nudis, floribus trichotome corymbosis, 
corollae lobis oblongo-linearibus, capsula dentes calycinos su- 
perante.— West Africa, south of the Line, Curror. 
Caules rigidi, ephedroidei, ramuli ssepe fasciculati, foliis abortivis 
intermixtis. Folia pauca, distantia, 1 -H-pollicaria, crassius- 
cula, avenia. Inflorescentia K. grandiflora, sed flores minor** 
K. strides. Calyx turbinatus, semilineam longus, dentibus 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 403 

latis obtusiusculis. Corolla intus extusque glabra; tubus 
fere 5 lin. longus, tenuis, superne abrupte ampliatus et sub 
limbo constrictus; lirabi laciniae \\ lin. longse, sestivatione 
levissime imbricatse. Capsula compresso-globosa, calycis 
tubo omnino adnato fere duplo longior, apice loculicide 
dehiscens, ad medium dentibus calycinis parvis circumdata. 
Semina plurima (in quoque loculo 8-10), placentis crassius- 
culis semiimmersa, ovoidea, lateraliter affixa. 
2. Kohautia parviflora, Benth. ; foliis lineari-subulatis margine 
subrevolutis, stipulis vaginantibus utrinque bisetis, floribus 
secus ramos paniculse 2-3-chotomos breviter pedicellatis sub- 
fasciculatis, corollse parvse laciniis oblongis, calycis dentibus 
acutissimis capsulam superantibus. — Attah and Accra, Vogel, 
Ansell, Bon. 

Caules raniosissimi, erecti, virgati, graciles, glabri. Folia tenuia, 
ngidula, majora pollicaria, pleraque multo minora. Inflo- 
rescentia irregulariter fasciculato-corymbosa, pedicellis ultimis 
ssepius calyce brevioribus v. paullo longioribus. Denies ca- 
lycini tubo calycis florentis turbinato longiores, acutissimi. 
Corolla vix 2 lin. longa, laciniis limbi sestivatione subvalvatis, 
caeterum uti antherae et stylus omnino Kohautice. Capsula 
compressa-globosa, subdidyma, vix apice brevissime libera, 
dentibus calycinis acutissimis distantibus coronata, loculicide 
bivalvis. Placenta crassiusculae, seminibus numerosis angu- 
latis semiimmersis. 

This may possibly be the Hedyotis stricta, Sm., from Sierra 
Leone, but it certainly is not the Kohautia stricta, DC, from 
Senegal, which that author describes as having the tube of the 
corolla 5 lines long. 

Besides the K. stricta, there are three other W. African 
species known, all from Senegal, viz. : K. grandiflora, DC, 
#. Senegalensis, Cham. Schl., and an undescribed small-flowered 
one. 

1. Oldenlandia virgata, DC Prod. 4. p. 425.— Accra, Don ; 
Sierra Leone. 

2. Oldenlandia herbacea, DC Prod. 4. p. 455 ? var. czespitosa, 

d d 2 



404 FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 

procumbens. — Cape Palinas, Vogel. — A small plant, with the 
habit of O. pumila, but with the capsules of O. herbacea and 
corymbosa. I have not been able to find any flowers. The 
species to which I have referred it is apparently a common 
one in Tropical countries. 

3. Oldenlandia corymbosa, Lam.— DC. Prod. 4. p. 426.— In 
various parts along the coast and on the Niger. — It is another 
of the common Tropical weeds. The lower part of the plant 
in the African specimen is sometimes hairy, and the stipules 
vary much in length. 

4. Oldenlandia laxiflora, Benth.j glaberrima, caule elongato, 
foliis subsessilibus oblongis lanceolatisve uninervibus flaccidis, 
pedunculis axillaribus elongatis apice laxe dichotomis, calycis 
fructiferi truncati dentibus 4 parvis remotis. — On. the Nun 
River, Vogel. 

Caules flaccidi, pluripedales. Folia 2-3 poll, longa, i-1 poll* 
lata, tenuia, laetevirentia. Stipula vaginantes, truncate, 
nudse v. utrinque 1-2-setse. Pedunculi axillares, i-2-poln- 
cares, apice dichotomi, ramis divaricatis, pedicellis ultimis 
3 lin. longis unifloris. Corollas non vidi. Calyces fructiferi 
1J lin. longi, paullo latiores, lateraliter compressi, apice trun- 
cati, dentibus parvis acutis. Capsula calyce paullo brevior, 
apice rima loculicida dehiscens. 

This appears to have some affinity with O. macrophyUa and 
O. pentandra, but the former is described as having the pe- 
duncles racemiferous, with opposite pedicels, and the latter 
as being pentamerous, on which account it may possibly be 
a species of Pentas, although the number of parts is not the 
character to be relied on for the distinction of the latter genus. 
Besides the four species above enumerated, seven species oi 
Oldenlandia are described as West African, viz. : O. sabulosa, 
DC, O. riparia, DC, O. linearis, DC, and O. macrophyUa, 
Lepr, Perr., from Senegal; O. lancifolia, DC, O. longifofa> 
DC, and O. pentandra, DC, from Guinea ; but these annual 
weeds vary so much in appearance, according to age, season, 
or station, that it is very probable a more careful investigation 
would much reduce the supposed number of species. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 405 

■ 

There is also one true Hedyotis, from Senegambia; H. 
Goreensis, DC. 



Otomeria, (gen. nov.) e tribu Hedyotidearum. 

Char. Gen. — Calycis tubus oblongus, limbus 4-5-partitus, la- 

cmia altera foliacea caeteris multo longiore. Corollas tubus 

nliformis, apice paullo dilatatus, ad faucem intus pilosus, 

lunbi laciniis 5 lineari-oblongis, sestivatione imbricata. An- 

therce lineares, intra villos faucis subsessiles. Stylus disco 

carnoso impositus, filiformis, apice vix brevissime bifidus. 

Ovarium biloculare, loculis multiovulatis. Capsula oblonga, 

caiycis laciniis coronata, submembranaceo-dicocca, coccis intus 

longitudinaliter dehiscentibus placentas lineares denudanti- 

bus. Semina plurima ovoidea v. angulata. — Habitus Otio- 
phorce. 

1. Otomeria Guineensis, Benth. — Grand Bassa, Vogel, Ansell 
bvjfrutex ramosus, bipedalis; ramis herbaceis teretibus v. 
obsolete tetragonis, prsesertim ad nodos pilosis, demum gla- 
bratis. Vagina stipulares brevissimse, divisse in lacinias 
ciliseformes pilosas utrinque circa 6. Folia petiolata, 1-1 J- 
pollicaria, ovata, acutiuscula, basi cuneata, inembranacea, 
penninervia, ad costas petiolosque parce pilosa, cseterum glabra. 
apiece terminales, solitariae v. ternse, semipedales, glabrae v. 
mmute puberulae, interrupte multiflora?. Flores secus rhachin 
geminatim sessiles, fasciculis alternis, in spica juniore ap- 
proximatis, demum remotis, bracteis minutis fultis. Calycis 
tubus glaber, per anthesin lineam longus, lacinia maxima 
2 lin. longa, oblonga v. lanceolata, viridis, glabra, cseterse 
multo minores, dentiformes, inter se insequales, una saepe 
deficiente. Corolla tubus tenuissimus, 3 lin. longus, 
extus subglaber; limbi lacinia- vix lineam longae, extus hir- 
tellae, intus glabrae. Capsula 2 lin. longa, latcraliter sulcata. 
Semina in quoque loculo 10-20, mutua pressione difformia, 
testa tenui foveolato-exculpta, albumine carnoso, embryone 
recto. 
This curious genus has so exactly the peculiar inflorescence 



406 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

and flowers of Otiophora, Zucc, (from Madagascar), that I 
could scarcely convince myself that it was really distinct without 
the examination of a considerable number of ovaria and capsules 
of both plants, the one being constantly polyspermous, and 
therefore a Hedyotidea, whilst the other has the monospermous 



rmacocea 



1. Morinda quadrangularis, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 3.^. 545. 
Sierra Leone, Don, Vogel. 
This is a true Morinda, with the leaves nearly of M. citrifolia, 

and is allied to that species, but is remarkable by the quadran- 
gular branches and compressed peduncles. The heads of flowers 
are also much smaller than in M. citrifolia. 

2. Morinda lucida, Benth. ; arborea, glaberrima, ramis subte- 
retibus, foliis brevissime petiolatis ovalibus nitidulis, stipuhs 
abbreviatis, pedunculis oppositifoliis subternis compressius- 
culis, capitulis parvis globosis. — On the Quorra and Fernando 



Po, Vogel. 



vix 2-^2 

in 



lin. longus et consistentia forte subcarnosa. Stipula 
ramulis novellis brevissimse, latse, subbifidse, mox fere oblite- 
rate. Pedunculi tenues, sesquipollicares. Capitula quam 
in M. citrifolia multo minora. Baccce in capitulo paucse, 
omnino connatse in syncarpium subglobosum 8-9 lin. dia- 
metro, singula? 4-pyrense, pyrenis monospermis. 
3. Morinda longiflora, G. Bon, Gard. Diet. 3. p. 555.— Sierra 

Leone, Don. 
Frutex scandens, ramulis floriferis supra-axillaribus opposes. 
Pedunculi in axillis oppositi, et ad apices ramulorum term, 
breves, 3-5-flori. Ovaria connata, 4-locularia, loculis nni- 
ovulatis. Calycis limbus cupularis, truncatus, ovario aeqm- 
longus. Corolla fere bipollicaris. 

Another specimen, gathered by Vogel in Fernando Po, looks 
very much like Don's plant, but it is in leaf only, with the remains 
of fruit-bearing peduncles. One of these peduncles has at its 
extremity a singular peltate expansion, the nature of which 
does not clearly appear. 

Three other niihlishpd MnrinJ*, «*.« A.««i IV Trnniral Africa 1 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 407 

M. geminata, DC., from Senegal, which appears to differ from 

M. lucida chiefly by its pubescence; M. palmetorum, DC, 

from Senegal, and M. chrysorhiza, DC, from Guinea, which 

latter is very near to M. quadrangular is. 

1. Cuviera acutiflora, DC. Prod. 4. p. 468.— Sierra Leone, 
Don, Whitfield ; Grand Bassa, Vogel. 

folia alia 4-6 poll, lata, subsessilia ; alia longiora, angustiora, 
distincte petiolata, omnia coriacea, basi subsequalia et acuta. 
Cymts dichotomy, paniculseformes, multiflorse, in axillis su- 
penoribus v. ad apices ramulorum oppositse, breviter pedun- 
culate. Bractea lineares, basi angustatse, 3-6 lin. longse. 
Flores sessiles. Calycis lacinise 3-4 lin. longse, bracteis 
similes. Corolla tubus 2 lin. latus, late turbinatus, intus 
extusque glaber nisi intus medio pilis paleaceis reflexis 
densis annulatus ; lacinise 4 lin. longse, lanceolatse, subulato- 
acutissimse, rigidulse, sestivatione valvata, per anthesin reflexse. 
Anthera paroe, oblongse, mediantibus filamentis brevibus ad 
sinus laciniarum corollse affixse, per anthesin extus reflexse. 
Ovarium 5-loculare, ovulis solitariis, infra apicem affixis, 
pendulis. Drupa ovoidea, 9-10 lin. longa, obtuse pentagona, 
calycis laciniis coronata, intus pentapyrena. 

2 - Cuviera subuliflora, Benth. ; foliis oblongis basi obliquis 
subcordatis, cymis axillaribus subsessilibus floribundis, corollse 
laciniis longissime subulato-acuminatis. —Fernando Po, on 
the sea shore, and, apparently the same species, at Aboh, 
growing in the water, Vogel 

Frutex arborescens, totus glaber, ramulis lsevibus subteretibus. 
Folia subsessilia, semipedalia ad pedalia, breviter acuminata, 
basi valde obliqua lata v. angustata et plus minus semicor- 
data, consistentia chartacea v. vix coriacea. Stipula latse, 
connatse, in specimine pleneque jam detritse. Cym<e panicu- 
lseformes, breviores confertiores et sessiliores quam to C. acu- 
tiflora. Bractece et lacunae calycinse multo longiores et 
acutiores, post anthesin accretse ; lacinias vidi calycinas usque 
ad pollicem longas et bracteas sesquipollicares, per anthesin 
tamen breviores et angustiores sunt. Corolla, in speeumni- 
bus male desiccate, iis C. acutiflora paullo minores sunt, 



408 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

laciniis tameti acumine subulato 3-4 lin. longo terminals. 
Annulus internus tubi e paleis brevibus reflexis constat. 
Stamina versus apicem tubi inserta, antheris ovato-oblongis 
connectivo acuminatis. Ovarium 5-loculare, ovulis solitams 
pendulis. Stigma C. acuti flora. 

The Pachystigma venosum, Hochst., from South-east Africa, 
appears to be a third species of Cuviera, a genus which comes 
very near to Vangueria and Canthium, as well in inflorescence, 
aestivation, style and ovules, as in the curious ring of reflexed, 
often scaly hairs, in the tube of the corolla. 

The Ancylanthus rubiglnosus, Desf., from Angola, is not 
among our collections. 

1. Vangueria? canthioides, Benth. ,• inermis, pubescenti-hirta, 
foliis ovatis oblongisve acuminatis basi rotundatis, cymis bre- 
vissime pedunculatis subtrifloris, corollse pentamerse tubo 
supra medium annulato. — Sierra Leone, Don. 
Habitus fere Cant hit discolor is, sed ovarii loculi 4 v. rarius o. 
Ramuli pilis brevibus runs hirti. Folia vix bipollicana, ob- 
tuse acuminata, subtus pallida, utrinque pilis brevibus hirtella. 
Flore* breviter pedicellati. Calyx hirtellus, | K»- longus, 
limbo brevissimo 5-dentato. Corolla extus glaber; tuou 
calyce duplo longior, intus supra medium pilis longis renexis 
paleaceis annulatus ; limbi laciniae glabrae, reflexae, tubo vix 
breviores. Stylus apice globoso-capitatus, obsolete 4-den- 
tatus. 

As Vangueria and Canthium are only known from each other, 
when in flower, by the number of cells of the ovary, this plant 
must, in the absence of fruit, be referred to the former genus, 
although in habit it comes so very near to some Canthia. 
1. Canthium horizontal*, Benth. — Phallaria horizontal, Schum. 
et Thonn. Beskr. p. 112.— Cape Coast, Vogel ; Guinea. 
Although I have not seen Thonning's specimens, his descrip- 
tion indicates most clearly a Canthium, and Vogel's single 
specimen, although in fruit only, agrees with it as far as it 
goes. Like the rest of the genus, the fruit is generally very 
oblique, and reduced to a single cell, although occasionally * 
perfect didymous two-celled berry is met with. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 409 

2, Canthium discolor, Benth. ; inerme v. rarius spinosum, foliis . 
ovatis oblongisve acuminatis basi cuneatis subtus pallidis ad 
venas ramulisque novellis rufo-pubescentibus, cymis pedun- 
culatis ramosis multifloris, corolla? pentamera? tubo ad me- 
dium annulate — Sierra Leone, Bon, Vogel. 

apecimina inermia, ramo unico vetustiore excepto, cui spina? 
axillares opposite divaricate 8-10 lin. longse (pedunculi abor- 
tivi ?) ; partes novelli pube brevi rufescunt, adulti glabrati. 
rolia subbipollicaria v. raro longiora, acumine brevi obtuso, 
basi acuta v. obtusiuscula at minime cordata, consistentia 
membranaceo-chartacea, supra siccitate fusca, subtus pallida 
sublutescentia, reticulato-venosa ; petiolo bilineari. Stipule e 
basi latiuscula subulate, 1-3 lin. longe. Cyme breviter pe- 
dunculate, multiflore, dimidium folii subequantes. Calycis 
bmbus 5-fidus, lobis parvis ovatis obtusiusculis patentibus. 
Corolla 2 lin. longa, tubuloso-cauipanulata, intus versus 
medium pilis reflexis subpaleaceis annulata, ceterum intus 
ext usque glabra, lobis 5 reflexis dimidium tubi sequantibus, 
aestivatione valvata. Stylus exsertus, apice nodoso-incrassatus, 
summo apice minute bifidus et stigmatosus, sub stigmate ap- 
pendice mitrseformi auctus. Fructus ut in affinibus nunc 
didymus, nunc loculo altero abortiente dimidiatus, obliquus. 
I should have taken this for the Phallaria spinosa, Schum. 

et Thonn., but that the two branches of each cyme are said to 

be in that plant simplicissimi, and the leaves are described as 

larger. 

3. Canthium hispidum, Benth. ; foliis brevissime petiolatis cor- 
dato-ovatis oblongisve ramulisque pilis longis sparsis hispidis, 
cymis brevissime pedunculatis dense multifloris, calyce trun- 
cato vix dentato, corolla? tubo laciniis longiore. — Sierra Leone, 
Don. 

Hamuli volubiles, pilis longis fuscis patentibus hirti. Folia ma- 
jora 4-pollicaria, late cordato-ovata, ramealia sepe vix pollice 
longiora, basi leviter cordata v. rotundata, omnia acuminata, 
supra siccitate nigricantia, pilis longis conspersa, subtus 
pallida pilis rarioribus. Stipule breves, cuspidate, lur- 



410 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

sutse, caducse. Inflorescentia C. Cornelia) v. cymse brevius 
pedunculatse. Calyces parvi, dense villosi. Corolla 3 lin. 
longae, 5-mera3, extus glabrae, intus more affinium pilis longis 
paleaceis reflexis annulatae. Ovarii loculi 2. Fructus non 
vidi. 
4. Canthium anomocarpum, DC. Prod. 4. p. 475. — Niger Ex- 
pedition, without the exact locality, Vogel; Senegal. 
VogePs specimens have smaller and more shining leaves than 
the Senegambian ones, but both appear to belong to one 
species, both agreeing with De Candolle's characters, and having 
the young shoots compressed, the stipules narrow, rigid and 
acute, the cymes reduced to a head or umbel, either all but 
sessile, or borne on a peduncle about a line long. The fruit- 
bearing pedicels are from half an inch to an inch long, but 
from the remains of flowers, it is evident that they were much 
shorter at an earlier stage. The fruit is usually dimidiate, as 
described by De Candolle, yet occasionally a perfect didymous 
one may be observed. 

The remaining "W. Tropical African species of Canthium are : 
C. Cornelia, Cham. Schl., C. subcordatum, DC, and C. Sene- 
galense, A. Rich., (Plectronia hirsuta, DC.) from Senegambia; 
C. Thonningii, (Phallaria spinosa, Schum. et Thonn.), from 
Guinea, and two undescribed species in Heudelot's Senegambian 
collection. 

The genus Canthium should without doubt be placed next to 
Vangueria and Cuviera, in the subtribe for which I have pro- 
posed the name of Vanguieriea ; as a genus, it should probably 
include (as partly suggested by Arnott and others) Plectronia, 
Linn., Psydrax, Gaertn., Dondisia, DC, Phallaria, Schum. et 
Thonn., Mitrastigma, Harv., Psilostema, Klotzsch., and Chio- 
cocca barbata, Forst. On the other hand, Kraussia, Harv., 
(Carpothalis, E. Mey.), referred to Canthium by Endlicher, 
is very different, both in the aestivation of the corolla and the 
form of the fruit. Miiriostigma, Hochst., again, differs still 
more widely, being a Gardenieous genus, closely allied to 
Fernelia, notwithstanding the character assigned to it bv 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 411 

Hochstetter, which can only be explained by the supposition 
that he had unfortunately examined flowers and fruit belonging 
to widely different genera. 

Craterispermum, (nov. gen.) e subtribu Vanguieriearum. 

knar. Gen. — Calycis limbus brevis, subsinuatus. Corolla tubus 
brevis, limbi laciniae 5, inflexo-acuminatse, aestivatione indu- 
plicato-valvata. Stamina ad faucem inserta ; filamenta brevia, 
antherse oblongse, subexsertae. Stylus apice clavatus sub- 
integer. Ovarium biloculare, ovulis solitariis ab apice loculi 
pendulis. Bacca globosa, lsevis, abortu (an constanter ?) 
unilocularis, monosperma. Semen pendulum, hemisphaeri- 
cum, extus laeve, intus excavatum fere pateriforme, albumine 
carnoso-subcorneo, embryone parvo. — Frutex Africanus, cy- 
mis densis multifloris axillaribus pedunculatis. 
*• Craterispermum laurinum, Benth. — Coffea laurina, Smeathm., 

-DC. Prod. 4. p. 499.— Sierra Leone, Don, Vogel 
* rut ex glaberrimus, siccitate flavicans. Hamuli crassi, novelli 
compressiusculi. Folia 5-6-pollicaria, obovali-oblonga, bre- 
vissime et obtusa acuminata, basi in petiolum longe angus- 
tata, rigida, coriacea, reticulato-venosa. Stipuke latae, sub- 
connatae, acutiusculae, cauli adpressse. Pedunculi axillares v. 
supra-axillares, ancipites, ^-1 poll, longi, apice cymam densam 
subcapitatam ferentes, ramis brevissimis crassis compressis. 
stores arete sessiles, ad apices ramulorum cymae dense aggre- 
gate Calyx semilineam longus. Corolla fere Psychotrice, 
^h hn. longa, (apertam tamen non vidi); tubus brevis, intus 
fere usque ad faucem glaber et nudus, fauce laciniisque intus 
villosulis. Bacca subexsucca, pisiformis, siccitate viridi-fla- 
vescens, 2-3 lin. diametro, calycis vestigiis oblique umbilicata. 
Semen loculum fere implens ; albumen sectione transversali 
hippocrepicum. 

With the flower of a Psychotria, and the fruit nearly that of 
Chasalia, this plant has the axillary inflorescence and pendulous 
ovules of the Vanguieriea . From Coffea, to which it had been 
referred from imperfect examination, it differs in several es- 
sential characters, both in the flower and fruit. 



412 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



Cremaspora, (geu. nov.) 

Char. gen. — Calycis limbus campanulatus, 5-dentatus. Corolla 
hirta, intus ad faucem leviter pilosa; tubus brevis ; limbi 
patentis lacinise 5, oblongs, sestivatione imbricata. Stamina 
ad apicem tubi inserta, filamentis brevibus, antheris oblongo- 
linearibus. Stylus hirtellus apice (integer?) acutiusculus. 
Ovarium biloculare, ovulis solitariis ex apice loculi pendulis. 
Bacca ovoidea, Isevis. Semen abortu (an constanter?) soli- 
tarium, lseve, raphe distincto percursum, albumine corneo 
haud excavato, embryone parvo. — Frutex ? Africana, flonbus 
parvis, in capitula axillaria subsessilia confertis, bracteis in- 
termixtis. 
1. Cremaspora Africana, Benth. — Coffea hirsuta, G. Don, Gara. 
Diet. 3. p. 581.— Sierra Leone, Don; also apparently the 
same species in the Island of Zanzibar, on the S. E. coast o 
Africa, Helsing. and Bojer. 
Ramuli pubescentes v. hirtelli. Stipulce utrinque solitanae, e 
basi dilatata subulatae, deciduse, 1-3 lin. longse. Folia ovate 
v. oblongo-elliptica, 3-4 poll, longa, breviter acuminata, basi 
rotundata v. acutata, supra glabra, nitidula, subtus prsesertim 
ad venas hirtella, petiolo brevi hirtello v. pubescente. Flores 
vix petiolos excedunt, uti bracteae dense sericeo-villosi. taly 
vix 2 lin. longus, dentibus acutis erectis. Corolla calyce 
subduplo longior. Antherce corolla breviores. Bacca 4 lin. 
longa, calycis vestigiis coronata, abortu (in specimine exann- 
nato) uniloculars, monosperma. Semen laeve, ad latus m- 
terius raphe tenui percursum. 

Although Don's specimens are very imperfect, they are suffi- 
cient to show great discrepancies from the character of Coffea, 
to which genus he had referred them. The structure of botn 
flower and fruit, confirmed by very good Zanzibar flowering 
specimens in the Hookerian Herbarium of what appears to 
be the same species, shows great affinity to Kraussia, also a 
S. African plant, but the form of the fruit, as well as sonic 
peculiarities in the calyx and style, and the general habit, have 
induced me to establish it as a distinct genus. It is not mi- 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 413 

posible, however, that the discovery of other species, or a better 
knowledge of the present one, may hereafter render it necessary 
to unite Cremaspora with Kraussia. 

1. Baconia corymbosa, DC. Prod. 4. p. 485. — Sierra Leone, 
Whitfield; Senegal. 

The Senegambian collection contains also a second unpub- 
lished species, with nearly sessile leaves. The genus has the 
imbricate aestivation and terminal inflorescence of Ixora and 
"avetta, but the ovules are attached much higher up in the 
cells, so as to be nearly pendulous, besides the slight differences 
in the flower pointed out by De Candolle. 

1. Coffea Arabica, Linn.— C. stenopbylla, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 
3. p. 581. — Commonly cultivated along the coast, and also 
perhaps indigenous. 

The Coffee plant appears to be very variable in the size and 
lorm of its leaves. A specimen of Vogel's, cultivated at Cape 
r almas, (with the observation that it is wild in Monrovia), has 
the leaves 10 inches long and 4 inches broad. In Don's C. ste- 
nophylla, from Sierra Leone, they are 4 or 5 inches long, 
by about 1| broad, with rather long points. Other specimens 
are intermediate, and some even have them still narrower than 
Don's. The genus, confined to its proper limits, has the aesti- 
vation and placentation of Ixora and Pavetta, with an axillary 
inflorescence and a peculiar seed. 

The Coffea microcarpa, DC, from Senegambia, if a true 
Coffea, is unknown to me. 

*• Ixora brachypoda, DC. Prod. 4. p. 488. — Sierra Leone, 
Grand Bassa, Cape Palmas, &c, Vogel, Don, and others; 
Senegal. 
Folia valdc variabilia, pleraque descr. Candollei conformia, 
sunima saepe minora, subsessilia, basi late rotundata, ramealia 
interdum angusta, basi et apice acuta, longius petiolata. Co- 
rymbus laxus, terminalis, pedunculo foliis breviorev.longiore. 
Calycis dentes brevissimi. Corolla alba, apice rosea ; tubus 
9-10 lin. longus, limbi lacinise acutiuscuhe, oblongo-Hneares, 
glabra v. vix pilis paucissimis hirtellae, more generis aestiva- 
tione contorto-imbricatse. Fructns globosus, pisiformis. 



414 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

The Ixora laxiflora, Sm., which I have from an old Sierra 
Leone collection, is very much like the above, but the stipules 
are much smaller, and the lobes of the corolla are more or less 
hairy on the upper side. 

2. Ixora Guineensis, Benth. ; glabra, foliis breviter petiolahs 
elliptico-oblongis vix acuminatis subcoriaceis lsevibus, co- 
rymbo subsessili foliis multo breviore, calycis limbo truncato 
subintegerrimo, corolla; laciniis tubi dimidio subbrevionbus. 
— Guinea coast, (Herb. Hook.) 
Specimen imperfectum, Pavettis nonnullis simile, sed stylus 
apice bifidus. Stipula breviter vaginantes, in specimine fere 
destructse. Folia 5-6 lin. longa, 2 poll, lata, consistent 
coriacea, et minus venosa quam in plerisque Joe oris. * e ' t0 
marginati, 3-4 lin. longi. Corymbus trichotomus, ramis coru- 
pressis. Corolla tubus 7 lin. longus, lacinise glabrae o un. 
ldhgse. Fructus non vidi. 

1. Pavetta Owariensis, Pal. de Beauv. ? FL Ow. et Ben. l.p- 
87. t. 52.— On the Quorra, Vogel; Oware, Beauvois. 

Specimina fructifera tantum adsunt, tota siccitate luride viren ia- 
Ramuli juniores compressi. Stipulte latse, acuminata?, cr 
siusculse ; paucissimse tamen in speciminibus supers 
Folia 4-6 poll, longa, 2-3 poll, lata, basi in petiolum sub- 
pollicarem angustata, subcoriacea, lsevia, penninervia, obscur 
venulosa. Corymbus foliis summis multo brevior, pedunc 
3-6 lin. longo compresso, ramulis trichotomis pariter com- 
pressis, pedicellis ultimis superne incrassatis (fructiferis) 
lin. longis. Baccce ovoideo-oblongje, 3-4 lin. longae, enerves, 
calyce minuto coronatse, at nondum maturse. Flores b° 

vidi - , i- 

2. Pavetta neurocarpa, Benth.; glabra, stipulis caducis, *° ^ 

petiolatis elliptico-oblongis anguste acuminatis basi acu i > 
corymbis terminalibus subsessilibus, baccis depresso-gl° bosis 
tenuiter costatis. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 
Specimina omnia fructifera, primo intuitu iis P. Owarien** 
simillima, sed fructus forma distincta. Folia 6-8 poll, longa, 
circa 3 poll, lata, apice abrupte producta in acumen angustuu* 
acutissimum 6-8 lin. longum, basi sa?pius insequalia H» " 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 415 



coriacea nitidula, nervia pinnatis subtus prominulis, petiolo 
|-1 poll, longo. Stipuke ovatae, cito deciduae. In/lores centia 
P. Owariensis, at pedunculus brevior, interdum subnullus. 
Flores desunt. Baccce exsuccae, fere 4 lin. diametro, latera- 
liter subcompressae, in vivo ex Vog. albidae, calycis vestigiis 
umbilicatae, costis 8 tenuibus percursae, pericarpio tenui, intus 
biloculares dispermae. Semina hemisphaerica, intus plana et 
medio dissepimento affixa, extus convexa laevia, testa tenui, 
albumine carnoso-corneo intus excavato. Embryo parvus. 

3. Pavetta genipcefolia, Sebum, et Tbonn. Beskr. p. 78. — Sierra 
Leone and Cape Coast, Vogel ; Guinea. 

lhese specimens also are in fruit only, they agree, however, 

witb Thonning's description. Tbe old leaves become smooth 

even underneath in some specimens, in others they are pubescent 

underneath. The corymb is dense, but when in fruit cannot be 

called globose. The seeds are hemisphaerical, plane on the 

inner surface, with the albumen hollowed out as in P. neuro- 
carpa. 

4. ravetta ? Icevis, Benth. ; glaberrima, foliis longiuscule petio- 
latis ellipticis oblongisve breviter acuminatis basi longe an- 
gustatis coriaceis lsevibus, pedunculis axillaribus petiolo lon- 
gioribus laxe trichotomis multifloris. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

rrutex in omni parte glaberrimus, laevis ; ramulis teretibus v. 
ad nodos compressis. Stipulce triangulares, acutae v. biden- 
tatae, cito destructae. Folia 6-8-pollicaria, paucivenia, cras- 
smscula, costa media subtus lata prominula, marginibus sub- 
tus recurvis. Pedunculi saepius ex una tantum axilla orti, 
(an potius terminales ramo axillari excurrente ?) 2-3-pollicares, 
angulati, apice in ramos tres laxe plurifloros divisi. Flores 
mihi desunt. Bacca in vivo rubrae, magnitudine Pisi, semi- 
nibus hemisphaericis, albumine intus non excavato. 

5. Pavetta? tenuifolia, Benth.; glaberrima, foliis petiolatis 
ovalibus v. oblongo-ellipticis breviter et obtuse acuminatis basi 
angustatis membranaceis, pedunculis axillaribus petiolo bre- 
vioribus trichotomis multifloris. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Praecedenti affinis, sed folia membranacea, petiolis brevioribus, 



416 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

venis magis approximatis ; pedimculi multo breviores et flores 

confertiores. Bacc<e ex Vog. pariter rubrse. 

The two last species differ in some respects from the gene- 
rality of the genus, for the inflorescence is apparently axillary, and 
the albumen is not excavated on the inner face. There are no 
flowers to enable me to ascertain whether there may not be 
other differences. 

The other West Tropical African species known are: r. 
Smeathmanni, DC, from Sierra Leone, which appears to be 
nearly allied to the two last, P. parviflora, Afz., and P. sub- 
glabra, Schum. et Thonn., from Guinea, and P. canescens, DC, 
from Angola. Some of these plants may, however, possibly be 
referrible to Stylocoryne. 
1. Rutidea parviflora, DC. Prod. 4. p. 495.— Sierra Leone, 

Don, Whitfield ; Cape Palmas, Vogel ; Senegal* 

Frutex scandens. Folia 2-4-pollicaria, acuminata, infra medium 
angustata, basi obtusa v. subcordata, breve petiolata. Corolla 
sestivatio imbricata. Ovarium uniloculare, ovulis gemmis e 
basi cavitatis ascendentibus. Fructus luteus, magnitudine Pis*> 
With the flowers nearly of a Pavetta, but pentamerous and 

smaller, this plant has the ovary of a Faramea, and an albumen 

much more ruminate than in any Grumilia. 

1. Grumilia psychotrioides, DC. Prod. 4. p. 495.— On the 
Niger, at Ab6h, Vogel; Senegal.— These specimens, like 
those described by De Candolle, are in young fruit only, and 
afford no farther illustration of the real affinity of the plant. 

1. Chasalia? laxiflora, Benth. ; glabra, (scandens?), stipule 
brevibus truncatis subconnatis, foliis oblongis acuminata 
basi acutis, panicula laxa terminali pauciflora, bracteis sub- 
nullis, calycis limbo minute dentato disco oblongo roulto 
breviore.— Sierra Leone, Don ; Grand Bassa, Ansett. 

Frutex videtur, ex omni parte glaberrimus, ramis volubilibus 
teretibus laevibus. Stipuke brevissimae, membranaceff, cauli 
appressae, cito decidual v. destructje. Folia 3-4-pollicaria, 
nunc anguste oblonga, nunc elliptica, v. fere ovata et obovata, 
longiuscule acuminata, basi angustata, petiolo subsemipollican. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 417 

Panicula terminalis, pedunculata, foliis paullo longior v. 
brevior, glabra, ramulis brevibus oppositis subcompressis 
cymoso-paucifloris. Bractecs ad squamas minimas reductae, 
v. rarius par foliorum floralium adest sub ramis infimis pani- 
culse. Pedicelli lineam longi, cum ovario et calyce continui. 
Calycis limbus minutus, dentibus acutis vix conspicuis. 
Corolla tubus 4-5 lin. longus, angulatus, extus glaber, 
intus basi glaber, ad faucem pilis paucis villosulus ; limbi 
laciniae oblongse, crassiusculae, apice inflexse, aestivatione 
mduplicato-valvatse. Stamina supra medium tubi inserta; 
nlamenta brevia; antheree longe lineares, medifixse, tubo 
mclusae v. vix exsertse. Discus epigynus oblongus, trun- 
catus, fere f lin. longus. Stylus apice bifidus, lobis com- 
planatis summo apice triangularibus stigmatosis. Ovarium 
biloculare, ovulis e basi loculorum erectis solitariis. 
Although I have not seen the fruit of this species, I have 
little hesitation in referring it to that group of Chasalia which 
includes a number of East Indian plants hitherto placed in 
Psychotria, although differing both in flower and fruit from the 
genuine Psychotrice, whether East Indian or American. They 
all agree with Chasalia in the lengthened tube of the corolla, 
and the smooth fruit, with the albumen exceedingly hollowed 
°ut on the inner face : they only differ, indeed, from the Mau- 
ritius specimens by their laxer habit and more slender flowers.* 
*• Chasalia parviflora, Benth. ; glabra, stipulis brevibus con- 
oatis brevissime acuminatis, foliis oblongis acuminatis basi 
acutis, corymbo terminali multifloro, floribus aggregatis, 

* Amongst the East Indian species which should be thus transferred 
t0 Ch <*salia may be mentioned Psychotria ophioxyloides, Wall., P. curvu 
Ma, Wall., P. ambiyna, Wight et Arn., n. 8358, 8361, 8363 and 8390, 
of Wallich's Catalogue, and n. 2317 of Cuming's Malacca plants. The P. 
adenophylla, Wall., and n. 8345 of his Catalogue are Grumili<e, but P. 
Miptica, Roxb., {P. Reevesii, Lindl.), appears to me to be rather a true 
p *ychotria. Paderia ternata, Wall., Psychotria oxyphylla, Wall., and 
n - 8342 and 8389 of Wallich's Catalogue, seem to be species of 
Gartnera, 



E E 



418 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

calycis limbo brevissimo truncato disco late depresso breviore. 
Fernando Po, Vogel. 
Frutex mediocris, ramis debilibus. Stipules in cupulam latarn 
brevem et brevissime bifidam connatse, ramo haud appressse. 
Folia 2-3-pollicaria, membranacea, acumine vulgo brevi, basi 
in petiolum 3-6 lin. longum angustata. Pedunculi termi- 
nates, pollicares, trichotomy ad ramos inferiores ssepius fo- 
liorum floralium pare unico bracteati, ramulis brevibus, flo- 
ribus ad apices ultimorum subcapitato-congestis, corymbo 
toto foliis multo breviore. Corolla tubus \\ lin. longus, limbo 
5-partito, lobis late oblongis glabris tubo suo duplo breviori- 
bus, sestivatione ut videtur valvata, flores tamen vix perfectos 
vidi. Bacca, adhuc immatura, globosa, lsevis, 2 lin. dia- 
metro, calycis vestigiis umbilicata, dipyrena. Semina ut in 
speciebus Asiaticis heraisphserica videntur et albumme 
excavato concavo-pateriformia, sed matura mihi desunt. 

1. Psychotria? reptans, Benth. ; caule lignoso reptante v. 
scandente, ramis brevibus erectis hirsutis, foliis oblongis 
acuminatis subglabris, stipulis utrinque in unam magnam 
cordatam bifidam subconnatis, paniculis pedunculatis multi- 
floris axillaribus subterminalibusque, corollse lacinns tubi 
dimidium vix superantibus apice dorso appendiculatis.— Sierra 
Leone, Vogel, Don. 

Caules prostrati radicantes v. subvolubiles, lignosi, apbyln. 
Hamuli erecti semipedales v. vix longiores, uti petioli et pe- 
dunculi pilis ferrugineis dense vestiti. Stipula 4-6 lm. 
longse, utrinque solitarise et bifidse v. fere ad basin divisse, 
lobis stipulisve singulis semicordatis basi breviter adnatis 
apice acuminatis margine undulatis. Folia 2-4-pollicana, 
breviter petiolata, basi acuta v. rotundata, membranacea, 
glabra v. ad venas subtus hirtella. Panicula ovata? v. co- 
rymbiforines, pedunculatae, foliis breviores, ramis oppositis 
apice breviter tricbotome cymosis. Bractea ad ramos pn- 
marios opposite, angustse, acuta-, ramis breviores. Flores m 
cymis conferti, parvi. Calyx vix semilineam longus, dentibus 
4 triangularibus acutis. Corolla tubus glaber, 1£ lin. longus; 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 419 

faux intus villosa; lacinia? lanceolata?, acuta?, extus versus 

apicem tuberculo crista?formi appendiculata?, intus fere glabrae. 

Stamina inclusa. Stylm exsertus, lobis subteretibus longius- 

culis apice subcapitato-stigmatosis. 

Not having seen the fruit, I am rather doubtful whether this 
may not be another species of Chasalia, but the general ap- 
pearance is that of Psychotria, and it is evidently allied to the 
following : 

2. Psychotria obscura, Benth. ; glabriuscula, scandens, foliis 
breviter petiolatis ovato-lanceolatis oblongisve acuminatis, 
stipulis magnis utrinque geminis v. subconnatis singulis ovato- 
Janceolatis acuminatis, paniculis pedunculatis laxis axillaribus, 
cymis ultimis ebracteatis, corolla? laciniis tubi dimidium sub- 
seqantibus apice dorso appendiculatis. — Accra, Vogel. 

trutex ramulis elongatis scandentibus glabris v. minute pube- 
rulis. Stipulce fere semipollicares, caduca?. Folia subtri- 
pollicaria, membranacea, glabra v. subtus minute puberula, 
petiolis 1-2 lin. longis. Pedunculi 1^-2-pollicares, ramis 
oppositis apice cymiferis. Bractece angusta? acuta? ad ramos 
primarios. Flores P. reptantis, sed paullo majores, tubo fere 
2 lin. longo. Stamina (in speciinine) exserta. Stylus in- 
clusus. Bacca rubra, putamine 10-costato dipyreno. Semina 
dorso sulcata, sulcis costisque illis endocarpii oppositis, at 
albumen non ruminatum ut in Grumiliis. 

3. Psychotria Doniana, Benth.; ramis pubescentibus, foliis 
amplis oblongo-lanceolatis basi longe angustatis, stipulis latis 
apice bidentatis, pedunculis axillaribus brevibus apice tricho- 
tomis, cymis ultimis subcapitatis ebracteatis, pyrenis obtuse 
costatis. — St. Thomas, Bon, a single specimen with a single 
fruit and remains of abortive flowers. 

Rami juniores compressi, demum teretes, pube brevissima scabn. 
Folia 7-8 poll, longa, 2 poll, lata, lsetevirentia, subtus pallida, 
membranacea. Stipula 2 lin. longa?, membranacea? v. sub- 
cart ilaginea?, decidua?. Peduncnlus petiolo brevior; cymis 
ultimis capitato-multifloris. Bacca 3 lin. diametro. 

4. Psychotria latistipula, Benth.; subglabra, foliis amplis 

e 2 



420 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

ovatis ellipticisve breviter acuminatis, stipulis late obovato- 
orbiculatis acutis bifidisve deciduis, paniculis axillaribus bre- 
viter pedunculatis cymis ultimis umbellatis, bracteis ovato- 
lanceolatis involucrantibus, baccis subglobosis pedicellatis 
acute costatis. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 
Frutex videtur ex omni parte glaber v. tomento ferrugineo parco 
in inflorescentia partibusque novellis pubescens. Folia 5-o 
poll, longa, 2-3 poll, lata, meinbranacea, glabra, basi in 
petiolum semipollicarem angustata. Stipules semipollicares, 
margine fimbriatse. Pedunculus communis vix petiolum 
sequans, ramis paniculse oppositis trichotomis. Bractea fo- 
liacese, oblongo- v. ovato-lanceolatse, inferiores ad ramos pam- 
culse semipollicares, interiores sub cymis ultimis 2-4 lin. 
longse, acutse. Flores desunt. Pedicelli fructiferi 1-li l m - 
longi, subumbellatim aggregati. Bacca 2 lin. diametro, m 
sicco insigniter costatse. Semina dorso laevia, nee sulcata. 
5. Psychotria Vogeliana, Benth. • ramis pubescentibus, foliis 
ovali-ellipticis utrinque angustatis chartaceis supra nitiduhs 
subtus pubescentibus, stipulis latis utrinque acutis bifidis 
lacerisve, paniculis axillaribus longiuscule pedunculatis tri- 
chotomis, cymis ultimis subcapitatis, bracteis lato-ovatis, 
baccis ovoideis costatis. — On the Quorra, at Aboh, Vogel. 
Frutex 3-5-pedalis. Rami novelli compressi, demum teretes, 
breviter pubescentes. Stipulce 3-4-lineares videntur, sed fere 
omnes jam delapsse. Folia 4-5-pollicaria, rigidiora quam m 
praeedentibus, siccitate ferruginea, costis subtus valde pro- 

O J mm 

minentibus pubescentibus, inter costas fere glabra. Pedunculi 

2-3-pollicares. Bractece latse, margine lacerae, 2 lin. longse, 

ultima? sub cymis ultimis subconnatse. Flares non vidi. 

Bacca 3 lin. longse, brevissime pedicellate, endocarpio 10- 

costato, seminibus leviter sulcatis. 

This species is nearly intermediate between Psychotria and 
Cephaelis, but cannot be separated generically from P. latifolia. 

Six species of Psychotria are enumerated by Schumacher and 
Thonning from Guinea, none of which I am able to identify, 
and probably some of them do not belong to the genus as now 
limited. Amongst them, P. multiflora must be near to my P. ob- 



FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 421 

scura, differing in the entire stipules and short peduncles; 
P. obvallata is probably a Geojjhila, P. chrysorhiza, a Morinda, 
and P. Kolly, possibly, an Ivor a ; P. umbellata and P. triflora, 
if true PsychotricBj are very different from any species known to 
me. P. angustifolia, G. Don, from Sierra Leone, is probably 
either a Pavetta or a Stylocoryne. 

1- Cephaelis coriacea, G. Don, Gard. 2ta?/. 3. jo. 606 ; glabra, 
iolns oblongo-lanceolatis utrinque angustatis tenuiter coriaceis 
mtidulis, stipulis amplis bifidis bipartitisve, pedunculis mo- 
nocephalis, bracteis pluribus subconnatis flores aequantibus, 
calycibus glabris breviter dentatis. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

Hamuli juniores et pedunculi compressi, demum teretes. Folia 
3-4 poll, longa, 1-1^ poll, lata, basi in petiolum brevem an- 
gustata, venis pinnatis subtus prominentibus, utrinque ni- 
tidula, subtus pallida. Stipules foliaceae, semipollicares, de- 
ciduee, summae angustse. Pedunculi foliis breviores. Capi- 
tulurn hemisphsericum, multiflorum. Bractece circa 8, majores 
lere semipollicares, ovato-lanceolatse, interiores minores, omnes 
ionacese. Calyx brevis, limbo cupulato irregulariter dentato 
flon ciliato. Corollte glabrae tubus 3 lin. longus, limbi lacinise 
nnea breviores, sestivatione valvata3 ; faux pilis paucis annulata. 
■Anthera exsertae. 

2 - Cephaelis bidentata, Thunb. in Rami, et Schult. SysL 5. 
p. 214? abort u dioica, glabra, foliis ovatis oblongisve char- 
taceis nitidulis, stipulis amplis bidentatis, pedunculis 1-3- 
cephalis, bracteis 2-4 latis connatis floribus brcvioribus, calycis 
dentibus ciliatis, baccis ovoideis costatis. — Sierra Leone, 
Vogel, Don ; Grand Bassa and Cape Palmas, Vogel ; Sene- 
gambia, Heudelot. 

-Arbor parva v. frutex elatus ramosus, v. interdum reptans v. 
subscandens. Ramuli novelli compressi, mox teretes. Stipula? 
latae, subsemipollicares, apice acute bidentata? v. breviter 
°ifidae, margine undulatae, basi cordato-adnatse. Folia nunc 
3-4-pollicaria, nunc duplo majora, venis parallelis pinnatis 
prominulis, basi angustata, petiolo nunc vix 2-3 lin., nunc 
pollicem longo. Pedunculi axillares, ancipites, 3-6 poll.longi; 
fceminci 1-cephali v. rarius 2-ccphali, masculi saepiua 3- 



422 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

cephali. Bract ea in involucrum bifidum lobis bidentatis 
connatae, crassiusculse, subcarnosse, in capitulo foemineo flores 
fere sequantes, in masculo iis multo breviores. Capitula he- 
misphserica, dense multiflora, noribus subsessilibus, recepta- 
culo carnoso. Calycis limbus cupulatus, lineam longus, den- 
tibus 5 longe et irregulariter ciliatis. Corolla glabra, alba, 
3 lin. longa, fauce ampla, lobis 5 brevibus. Stamina in 
masculis, stylus in foemineis, exserta. Pedicelli fructifen 
plus minus evoluti, interdum lineam longi. Bacca 2 lin. 
longse, endocarpio seminibusque insigniter costatis sulcatis- 
que. 

It is possible that more than one species may be here con- 
founded, although I am unable to distinguish them in the 
dried specimens. 

1. Geophila reniformis, Cham, et Schlecht. DC. Prod. 4<.p. 537; 
var. ? foliis obtusissimis retusisve. — On the Nun, Vogel; St. 
Thomas, Don. 

The leaves are more deserving of the epithet reniform, than 
the generality of the South American specimens, yet as far as 
the specimens go, they do not show any other distinctive 
character. 

2. Geophila hirsuta, Benth. ; foliis cordato-ovatis oblongisve 
acutiusculis utrinque ad venas petiolisque hirsutis, peduncuhs 
abbreviatis, (bracteis subulatis ?).— -On the Nun River, Vogel 

Affinis G. violacete, sed folia superiora angustiora, tota planta 
siccitate nigrescit et multo hirsutior est quam unquam vidi 
varietates G. violacece. Calycis laciniae pilis longis ciliattf. 
Specimina flores paucissimos ferunt. Planta, teste Vogeho, 
dioica est. 
A third species, near G. reniformis, with remarkable broad 

bractese, is in Heudelot's Senegambian collection. 

1. Octodon filifolium, Thonn., DC. Prod. 4. p. 540.— On the 
Quorra, Vogel ; Senegal and Guinea. 

1. Borreria Kohautiana, Cham, et Schlecht., DC. Prod. 4. p- 
541.— Frequent in cultivated grounds, Senegal and Sierra 
Leone, Vogel, Don, and others ; also Cape Verd Isles, (supra 
p. 133), and apparently S. E. Africa. 



FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 423 

2. Borreria ramisparsa, DC. Prod. 4. p. 544.— St. Thomas, 
Don; Senegal. — var. major multiflora. — On the Quorra, at 
Patteh, VogeL 

A common Tropical Brazilian weed, with exactly the appear- 
ance of B. parviflora, but in the African, as well as in the 
American specimens, two of the calycine teeth are always very 
minute. 

1. Spermacoce Ruellite, DC. Prod. 4. p. 554.— Accra, Vogel, 
Bon; on the Quorra, Vogel, Ansell; Senegal. 

These specimens appear to combine the characters of S. 
Ruellia* and S. galeopsidis, DC. The length of the teeth 
oi the calyx is variable. The species is very different from any 
other I am acquainted with, and remarkable for the size of the 
capsules, 

2. Spermacoce palmetorum, DC. Prod. 4. p. 553 ? — Sierra 
Leone, Vogel. 

This agrees better with Thonning's description of his Dioidia 
scabra than with De Candolle's character of S. palmetorum, to 
which he refers Thonning's plant with doubt. The leaves are 
oblong-lanceolate, the calycine teeth very unequal, one or two 
of them being longer and broader than the rest. 

3. Spermacoce pilosa, DC. Prod. 4. p. 553. — Sierra Leone, 
Vogel; Guinea. 

4. Spermacoce sp., near S. phyllocephala, DC, but with broad 
leaves. — A single imperfect specimen from Sierra Leone, 
Don. 

Three other species have been described from W. Tropical 
Africa: 8. phyllocephala, DC, S. stachydea, DC, and S. chce- 
tocephala, DC, all from Senegal. 
1- Mitracarpium Senegalense, DC. Prod. 4. p. 553. — Sierra 

Leone, Vogel; Accra, Don; Cape Verd Isles, Senegal, 

Guinea and Nubia. 
L Diodia arenosa, DC Prod. 4. p. 564 ?— Sierra Leone, Don ; 

a Brazilian species. 

The specimen is barely in flower, and insufficient to charac- 
terize it if it be really distinct from the Brazilian plant, of which 
it has all the appearance. It is very near D. articulata, but 



424 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

has larger leaves, which are rough on both sides. The flowers 
are also larger, and the calycine teeth longer. The stipular cilise 
are occasionally expanded into short linear leaves. 

2. Diodia maritima, Schum.— DC. Prod. 4. p. 564.— On the 
Nun River, Vogel ; Senegal and Guinea. 

3. Diodia breviseta, Benth. ; caule scandente, ramis tetragonis, 
angulis puhescentibus, foliis ovali-lanceolatis oblongisve utrm- 
que acutatis scabris, stipularuni setis fructu brevioribus, ver- 
ticillis multifloris, calycis laciniis 4 reflexis fructu oblongo 
laevi ecostato subtriplo brevioribus. — -Fernando Po, Vogel. 
Very near to the West Indian D. scandens and D. sarrnen- 

tosa, differing chiefly in its numerous small fruits, with a much 
thinner pericarp. 

4. Diodia (Hexasepalum) vaginalis, Benth. ; procuinbens, gla- 
bra, foliis sessilibus oblongo- v. lineari-lanceolatis ngidis, 
ciliis stipularibus rigidis subdilatatis, fructibus oppositis a 
dorso compressis acute costatis calycis laciniis subsems coro- 
natis.— At Grand Bassa and on the Nun, creeping in the 
sands, Vogel. 

Folia subbipollicaria, 2-3 lin. lata, basi interdum ad margines 
brevissime ciliata, costa crassa subtus prominula. Stipularum 
vaginae 2-3 lin. longse, nunc internodiis longiores subimbn- 
catse, nunc dissitse ramo inter nodos compresso-tetragono \ 
cilise rigida3, acutse, interdum subfoliaceae, circa 2 lin. long*. 
Corolla 6 lin. longa, fauce ampla. Fructus dicoccus, coccis 
a dorso valde compressis, lateribus suberoso-dilatatis, margi- 
nibus acutis, dorso tricostato. Semen compressum, prop e 
basin affixum. Embryo fere albuminis longitudine, ra- 
dicula recta cotyledonibus sublongiore, ad basin fructus 
spectante. 

This agrees with De CandohVs description of Hexasepalum 
angustifolium, from Mexico, in every respect but in the leaves 
being much broader. Although in habit it is in some measure 
intermediate between Diodia and Hydrophylax y yet there does 
not appear to be sufficient in the size and more corky con- 
sistence of the fruit to separate it generically from Diodia, 
which contains other species with five or six teeth to the calyx. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 425 

The list of Rubiacece known from West Tropical Africa will 
be completed with two species, one gathered by Vogel in Fer- 
nando Po, the other by Don in Sierra Leone, the specimens of 
which are insufficient even to guess at their genus, and three 
published plants of doubtful affinity : Stipularia Africana, Pal. 
de Beauv., from the River Gal bar, Hylacium Owariense, Pal. 
de Beauv., from Oware, and Benzonia corymbosa, Schum. et 
Thonn., from Guinea. 



LXV. Composite. 

1. Oiospermum Nigritanum, Benth.; caule puberulo, foliis bre- 
vissime petiolatis ovali-oblongis basi angustatis subtus pu- 
bescentibus, capitulis nudis, corolla glabra achenio oblongo 
longiore.— On the Quorra, at Patteh, Vogel. 
tierba O. Wightiance habitu subsimilis, sed minus villosa. Folia 
^-3-pollicaria, rugosula, remote subdentata, supra fere glabra, 
subtus praesertim ad venas pubescentia. Infiorescentia et 
capitula O. Wightiance, haec vero bracteis foliaceis destituta, 
aha terminalia, alia pauca lateralia subsessilia v. pedunculata. 
Jnvolucri squamae multiseriales, acutissimae, margin e sca- 
nosae, dor so puberulae, exteriores minor es angustae, interiores 
3-4 Hn. longae, flores subaequantes. Receptaculum planum 
nudum. Flores numerosi. Corolla tubus tenuis, superne 
ampliatus. Styli rami subulati, acuti, recurvi. Achenium 
oblongum, 10-costatum, inter costas minute glandulosum, 
apice truncatum, omnino nudum. 
*• s parganophora Vaillantii, Gaertn. DC. Prod. 5. p. 12. — 
S. Africanus, Gartn. DC. I. c— St. Thomas, Don.— Senegal 
to Benin, and common in Tropical America. 
After a careful comparison of several African with American 
specimens, I cannot discover the slightest difference. Both 
y ary in the blunter or sharper teeth of the leaves, and both are 
sometimes smooth, though generally more or less pubescent. 

The Ethulia conyzoides, Linn., a common East Indian weed, 
extends through Africa to Senegal. 
*• Hcrderia stellulifera, Benth.; decunibcns, ramis laxe co- 



426 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

rymbosis polycephalis, acheniis hispidulis, pappo simplici 
coroniformi fimbriate stellato-patente. — Sierra Leone, Don; 
Fernando Po, Vogel. 
Herba ramosissima, diffusa, habitu et inflorescentia formis de- 
cumbentibus Vernonia cinerece subsimilis. Pubes ferru- 
ginea, in ramulis novellis sublanosa, demum parca, in foliorum 
pagina superiore rara v. nulla. Folia petiolata, ovata, 1-1 2- 
pollicaria, integra v. sinuato-dentata, membranacea, ramealia 
minora interdum obovata, summa parva, oblonga. Corymoi 
laxi, irregulares, foliis paucis parvis bracteati. Capitula quam 
in Ethulia minora. Involucri squamse subbiseriales, linean- 
oblongse, acutse, virides, puberulse; adjectis nonnullis exte- 
rioribus minoribus setaceis. Meceptaculum planum, nudum. 
Flores in capitulo circa 20, homogami, involucro paullo 
longiores, violacei. Corolla tubuloso-campanulata, superne 
pilosiuscula, basi attenuata, laciniis 5 tubo sequilongis, apice 
extus glandulosis. Anthera lineares, ecaudatse. Styli lobi 
subulati, recurvi, acutiusculi. Achenia f lin. longa, obscure 
angulata, undique hispidula. Pappus albus, stellato-patens, 
constans e paleis brevissimis fimbriato-multifidis ; setis ex- 
terioribus nullis. 

This plant has more the habit of Ethulia than of Herderia 
truncata, but differs from the former genus in the involucre, 
achenia and pappus. The pappus has the scales shorter than 
in Herderia truncata, and there is either no trace at all of outer 
setae, or they are so short and slender as to be scarcely per- 
ceptible. Perhaps the two genera, Ethulia and Herderia, ought 
to be united. 

The original Herderia truncata appears to be confined to 
Senegal, whence I have what I believe to be a third species, 
gathered by Michelin. 

1. Vernonia cinerea, Less.— DC. Prod. 5. p. 24, Webb, supra, 
p. 134.— Sierra Leone, Vogel; Senegal and Guinea. A most 
abundant East Indian and Tropical African species. 

2. Vernonia Doniana, DC. Prod. 5. p. 23.— Sierra Leone, Don, 
Miss Turner, who states it to grow about 6 feet high in the 
Leinster Mountains. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 427 

3. Vernonia (Lepidaploa) conferta, Benth. ; fruticosa ? ramis 
tomentosis, foliis amplis obovali-oblongis sinuatis basi angus- 
tatis petiolatis supra ad venas subtus ubique tomentosis, pa- 
nicula ampla floribunda aphylla, capitulis subsessilibus 10- 
12-floris, involucri squamis brevibus obtusis interioribus 
lineari-oblongis acutis, acbenio glabro, pappi sordidi setis 
exterioribus paucissimis brevibus. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

Folium unicum adest pedale, 5 poll, latum, subtus sordide to- 

mentosum, petiolo sesquipollicari. Panicula pedalis, capitulis 

secus ramos numerosos divaricatos subsessilibus, ovoideis, 4 lin. 

longis. Flores involucrum sequantes, glabri. Pappus e setis 

sordidis rigidulis vix denticulatis constans, involucro sub- 
longior. 

4 - Vernonia (Lepidaploa) Guineensis, Bentb. ; herbacea ? erecta, 
ramis subfloccoso-tomentosis, foliis lanceolatis serratis supra 
araneosis demum glabris subtus dense tomentosis, corymbis 
oligocephalis, capitulis late ovoideis 25-30-floris, involucri 
sqamis obtusis dorso tomentosis, pappo exteriore interiori 
tnplo breviore. — Sierra Leone, Don. 
pecimen bipedale, virgato-ramosum, apice fastigiatum. To- 
nientum paginse inferioris foliorum ramorum et pedunculorum 
densum, subfloccosum, albo-rubens. Folia 2-3-pollicaria, 
acutiuscula, grosse serrata, basi angustata, sessilia v. breviter 
petiolata. Capitula 5-6 lin. longa, 4-5 lin. lata. Involucri 
8 quamae rigidse, pauciseriatse, exteriores breves, interiores 
oblongae, pappo vix breviores. Flores breviter exserti, glabri. 
"tyli lobi subulati, acuti. Receptaculum vix alveolatum, 
planum, nudum. Achenia pubescentia, levitcr costata, 
minute glandulosa. Pappus rufescens, nitens, fragilis, setis 
subdilatatis, seriei exterioris latioribus ciliatis. 

5 - Vernonia (Lepidaploa) Vogeliana, Benth. ; fruticosa, pube- 
rula, foliis petiolatis oblongis utrinque longe angustatis sub- 
mtegerrimis membranaceis, cymis terminalibus paniculsefor- 
uiibus ramosissimis subapbyllis, capitulis pedicellatis 8-10- 
floris, involucri squamis oblongis, exterioribus ovatis obtusis, 
acbenio pubescenti-glanduloso, pappi seric exteriore interiori 
quadruplo breviore. — At Clarence, in Fernando Po, VogeL 



428 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



Species quoad habitum inflorescentiam ^involucrum et pappi 

colorem simillima V. externa et V. grandi, DC, et V.Sene- 

galensi, Less. A priori differt foliis margine integerrimis v. 

vix crispulis nee serratis et capitulis minoribus; involucra 

nempe vix 2 lin. nee 3i lin. longa, squamis minus insequali- 

bus. A V. Senegalensi distinguitur pappi exterioris brevitie 

et acheniis pubescentibus. Frutex est, teste Vogelio, 6-8 

pedalis, floribus albis. Pappus rufescens, involucro duplo 

longior. 

6. Vernonia Senegalensis, Less, Linncea 4. p. 265.— Decaneu- 

rum Senegalense, DC. Prod. 5. p. 68.— Annabon Island, 

south of the Line, Curror ; Senegal and Guinea. 

In this species, the external pappus is much longer than in 

any of the preceding, but considerably shorter than the inner 

one. In the V. amy g dalina , Delile, (Decaneurum, DC) from 

Senegal and Nubia, which differs from the present species 

chiefly in the hispid achenia, the external pappus is also still 

longer; but even in that species there is a very perceptible 

difference in the length of the two series. In the Gymnanthe- 

mum Abyssinicum, Schultz Bip. (at least in my specimen, L T n- 

Itin. 1st. Ser. n. 31), which has the habit of the foregoing, and 

which ought, with them, to be referred to Vernonia, the external 

pappus is, as in most Vernonia, scarcely more than a fourth of 

the length of the inner one, but so very deciduous, that if the 

head of flowers is not opened with care, the external setae will 

only be found loose amongst the others. All these species, 

moreover, are so closely allied in habit to V. externa and some 

other species of the Old World, that they cannot well be 

generically separated, especially as they have not the involucral 

characters ascribed by De Candolle to Decaneurum. In all, the 

setae of the pappus are denticulate, and of a more or less ruddy 

colour. To the same set of Vernonia belongs probably the 

Candidia Senegalensis, Ten. Cat. Ort. Nap. p. 79, which is 

unknown to me. 

The other West African Vernonia are V. pandurata, 1^' 
from Congo, and V. pauciflora, Less., from Senegal ; besidi 
two species of Webbia : W. serratuloides, DC, from Senegambia, 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 429 

and W. Smithii, DC, from Congo, which Schultz Bipontinus 

reunites with Vernonia. In this he may he right, as well as in 

the restoration of the older name of Gymnanthemum to De 

taiidolle's genus Decaneurum : it is only to be regretted that, 

as the policy of these changes may not be generally admitted, 

he should have created much confusion by transferring the two 

names he proposes to suppress, to new genera of Composite. 

1. Gymnanthemum angustifolium, Benth. ; pubescens, foliis (su- 

perioribus) lineari-lanceolatis rugosis subtus albo-tomentosis, 

capitulis laxe subcorymbosis, involucri globosi squamis nume- 

*osis, exterioribus setaceo-acuminatis recurvis, interioribus ob- 

longo-lanceolatis scariosis. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

"ars tantum superior plantae adest corymboso-paniculata. Ra- 

m>uli pilis laxiusculis glandulis intermixtis pubescentes. Folia 

nonnisi floralia adsunt 1-2-pollicaria. Capitula semipollicem 

diametro, ad apices ramulorum solitaria, uno alterove secus 

ramulum ad axillam bracteae linearis breviter pedunculato. 

Involucri squamae seriebus numerosis imbricatse, exteriores 

abeunt in acumen filiforme reflexum, interiores erectse, acu- 

tiusculae, 3 lin. longae. Receptaculum planum, leviter alveo- 

*atum. Flores numerosissimi, squamis interioribus breviores*. 

Corolla graciles, glabrae, superne vix ampliatae, laciniis 5 

hnearibus. Styli lobi subulati, acuti. Achenia glabra, 

costis 10 approximatis, valleculis angustissimis glandulosis. 

Pappi setae subaequales, barbellis rigidis longiusculis plu- 
mosae. 

Ihis is a true Gymnanthemum, agreeing in every respect with 
ve CandohVs generic character of Decaneurum. It is unfor- 
tunate that that distinguished botanist, in uniting two already 
published genera, did not follow the usual rule of adopting for 
*e whole the oldest of the published names, although unmean- 
ln g and applied to an ill-defined group. Cassini's name having 
8 mce been restored by Schultz Bipontinus, we feel compelled to 
adopt it. 

*• Elephantopus scaber, Linn.— St. Thomas, Don; Senegambia, 
hast India and America. 
This species should include the five first of De Candolle 



430 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

(Prod. 5. p. 86) as proposed by Schultz Bipontinus, (Linnaea 
18. p. 594) ; for the characters, by which he afterwards (Linntea 
20. p. 515) thought that the East Indian one might be distin- 
tinguished, do not hold good. The African specimens before 
me come nearest to the form described by De Candolle as 
E. Martii, which is chiefly Brazilian, but is also found in other 
parts of the world. 

1. Ageratum conyzoides, Linn. — As common along the coast, 
from Senegal to Benin, Vogel, Don, and others, as it is in 
other parts of Africa, Asia and America. 
1. Adenostemma Perrottetii, DC, Prod. 5. p. 110? St. 
Thomas, Don. 

There are two specimens, the one nearly smooth, the other 
more hairy, both belonging apparently to the Senegambian species 
described by De Candolle, and probably not really distinct from 
the common West Indian A. Swartzii. 

1. Mikania chenopodiifolia, Willd. DC. Prod. 5. p. 201.— 
Common from Senegal to Fernando Po, Vogel, Don, and 
others. 

This plant is sometimes quite smooth, in other specimens 
the upper surface of the leaves and the angles of the branches 
are rough, with short hairs, and the inflorescence has more or 
less of glandular pubescence. It is closely allied, both to the 
common American M. scandens and to the East Indian M- vo- 
lubilis, and all three may be varieties of one species. 
1. Erigeron persicafolium, Benth. ; herbaceum, elatum, glabrum 
v. apice puberulum, foliis sessilibus subamplexicaulibus elon- 
gato-lanceolatis acutissimis remote denticulatis, corymbo com- 
posite polycephalo, involucri squamis linearibus acutis niaig - 
natis discum sequantibus, floribus fcemineis numerosissinn 
disco brevioribus extimis tenuissime ligulatis, interior! 
truncatis subdentatis, centralibus paucis hermaphroditis. — 
St. Thomas, Don. 
Caulis bipedalis, in specimine simplex. Folia 3-5 p°l ■ 
longa, versus medium 5-8 lin. lata, denticulis minutis re- 
motis v. raro nullis. Ramus apice confertim corynibosus, 
ramulis corymbi exterioribus gracilibus, pedunculis ultunis 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 431 

brevissimis. Capitula quam in E. Canadensi paullo majora. 
Involucri squamae insequales, pauciseriales, dorso virides pu- 
berulse, margine siccse subscariosae. Flores foeminei omnes 
pappo breviores, exteriores in ligulam angustissimam brevem 
producti, interiores stylo suo dimidio breviores; masculi in 
medio capitulo vix deni, pappo sno subaequales, basi tenues, 
superne incrassati, angulati, 5-fidi. Achenia compressa, 
glabra. Pappus tenuis rufescens. 

The Erigeron spathulatum, Schum. et Thonn., and E. exsti- 
pulatum, Sebum, et Thonn., both from Guinea, are unknown to 
me. The latter is most probably a Blumea. 
1. Microglossa petiolaris, DC. Prod. 5. p. 321. — Sierra Leone, 
Don ; Accra and Fernando Po, Vogel ; Senegambia. 
The largest leaves are above three inches long and two broad. 
A he Sierra Leone variety of M. volubilis mentioned by De 
tandolle is probably rather the present species, which has 
occasionally a slight tendency to climb, and is certainly in other 
respects very near to the true M. volubilis. The generic name 
has been altered to Frivaldia by Endlicher, on the plea of 
the pre-exist ence of a Microglossa among Birds: a circum- 
stance not now generally considered as requiring the change. 
The whole genus is, by Schultz Bipontinus, proposed to be 
united with Erigeron, and there is no doubt that the circum- 
scription of Erigeron, Blumea, Pluchea and their allies requires 
considerable modification; but the wholesale alterations pro- 
posed cannot be adopted until the characters of the new groups 
shall have been given, and shown to have been verified on the 
ve ry numerous species now known from both hemispheres. 

The Microtrichia Perrottetii, DC, is not in our collections. 
A Senegal plant in the Hookerian Herbarium, evidently a 
congener, does not precisely agree with De Candolle's cha- 
racter, and probably forms a second species, and there is in the 
same Senegambian collection a specimen of an apparently new 
genus, allied to Pteronia and Chrysocoma. 
1. Sphaeranthus Senegalensis, DC. Prod. 5. p. 370.— Senegal 
and Sierra Leone, Don, and others. 
The Grangea ceruanoides, Cass., and G. procumbent, DC, 



432 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

are confined to Senegal ; the Berthelotia lanceolata, DC, ex- 



n 



tends from Senegal to the Ganges, the Conyza fastigiata 
Willd., is common to Senegal and Mauritania. C. dentata, 
Willd., is only known from Senegal, and C. amana, Link, 
from Congo. 

1. Blamea Perrottetiana, DC. Prod. 5. p. 443. var. ? latifolia.— 
Sierra Leone, Don. — The same variety, as well as the form 
originally described, are found in Senegal. 

This plant is probably a mere variety of a widely spread 
species, including Conyza thyrsoidea, Pers., from Tropical 
Africa, Blumea Dregeana, DC, from South Africa, and two or 
three supposed species of Blumea from East India. 

2. Blumea Senegalensis, DC. Prod. 5. p. 449.— On the Gambia, 
Don. 

The remaining W. Tropical African species are B. solidagi- 
noides, DC, from Sierra Leone, B. oloptera, DC, from Senegal, 
and B. Guineensis, DC, from Senegal and Guinea. Of the 
allied genus, Pluchea, there is one species, the P. ovalis, Dt., 
from Senegal. 
1. Epaltes Brasiliensis, DC. Prod. 5. p. 461.— St. Thomas, 

Don ; African coast, south of the Line, Curror ; a common 

Brazilian plant. 

A plant, in every respect similar to Vicoa Indica, DC, « u 
without rays, which would bring it nearer to Varthemia, is m the 
Hookerian Herbarium, gathered on the Gambia by Captain 
Boteler; and the Francceuria crispa, DC, a common Egyp tic0 " 
Arabian plant, and Pulicaria incisa, DC, are both natives of 
Senegal. 

1. Pegolettia mucronata, Benth. ; puberula, subviscida, ramis 
elongatis virgatis, foliis sessilibus lineari-sublanceolatis inte- 
gerrimis v. 1-2-dentatis mucronatis, pappo interiore plumoso 
achajnio plus duplo longiore, exterioris paleis setaceo-multi- 
fidis. —Elephant's Bay, south of the Line, Curror. 
Rami adscendentes sesquipedales. Pubes brevior et rarior 
quara in P. Seneyalense. Folia secus ramos sparsa, majora 
semipollicaria, omnia prjesertim superiora rigidule mucronu- 
lata. Capitula ad apices ramulorum solitaria, magnitude 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 433 

P. Senegalensis, ramulo sub capitulo incrassato. Achenia quam 

m P. Senegalensi breviora, striata, leviter hirtella ; pappus 

interior siccitate coerulescens ; exterioris palese hyalinse, ultra 

medium in setas tenuissimas fissae. Antherce longe bicau- 

datse. Stylus exsertus, lobis apice valde dilatatis fere clavatis. 

Ihe Pegolettia Senegalensis, DC, extends from Senegal 

through Nubia, to Arabia, if, as it appears to me, the Kuhnia 

Arabica, Hochst. (DC. Prod. 7. p. 267), be really the same 

species. The Ceruana Senegalensis, DC, is only known from 
Senegal. 

1. Eclipta erecta, Linn., DC. Prod. 5. p. 490.— Senegal to 
iSemn. As common a weed in Africa as in Asia and 



Ame 



nca. 



^oronocarpus Prieureanus, Benth.,- foliis subsessilibus ob- 
longo-lanceolatis capitulo ovoideo brevioribus, ligulis circa 8. 
Blainvillea Prieureana, DC Prod. 5. p. 492.-— On the 
Quorra, at Attah, Vogel ; Senegal. 

A he specimens are in a half-rotten state, but agree with De 

^andolle's character. They closely resemble also the Corono- 

carpus Kotschyi, (Dipterotheca Kotschyi, Schultz Bip.), from 

ubia, but are more hairy, the leaves are narrower, the heads 

lowers rather smaller, the ligula3 much smaller, and yellow 

or orange, (not purple), and the achenia much shorter and less 
hairy. 

*he genus Coronocarpus, Schum. et Thonn., accidentally 
overlooked by De Candolle and subsequent botanists, differs 
from Blainvillea chiefly in the sterility of the ligulse or florets of 
*e ray. It i s evidently identical with Dipterotheca, Schultz 
B *P-j and possibly also with Harpephora, of Endlicher. The 
Minute appendages at the base of the achenia, on which Schultz 
%>ontinus proposes to establish a distinct subtribe, are curious, 
wwt probably of less importance than he seems to attach to 
them. Traces of them may be seen in some of the Asiatic 
8 Pecies of Blainvillea ; and, probably, in other Composite with 
* er y paleaceous receptacles they will be found, if carefully 
*°%'ht for. Taking the flower-head as a contracted spike, the 



f r 



434 FLORA NIGRITTANA. 

palea? of the receptacle represent the subtending bracts, and the 
appendages in question a pair of opposite bracteola? on the 
pedicel (callus basilaris) of the flower; and it is well known 
how very rarely the presence or absence of such bracteola? can 
be made available even as a good generic character. In the 
Coronocarpus Prieureanus, they are generally smaller than m 
C. Kotschyi, but occasionally as much as | of a line long. 

Whether the genus should be referred to Ecliptece among 
Asteroidea, or to Coreopsidece among Senecionidece, is a matter 
of doubt. Its close affinity is evident with Blainvillea, Wedelia 
and Viguiera, genera now classed in three different subtnbes. 

2. Coronocarpus Gayanus, Benth.; foliis petiolatis ovatis v. 
ovato-lanceolatis, pedunculis capitulo ovoideo subbrevionbus, 
ligulis circa 8. — Blainvillea Gayana, Cass. — DC. Prod, o- 
p. 492, Webby supra, p. 141.— On the Quorra, Vogel; Con- 
fluence of the Niger, Ansell ; Senegal and Cape Verd Isles. 
var. /3 ? peduncularis* pedunculo capitulo 2-3-plo longiore.— 
Accra, Don. 

Herba annua, erecta v. adscendens, 1-2-pedalis, undique scabra 
v. hispida. Folia 2-3-pollicaria, petiolo 2-4 lin. longo. hr 
volucri squamae imbricate, sicca?, striata?, appressa? ; extenore 
plus minus foliacea? et dorso villosse, interiores margine 
ciliate. Palea complicatse, flores includentes et iis bre- 
viores. Ligulaz parva?, orbiculate, ex Vog. albida? v. palhde 
rosea?. Achenia compressiuscula, villosa, pappo brevi ca- 
lyculato-dentato, aristis (in his speciminibus) vix pappus 
interiorem superantibus. Squama basilares brevissiniff, se 
in acheniis plerisque certe adsunt. Specimen Donianum 
valde mancum est. 

3. Coronocarpus helianthoides, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr.p- 39 3 ; 
foliis breviter petiolatis, capitulis longe pedunculitis hemi- 
spha?ricis, ligulis circa 20.— Wedelia Africana, Pers.—Dy 
Prod. h.p. 539.— Sierra Leone, Don, Vogel; Accra, Vogel; 
Guinea and Owarc. 

Habitus et folia fere C. Gay ant. Petioli breviores. Peduncuh 
1-6-pollicares, nudi v. sub apice monophylli. Capituli form a 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 435 

a prsecedentibus facile distinguenda. Achenia pubescentia, 
apice calyculata, aristis minimis ssepius vix conspicuis, squamis 
basilaribus brevissimis. 

1. Cryphiospermum repens, Beauv. — DC. Prod. 5. p. 497. 

Fernando Po, Vogel ; Guinea and Benin. 
1. Ambrosia Senegalensis, DC. Prod. 5. p. 525.— St. Tbomas, 

Don; Senegal. 

1. Lipotriche Brownei, DC. Prod. 5. p. 544.— Bupbthalmum 
scandens, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 392.— Cape Coast, 
Niger River, at Abdh, Fernando Po, Vogel ; Guinea Coast. 

roha longiuscule petiolata, ovata, acuminata, irregulariter den- 
tata v. rarius angulato-lobata, basi hastata cordata v. rarius 
rotundata et saepius inaequalia, membranacea, plus minus his- 
pidula, 2-4 poll, longa. 

At is possible tbat there may be more than one species, but 
" e specimens do not afford any positive characters to dis- 
mguish them. It is a very different species from the South 

African Psathurochceta Dregei, although Schultz Bipontinus 

a Ppears to be right in reducing the latter as a genus to Lipo- 
triche. 

*• Sclerocarpus Africanus, Jacq.— DC. Prod. 5. p. 566.— Cape 

Palmas, Ansell; Senegal and Guinea, and thence through 

Nubia, Abyssinia and Arabia to East India. 
*• Bidens pilosa, lAxm.—Webb. supra, p. 142.— B. abortiva, 

Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 383.— Sierra Leone and Accra, 

Vogel; St. Thomas, Don. — A common American plant, 

which has spread over a great part of Africa. 

Besides the varieties occasioned by the presence or absence of 
the ray, several of these specimens vary much in their leaves, 
which are more decidedly pinnate than usual. 
2 - Bidens bipinnata, Linn.— DC. Prod. v. 5. p. 603.— Sierra 

Leone, Don. 

Another common American plant, now found also in Senegal 
a nd in several parts of North Africa and South Europe. Don's 
8 pecimen is a mere fragment, but appears to belong to this 



species. 



F f2 



436 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



The Verbesina ciliata, Schum. et Thonn., from Guinea, is 
insufficiently described to determine the genus into which more 
recent classifications would place it. 

1. Spilanthes caulirhiza, DC. Prod. 5. p. 623. — Eclipta fili- 
caulis, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 390 ? — St. Thomas, Don; 
Guinea and Nubia. 

2. Spilanthes costata, Benth. ; glabriuscula, foliis petiolatis ob- 
longis ovatisve subintegerrimis, capitulis ovato-conicis dis- 
coideis, in vomer i squ amis ovatis obtusis flores subsequantibus, 
acheniis puberulis 3-4-costatis, costis crassis, 2 validioribus 
apice in acumina brovia productis. — Cape Palmas and Cape 
Coast, Vogel. 

Caules elongati, basi radicantcs, uti folia et inflorescentia glabn 
v. vix pilis minutis scabrelli. Folia 1-2-pollicaria, obtusa, 
basi angustata, integerrima v. rariter et minute dentata. Pe- 
dunculi 2-4-pollicares, superne paullo incrassati. Capitula 
quam in S. oleracea .^paullo minora. Involucri squamae late 
ovatse, 1£ lin. Ion gas, exteriores subfoliaceas, interiores mem- 
branacese angustiores, in paleas obovali-oblongas leviter con- 
cavas abeuntes. Flores omnes tubulosi subcampanulati, 5- 
dentati, hermaphroditi. Antherce inclusse. Stylus basi bul- 
boso-callosus, ramis apice truncatis. Schema a latere coin- 
pressa, utrinque tamen convexa et latere uno costato sub- 
triquetra, v. utrinque costata et tetragona; costis duabus 
(antica posticaque) validioribus demum fere suberosis ciliolatis, 
in aristam seu mucronem brevem crassam productis. 
I am not acquainted with any other Spilanthes with the 
peculiar achenia of this species, which has entirely the habit of 
the genus. 

1. Chrysanthellum Senegalense, DC. Prod. 5. p. 631.— On the 
Quorra, at Patteh, Vogel; Senegal. 

It is most probable that the four species of Chrysanthellum 
described by De Candolle, as well as the Hinterhubera Kotschyi, 
Schultz Bipont., are mere varieties of one species, in which 
the achenia vary very much in the development of their pen- 
carp. If such be the case, this small annual is common to the 
West Indies, Brazil, Tropical Africa and East India. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 437 

A variety of Cotula anthemoides, Linn., is described from 
Senegal, and C. spharanthus, Link, probably not a trne Cotula, 
is from the Congo River. One species of Helichrysum, H. glu- 
vnaceum.) DC, has been found on the sea coast of Senegal, and 
another, apparently new, was gathered at Little Fish Bay, in 
15 S. lat., by Mr. Thwaites, but should probably be considered 
as a stray plant of the South African Flora. Three species of 
Gnaphalium have been found in Senegal; the cosmopolite G. 
luteo-album, Linn. ; the common Egyptian G. Niliacum, Del. ; 
and the G. gracillimum, Perr., peculiar to Senegal. 
L Gynura cernua, Bcnth. — Crcmocephalum cernuum, Cass. 

DC. Prod. 6. p. 298.— Cacalia uniflora, Schum. et Thonn. 

Beskr. p. 382.— Confluence of the Niger, Vogel— An East 

Indian and Mauritius species. 

Neither in these specimens, nor yet in cultivated ones from 
the Berlin Botanical Garden, can I find any florets entirely 
without anthers ; although the florets generally are much more 
slender than in most Gynura, and those of the circumference 
m ore especially so, with their anthers probably sterile. As, 
moreover, the G. aurantiaca, described below, is intermediate 
in habit, as well as in the thickness of the florets, between 
Cremocephalum and Gynura, it seems advisable to unite the 
two genera as proposed by Lessing. Mcench's name of Crasso- 
cephalum has the right of priority, but has been rejected as 
,Je »ng compounded of a Latin and a Greek word ; and, of the two 
Proposed by Cassini, Cremocephalum has only been given to 
one species, and is not applicable to the majority, whilst Gy- 
n ura is not only very expressive of the principal character of the 
genus, but its rejection would necessitate the changing nearly 

nve-and-twenty well established names. 

2 - Gynura polycephala, Benth. ; erecta, elata, foliis aniplis 
lyrato-pinnatifidis, corymbi compositi ramis elongatis pleio- 
cephalis, capitulis breviter pedunculatis nutantibus, involucn 
squamis interioribus circa 30, flosculis tenuibus (exteriorum 

antheris cassis). — Fernando Po, Vogel. 
Ber&a 2-3-p.dalis, minute puberula, caule strata FMa petio- 
lata, Bemipedalia, membranacea, lobis iuciso-dentatis acntis, 



438 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



maxim o 



ramulos paniculae) linearia. Inflores centra Ericthitis. Ca- 
pitula cernua, iis G. cernua simillima. Flores ex Vogel e 
brunneo rubri. Flosculi iis G. cernua similes; antheris 
tamen evidentius acuminatis. 

3. Gynura crepidioides, Bentb. ; erecta, scabro-pubescens, fohis 
ovatis inciso-dentatis basi longe angustatis, capitulis longe 
pedunculatis subcorymbosis, involucri squamis interioribus 
circa 15, flosculis tenuibus (exteriorum antberis cassis).— 
Sierra Leone, Don ; and, apparently tbe same species, Se- 
negal, Heudelot. 

A smaller plant even than G. cernua, and usually more 
hispid. The inflorescence is less simple than in that plant, 
less compound than in G. polycephala, and it differs from both 
in the narrower heads of the flowers, with about half the 
number of scales to the involucre. 

4. Gynura vitellina, Benth. ; glabriuscula, caule diffuso radicante, 
ramis adscendentibus parce ramosis, foliis petiolatis ovatis 

. grosse dentatis, capitulis ad apices ramorum solitarns cernuis, 
involucri squamis interioribus circa 20, flosculis omnibus 
conformibus hermaphroditis involucrum breviter superanti- 
bus. — Fernando Po, Vogel. 

Rami e caule prostrato 1-2-pedales, angulati, compressi v. sub- 
teretes, in ramulos 2-4 monocephalos divisi. Folia longiuscule 
petiolata, membranacea, 1-3 poll, longa, basi cuneata trun- 
cata v. cordata, juniora pubescentia, demum fere glabra j 
petiolo i-1-pollicari, same prassertim ad folia superiora basi 
biauriculato. Ramuli in pedunculos remote bracteatos abeunt. 
Capitula quam in speciebus Indicis latiora. Involucrum 
lin. longum, squamis interioribus acutis margine membra- 
naceis et ultra medium diu connatis, dorso herbaceis striatis 
et minute puberulis ; bractea* seu squama exteriores parv*, 
aetaceae. Flores (ex Vogel), aurantiaci vel vitellini, numero- 
sissimi, omnes hermaphroditi, corolla supeme latiore quam i» 
praecedentibus. Styli rami superati cono subulato acuto 
pubescente. Receptaculum minute fimbrilliferum. Ach*** 
striata, minute puberula. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 439 

This species is certainly intermediate between the three 

preceding and the East Indian Gynurce, the corollas are not so 

slender as in the former, and always all alike, and not so thick, 

although more numerous than in most Gynurce, Their colour 

is different from that of the generality of species in which it is 
recorded. 

1. Emilia sonchifolia, Cass.— DC. Prod. 6. p. 302.— Sierra Leone, 
Bon. — A common East Indian and Tropical African plant, 
which has become naturalized also in some parts of America. 
A he almost universally prevalent genus, Senecio, is repre- 
sented in West Tropical Africa by two species only, S. strictus, 
DC., and 8. Perrottetii, DC, both from Senegal; and the 
two large sub-orders of Carduacece and Labiatiflora by three 
species, two of Centaurea, C. Perrottetii, DC, and C. Sene- 
galensis, DC ; and one of Dicoma, D. tomentosa, Cass. ; all 
also from Senegal. 

*• Cichorium Intybus, Linn.— St. Thomas, Don ; to all appear- 
ance identical with the common European plant. 
I he other Cichoracece from West Tropical Africa are : Picris 
humilis, DC, from Senegal; Lactuca taraxacifolia, Schum. et 
Ahonn., from Senegal and Guinea; Brachyramphus Goreensis, 
C, and Rhabdotheca Brunneri, Webb, both from Senegal. 



LXVI. Campanulace^e. 

Of this Order there are no specimens in the collections before 
u s, nor does it appear that any have been found within the hot 
regions of Guinea and the Niger, although Senegambia has 
furnished five, Lobelia Senegalensis, A. DC, Cephalo stigma 
Perrottetii, A. DC, C. Prieurii, A. DC, Wahlenbergm ri- 
Paria, A. DC, and W. cervicina, A. DC, the latter species 
extending also into Egypt. 

LXVIL GoODEXOVIEiE. 

*• Scsevola Senegalensis, Presl ? A. DC. Prod. 7. p. 507 ?— 
Grand Bassa, Vogel ; Elephant Bay, south of the Line, 
Curror; Senegal. 



440 FLORA NIGRITIANA.. 

The specimens are very imperfect. The tube of the corolla 
is very woolly inside, but the lobes appear to be nearly smooth, 
as in the South African S. Thunbergii, Roth. Both species 
are probably not distinct from the S. Plumieri, a sea-coast 
plant belonging to both the New and the Old World. 



LXVIII. UtricularinejE. 

. Of this Order also we have no specimens from the Niger Expe- 
dition, but the following eight W. Tropical African species have 
been published : Utricularia stellaris, which, from Senegambia, 
extends over nearly the whole of Africa and East India; t/» 
inflexa, Forsk., confined to Africa, from Guinea to Nubia and 
Egypt ; U. ambigua, A. DC, and U. arenaria, A. DC, i^ova 
Senegambia; and U. spiralis, Sm., U. micropetala, Sm., u. 
striatula, Sm., and U. pubescens, Sm., from Sierra Leone. 



LXIX. SapotacEjE. 

1. Chrysophyllum albidum, G. Don, A. DC. Prod. S. p. 162- 

— St. Thomas, Don. 
Folia semipedalia, subtus tomento minuto vix sub lente distincto 
argenteo-micantia. Pedicelli umbellato-fasciculati, vix 2 lm- 
longi. Sepala orbiculata, vix linea longiora, coriacea, • «sti- 
vatione valde imbricata. Corolla calyce paullo longior, lobw 
margine tomentosis leviter imbricatis. Appendices inter lobos 
minutae, inflexae, vix conspicuaa. Stamina medio tubo inserta, 
corollam subaequantia, glabra ; filamenta antheris duplo lon- 
giora; anthera extrorsa?, connectivo supra loculos longius- 
cule producto. Ovarium villosum, depressum, 5-loculare. 
Ovula solitaria, lateraliter prope basin loculi affixa, adscen- 
dentia, fere orbiculata, a latere compressa. Stylus glaber, 5- 
sulcatus, apice obtusus, punctis stigmatosis vix conspicuis. 
^ The presence of appendages (or abortive stamina) alternating 
with the lobes of the corolla, would probably remove this plant 
from Chrysophyllum : these appendages are however so minute 
as to be readily overlooked : and the absence of fruit docs not 



FLORA NTGRITIANA. 441 

admit of determining as yet into what other genus the species 
should be placed. 

2. Chrysophyllum obovatum, G. Don, A. DC. Prod. 8. p. 163. 
Sierra Leone, Don, Vogel (?) 

Neither specimen has flower or fruit, and the identity of 
Vogel's with Don's is therefore doubtful. The species itself 
remains very uncertain. 

3. Chrysophyllum Africanum, A. DC. Prod. 8. p. 163.— Sierra 
Leone ; Fernando Po, Vogel ? 

Don's Herbarium contains no specimen of the Sierra Leone 
plant, and VogePs specimens have no flowers. This species 
also must therefore be doubtful. 

The other West Tropical African Sapotacece are Sapota se- 
ncea, A. DC, from Guinea ; Sideroxylon dulcificurrij A. DC, 
from Guinea; Bassia Parkii, G. Don, from Bambara; and 
Omphalocarpum procerum, Pal. de Beauv., from Oware, most of 
them very imperfectly known. 



LXX. Ebenace^e. 

A. Euclea angustifolia, Benth.; ramis pubescentibus, foliis li- 
nearibus crassiusculis tomentellis mox glabratis, floribus fce- 
nnneis subsolitariis, calyce pubescente, corolla subglobosa 
hirta brevissime 5-6-loba. — West Africa, south of the Line, 
Curror. 

Prntex habitu E. pseudebeno, E. Mey., affinis, pube ramulorum 
densa canescente facile distinctus. Folia 1-2 poll, longa, 
1-1 i lin. lata, apice rotundata et mucrone brevi terminata, 
hasi angustata, coriacea, costa media tenui vix prominula, 
caeterum avenia, pleraque alterna, rarius subopposita. Flores 
fceminei tantum adsunt, et ssepissime solitarii, nutantes, 1\ 
lin. longa, pedicello lineam longo recurvo rarissime bifloro. 
Calyx brevissimus, 5-6-lobus. Corolla fere globosa, extus 
densissime hirsuta, lobis brev issimis latis obtusis, intus sub 
fauee leviter hirta, cretcrum glabra. Stamhr.nn vestijria 
nulla. Ovarium sessile, globosum, dense vilIo,um, infus U 
loculare. Stylus brcvis, glaber, fere ad basin bipartite, 



442 FLORA. NIGRITIANA. 

ramis crassis cuneato-dilatatis emarginato-bilobis. Ovula m 

loculis solitaria, pendula. 
1. Diospyros Senegalensis, Perr. in DC. Prod. 8. p. 234?— On 

the Quorra, at Stirling, and in Fernando Po, Vogel ; Sene- 

gambia, Heudelot. 

The specimens from these three different localities may belong 
to distinct species, but, if so, they are insufficient to distinguish 
them. The Quorra specimen, in leaf, with a portion of a 
single fruit, agrees best with De Candolle's description ; that 
from Fernando Po has only a few small leaves, with the re- 
mains of the calyx after the fruit has fallen off. The Senegal 
specimen in the Hookerian Herbarium, has smaller and less 
coriaceous leaves than those mentioned in the Prodromus, bu 
they are younger. It is a branch of a male plant in bud : the 
flowers are in axillary bunches of three or four, with a short 
quadrifid calyx, and about twelve stamens. 

The Noltea tricolor, Schum. et Thonn., from Guinea, is 

probably a species of Diospyros. 

1. Maba vaccinia folia, Bqnth. ; ramulis hirsutis, foliis elliptic* 
acutis subcoriaceis supra ad costam subtusque sparse nirte is, 
calycis fceminei hirti lobis obtusissimis, baccis oblique elUp- 
soideis.— St. Thomas, about 2,000 feet up the peak of the 
island, Don. 

Fruticulus diffuse ramosissimus, ramulis novellis pilis longius- 
culis rigidis vestitis, ramis annotinis jam glabratis. to l 
pleraque subpollicaria, nonnulla paullo majora, aha vi 
semipollicem excedunt, omnia apice obtusa, basi su - 
cuneata, petiolo brevissimo hirto ; pagina superior pr# e 
costam hirtellam glabra, inferior pilis rigidulis conspersa, 
costa prominente hirsutiore. Flores desunt. Ovarium ex 
ovulis in fructu persistentibus biloculare videtur, ovulis in 
quoque loculo geminis pendulis. Baccce solitaria?, subsessiles, 
calyce persistente lineam longo late et brevissime tnlobo 
fultse, 4 lin. longae, hinc contracts, illinc valde convex*, 
pilis appressis conspersse; pericarpio tenui; intus abortu 
uniloculares. Semen abortu unicum, ellipsoideum, ab apice 
loculi pendulum, hinc lon^itudinaliter sulcatum ; testa mem- 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 443 

branacea; albumen nullum; cotyledones crassse, carnosse, 

lateri sulcato parallels ; radicula brevissima ad hilum spec- 
tans. 

Besides the above, there are two W. African species of Maba 
published, M. Guineensis, A. DC, from Guinea, and M. 
Smeathmanni, A. DC, from Sierra Leone. 

I omit the Styracece, because the Styrax Guineensis, G. Don, 
the only supposed W. African species published, does not belon 
to the Order. 



ct 

O 



LXXI. Jasmines. 



1. Jasminum noctiflorum, Afz., DC. Prod. 8. p. 309. — Sierra 
Leone, Vogel. 

Leaves usually ternately verticillate, the petioles 4 to 5 lines 
long, articulate near the base. 



Jasminum 



J. 



Guineense, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 4. p. 60.-— Whydah, Don ; 

Senegal and Guinea. 

Very near J. noctiflorum ; but the petioles are shorter, and 

tbe lobes of the corolla much longer and more pointed. The 

teeth of the calyx are also rather longer. 

«• Jasminum pauciflorum, Benth. ; ramulis hirsutis, foliis op- 
positis breviter petiolatis ovatis acuminatis subtus petiolisque 
pubescentibus supra demum glabris, pedunculis subbifloris, 
pedicellis elongatis superne incrassatis, calycis lobis circa 6 

subulatis.— Cape Coast, Vogel 
Frutex volubilis, quoad folia et pubem a J. Sambac et J. pu- 
bescente haud absimilis, sed pedicelli in pedunculo brevi 
axillari v. terminali s?epius gemini, 6-8 lin. longi, nee calyce 
subbreviores. Calycis tubus 1 lin., lacinise 2 lin. 
Corolla deest. Bacca subglobosa, calycem subsequans 



longse 



LXXII. Apocyne^e. 



>anensw, 



Sierra Leone, Don ; Oware. 

There are two other West African genuine species of Laii- 



444 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



dolphia, the L. Heudelotii, A. DC, and an unpublished one in 
my herbarium, communicated by Michelin,* both from Sene- 
gambia, besides the following, with a rather different aspect, yet 
apparently belonging to the genus. 

2. Landolphia florida, Benth. ; ramis foliisque glabris, cymis 
pedunculatis multifloris, staminibus infra medium tubi co- 

* 

rollse elongati insertis. — On the Quorra, Vogel. 
Frutex alte scandens, ramis glabris verruculosis. Folia petio- 
lata, elliptica, 3-6 poll, longa, 2-3 poll, lata, utrinque obtusa, 
glabra, chartacea v. subcoriacea, venis primariis distantibus, 
venulis transversis crebris reticularis . Cymce corymbosse, 
terminales, dense multifiorse, breviter pedunculata3. Flores 
uti tota inflorescentia tomento brevi velutini. Bractea pedi- 
cellos subsequantes, ovatse, squamseformes. Pedicelli circa 
lineam longi, crassi. Calyx linea paullo longior, fere ad 
basin 5-partitus, lobis ovato-oblongis, parum insequalibus, 
intus eglandulosis. Corolla tubus 7-8 lin. longus, tenuis, 
circa stamina paullo incrassatus, intus superne pilosus ; la- 
cinise anguste oblongse, tubo subsequilonga?, fere glabra?, 
alba? basi intus lutescentes, sestivatione dextrorsumf convo- 
lutae. Stamina paullo infra medium tubi inserta; anthers 
oblongse, filamento paullo longiores, altera ssepius cseteris 
majore. Glandulce hypogynse nulla?. Ovarium depresso- 
globosum, dense villosum, uniloculare, placentis duobus parie- 
talibus pluriovulatis. Stylus filiformis, superne fusiforim-m- 
crassatus, summo apice divisus in lobos 2 breves latos pr#- 
cipue ad margines stigmatosos. 

In the absence of fruit, this plant agreeing as well with the 
character of Willughbeia as with that of Landolphia, I refer it 
provisionally to the latter as being a West African genus ; but 
it is most probable that, when better known, the two genera 

* L. Michelini, Benth. ; foliis subtus ramulisque velutino-pubescenti- 
bus, cymis subsessilibus densis, antheris medio tubo insertis.—Flores fere 
L. Owariensis. 

+ We use this word in the sense adopted by De Candolle, from left t0 
right, (supposing oneself in the centre of the flower), not from the right, 
as it is used by some botanists. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 445 

will be united. Both appear to be climbers, although the 
published Landolphia? are not described as such. The tube 
of the corolla is much longer in our plant than in other 
Landolphia, and the stamens inserted lower down, but these 
cannot be generic distinctions if the fruit coincides. 

Heudelot's Senegambian collection comprises what appears 
to be a fifth species, in some respects resembling the L. florida, 
but with rather smaller flowers and an entirely smooth ovary, 
which nevertheless is unilocular, as in all the other species. 

The Vahea Senegalensis, A. DC, another Senegambian plant, 
is unknown to me. 



Clitandra, gen. nov. e tribu Carissearum. 

talyx parvus, 5-partitus, eglandulosus. Corolla tubus supra 

basin contractus, dein ventricosus, ad faucem intus pilosam 

esquamatam contractus, limbi lacinise angustse, dextrorsum 

convolutse. Stamina ad basin partis ventricosi tubi inserta, 

nlanientis tenuibus, antheris nutantibus ovatis obtusis fila- 

fcientis sequilongis. Nectarium nullum. Ovarium unicum 

biloculare, dissepimento tenui (vix completo ?) Ovula pauca. 

Stylus brevis, conicus, apice dilatatus, supra dilatationem 

vix productus, vertice integro stigmatosus. — Frutex di- 

chotomus, floribus parvis in cymas axillarcs oppositas dis- 
positis. 

*• Clitandra cymulosa, Benth. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

Frutex, inflorescentia excepta, glaber v. punctis minutis (resi- 
nosis ?) irroratus. Rami verrucosi. Folia opposita, elliptico- 
oblonga, 3-4-pollicaria, abrupte acuminata, basi in petiolum 
angustata, coriacea at non nitida, venis primariis a costa 
valida divcrgentibus crebris parallelis. Cyma opposite, mul- 
tiflorae, petiolos (corollis neglectis) vix ;rquantes, minute 
velutino-puberulaB. Bractea minutse. Calyx minute velu- 
tino-pubescens, semilineam longus, lobis acutis. Corolla 
extus glabra tubus vix 2 lin. longus, supra ovarium valdc 
contractus dein abrupte ainpliatus; lacinia^ Imcari-oblongBB, 
tubo cxquilonga?. Stamina in parte dilatata tubi nidulantia, 



446 FLORA NIGRITTANA. 

antheris a stylo liberis nutantibus et minoribus quam in 

plerisque Apocyneis. Ovarium glabrum. Stylus vix ovano 

longior. 

This genus is allied in some respects to Landolphia and 
Couma, in others to Carissa. Its really axillary inflorescence is 
different from that of most of the allied genera. The placenta? 
of the ovary, although they meet in the centre, scarcely appear 
to cohere, and the fruit is unknown : the genus therefore cannot 
be very exactly defined ; yet I am unable to refer the plant to 

any of those hitherto published. 

1. Carpodinus dulcis, G. Don.— A. DC. Prod. 8. p> 329.— 

Sierra Leone, Don. 

The specimens marked in Don's collection by the above 
name, as also by that of Sweet Pishamin, have neither flower 
nor fruit; the stems are pubescent, and the leaves are not 
perfectly smooth. The tendrils proceed from the forks ot 
the branches, and appear to represent transformed peduncles. 
Of the other species mentioned, C. acida, Don, there is no 
specimen in the herbarium. 
1. Carissa edulis, Schum. et Thonn.— A. DC. Prod. 8. p. 332. 

— Accra, Vogel ; rather common in Guinea, Thonning. 

These specimens, in fruit, with very young buds, agree be 
with Thonning's description than with Schumacher's character ; 
for the leaves are not cordate. Vogel observes that the berries 
are black and edible. Thonning says that they have a very 
agreeable flavour, much like sweet cherries, and make an exce - 
lent soup for the sick. 

The C. pubescens, A. DC, from Senegambia, appears to be 
very near the preceding. 
1. Rauwolfia Senegambia, A. DC. Prod. 8. p. 340.— Sierra 

Leone and Grand Bassa, Vogel, Don ; Senegambia. 
Baccce (folliculi carnosi) 2, distinctse, substipitatse, magnitude 

Pisi, obovoideo-globosse, intus l-2-sperma3. Semina niatiu* 

desunt. 

It is probable that the R. vomitoria, very imperfectly de- 
scribed by Sprengel, and stated to be from Guinea, is the same 
species. Vogel, on one of his labels, describes the plant as a 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 447 

branching shrub, on another as a tree, which he states to be 
cultivated. 

The Senegambian collection contains a new species of the 
South African genus, Piptolana, so remarkable for the form 
oi the calyx, with its numerous glands, elegantly arranged in a 
a double row withinside. 

1. Tabernsemontana longiflora, Benth. ; glabra, foliis oblongo- 
elhpticis abrupte acuminatis basi acutis, petiolis basi dilatatis, 
pedunculis laxe subtrirloris, calycis lobis ovali-oblongis, co- 
rollae tubo longissimo paullo infra medium ventricoso con- 
torto et staminifero. — Sierra Leone, Vogel ; Senegambia. 
Hamuli crassiusculi, uti tota planta glaberrimi, ad nodos gum- 
mam resinosam ssepe scatentes. Folia crassiuscula, 4-6- 
pollicaria, latitudine varia, venis paucis a costa divergentibus, 
venulis inconspicuis. Petioli ad caulem in vaginam expansi, 
et lmea transversali connexi. Pedunculi e dichotomiis soli- 
tarn, crassiusculi, folio multo breviores, in pedicellos 2-3 
v rx pollicares unifloros sub flore incrassatos divisi. Calycis 
lobi insequales, 3-5 lin. longi, obtusissimi, glandulis ad 
quemque lobum ultra 12. Corollce tubus tripollicaris. 
Ovarium et genitalia Tabernamontancc. 

I describe this plant from Heudelot's Senegambian specimen. 
Vogel's, from Sierra Leone, has every appearance of belonging 
to the same species, although the leaves are rather narrower. 
Inere is no corolla; but two persistent though shrivelled calyces, 
enclosing imperfect ovaries and the remains of some fruit- 
stalks, show that, if not the same species as Heudelot's, it is 
closely allied to it. Vogel states it to be a handsome tree, with 
the aspect of a Citrus and a milky juice. 

2. Tabernsemontana crassa, Benth. ; glabra, foliis ellipticis ob- 
longisve breviter acuminatis basi acutis, petiolis basi dilatatis, 
cymis confertim plurifloris, calycis lobis breviter orbiculatis, 
corolla; tubo longiusculo paullo infra medium ventricoso con- 
torto et staminifero. — Grand Bassa, Vogel. 
Frutex arborescens, succo lactescente, affiuis T. longiflora et 
petioli pariter in vaginam expansi et linea transversa connexi. 
Rami crassiores. Folia majora, crassiora, breviter petiolata. 



448 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



Cymce ad apicem pedunculi li-2-pollicaris 12-15-flora3, ramis 

pedicellisque vix 2 lin. longis. Calycis lobi 1 \ lin. longi et 

lati, glandulis 7-9 ad basin cujusve lobi. Corollam apertam 

non vidi, alabastrum omnino T. longiflorce nisi brevius et 

crassius. Folliculi ex Vog. oblique obovoideo-globosi, carnosi, 

seminibus creberrimis in pulpa nidulantibus. 

The size of the fruit is not stated on VogePs label, but this 

is probably the plant be alludes to in his Journal as * a genus 

apparently new and near Tabernamontana, remarkable lor 

its double fruit, as large as a child's head, the seeds nestling in 

the almost woody pulp/' Both the above species are nearly 

allied to T. ventricosa, Hochst., from Port Natal, and with it 

form a very distinct group of Taberncemontana, which from the 

published description I should suspect to be allied to Du Petit- 

Thouars' Madagascar genus, Voacanga. 

3. Tabernsemontana subsessilis, Benth. ; glabra, ramulis dicho- 
tomis, foliis obovali-oblongis acuminatis inferne angustis et 
ima basi obtusis membranaceis, pedunculis subbinoris, lo 
calycinis amplis oblongis, corollas tubo calyce subtnplo lon- 
giore supra medium ampliato et staminifero, folhculis ovoi 

oblongis acuminatis. — Liberia, Vog el. 
Valde affinis T. yrandiflorai , Jacq., (ex America Tropica.) Folia 
iis simillima nisi basi ssepius obtusa, cujusve paris uti 
specie citata insequalia. Pedunculi communes longiores. 
lycis lacinise minores (vix 5 lin. longse) et angustiores ; g liU1 " 
dulis in genere normalibus. Corolla tubus paullo longer- 
Folliculi 1^-2-pollicares, carnosi, iis T. grandiflore valde 
similes. 

4. Tabernsemontana ? sp. — Sierra Leone, Don. 

A single specimen, without flowers, with a pair of fom c eS 
very much like those of the preceding species, but the leaves are 
very different in consistence and venation, and the inflorescence 
appears to have been a compact sessile cyme. As the genus 
must remain doubtful, I refrain from giving it a name. 

I have not seen the T. Africana, Hook., from Senegal, Sir 
W. Hooker not having received any specimen from the tra- 
veller for whom be described it. 



FLORA NIGR1TIANA. 449 



Roupellia, Wall et Hook, gen. nov. e tribu Tabernce- 



mont arte arum. 



Calyx 5-partitus, glandulis baseos (circa 12) in annulum dis- 

■ 9 

positis. Corolla tubus infundibulifonnis ; faux coronata li- 
gulis 10 sequidistantibus basi in annulum connatis; limbi 
lacinise 5, latse, sestivatione sinistrorsum convolutse. Stamina 
tubo inserta, inclusa, filamentis brevissimis, antheris sagittatis 
longe acuminatis. Nectarium nullum. Ovaria 2, adpressa, 
glabra. Stylus filiformis, apice in massarn 5-sulcatam an- 
theris cohaerentem dilatatus, ultra dilatationem vix productus 
et brevissime emarginatus, (summo vertice stigmatifer ?) 
Fructus ex R. Br. Voacanga v. Urceolce. 

1. Roupellia grata, Wall, et Hook, in Bot. Mag. tad. 4466. 
ine A— Sierra Leone, Whitfield. 

trutex glaberrimus, habitu Tab ernamont anas Africanas refe- 
r ens, quoad form am corollae diversissimus et insignis. Folia 
opposita, breviter petiolata, semipedalia v. etiam majora, ovalia 
v. oblongo-elliptica, breviter acuminata, basi acuta, crassius- 
cula, venis primariis a costa media divergentibus subtus 
prominulis, rete venularum parum conspicua; petiolus ad 
caulem parum dilatatus et intus glandulis 2 parvis acutis 
quasi stipulatus. Cyma terminates, sessiles, 6-8-flor?e, fere 
umbellaeformes. Bractece ovato-lanceolatae, acute acuminata?, 
dorso earinatae, l|-2 lin. longse. Pedicelli bracteis longiores, 
calyce breviores. Calycis lobi obovati, 6-8 lin. longi, mem- 
branacei, apice colorati. Corolla alba, roseo tincta ; tubus 
sesquipollicaris, superne ampliatus, intus extusque glaber; 
laciniae late obovatae, margine crispae, pollice paullo longiores; 
corona- ligulse lanceolato-lineares, erectas, pulchre rosea?, 4-5 
lm. longae. Stamina ad originem partis ampliatae tubi in- 
serta ; filamenta brevia, crassa, leviter papulosa ; antherae in 
acumen tubum corollae subsuperantem products, medio tan- 
tum pollinifera?. Ovarium insidens disco crasso, baud tainen 

in nectarium producto. 

This handsome plant, now flowering in our stoves, was rc- 
ngnked by Brown as the Cream Fruit of Afzelms, referred 

G « 



450 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

to in the Congo Appendix as a new genus, with a flower 
resembling that of Vahea and the fruit that of Voacanga, or 
Urceola. Some other new plants from Congo and Sierra Leone 
are also alluded to on the same occasion : they are however un- 
known to us. 

The Malouetia Heudelotii, A. DC, appears to be confined to 

Senegambia. 

1. Vinca rosea, Linn. — Cape Coast, Vogel. — A common plant 
in the warmer regions of both hemispheres, especially near 
the sea, but said to have been introduced only into Africa 
and Asia from America. It must be observed, however, that 
all the other species of Vinca belong to the Old World. 
The Plumiera Africana, Mill., said to have been raised from 

seeds sent by Adanson from Senegal, has not since been found 

in that country. The Adenium Honghel, A. DC, is a Senegalese 

plant, differing but very slightly from the A. obesum, R. et S., 

which extends from Nubia to Delagoa Bay. 

1. Holarrhena Africana, A. DC. Prod. 8. p. 414.— Rondeletia 
floribunda, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 3. p. 516.— Sierra Leone, Don. 
The two other W. African species, H. landolphioides, A. DC, 

and H. ovata, A. DC, are both from Senegal. 

1. Isonema Smeathmanni, Rcem. et Schult. — A. DC. Prod. 8. 
p. 415. — Grand Bassa, Vogel, Ansell ; Senegambia, Heu- 
delot. 

Ramuli juniores, inflorescentia et flores pilis brevibus pube- 
scentes, rami adulti glabrati. Folia brevissime petiolata, 
obovali-oblonga, vix acuminata, basi obtusa, 3-4 poll, longa, 
1-1^ poll, lata, rigidule membranacea, supra glabra, subtus 
ad venas hirta et inter venas pilis nonnullis conspersa. Cyma 
opposite, breviter pedunculate, in thyrsum seu paniculam 
terminalem 3-4-pollicarem disposita?, singulae 6-10-flor#. 
Bractea parvse, acutse. Flores a pedicello brevi recurvo 
nutantes. Calyx linea paullo longior, lobis acutiuscuhs; 
glandule baseos geminatim v. interdum ternatim ap- 
proximate, cum laciniis calycinis alternantes. Corolla tubus 
cylindricus, 4 lin. longus, extus velutinus, intus ad medium 
annulo denso pilorum clausus et lineis 5 pilorum a stamhn- 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 451 

bus usque ad annulum decurrentibus notatus, caeterum glaber ; 
lobis ovato-oblongis tubo brevioribus aestivatione sinistrorsum 
contortis. Ovaria apice hispida, stylo glabro. 
1. Strophantus sarmentosus, DC— A. DC. Prod. 8. p. 418.— 
— S. Senegambiae, A. DC. I. c. — Sierra Leone, Don, Miss 
Turner ; Senegal. Flowers whitish, with deep red stripes, 
rhe other W. African species are S. pendulus, Kumnier, 
from Senegambia, closely allied to if not the same as S. sar- 
mentosus ; S. hispidus, DC, a very distinct species from Sierra 

Leone, and 8. laurifolius, DC, the exact station of which is not 
given. 

Tbe Nerium scandens, Schum. et Thonn., the genus of 

which, according to recent definitions, is uncertain, and Mo~ 

tandra Guineensis, A. DC, both from Guinea, are unknown 
tome. 



Oncinotis, gen. nov. e tribu Echitearum. 

Calyx 5-partitus, eglandulosus. Corolla hypocrateriniorphae 
tubus subcylindricus, faux coronata ligulis 5 integris cum 
lobis alternantibus, lobis aestivatione sinistrorsum contortis. 
Stamina prope basin corollae inserta; filamenta brevissima; 
antherae lineari-sagittatse, apice nudae, auriculis baseos externe 
uncinato-recurvis. Nectarium e glandulis 5 basi connatis 
ovatis obtusis. Ovaria 2, apice pilosa, nectario sublongiora. 
Stylus brevis, superne fusiformi-dilatatus sulcatus et antheris 
cohaerens, ultra dilatationem productus et in lobos 2 lanceo- 
latos stigmatosos divisus. 
1. Oncinotis nitida, Benth- — Sierra Leone, Vogel 
Frutex scandens, glaber, ramulis compressis demum teretibus. 
Folia opposita, linea tenui connexa, breviter petiolata, obovah- 
oblonga, pleraque subtripollicaria, abrupte acuminata, mar- 
line subrecurva, basi acuta, glaberrima, nitida, eleganter 
venosa; venae primarise a costa valde divergentes prope 
marginem confluunt in venulam in medio spatio versus 
«ostam recurvam et mox ramulosam; axillae venarum ma- 
jorum saepe foveolata at non pilosae. Cymula> opposite, m 

G o 2 



452 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

thyrsos axillares breves v. ad apicem rami paniculatos dis- 
positse; rhachide thyrsi valde compressa; cymse ipsa? uti 
calyces et corollse ssepius breviter puberulae. Bractea mi- 
nutse. Pedicelli lineam longi. Calycis lobi linea paullo 
Ion gi ores, ovati, obtusi, laxi, membranacei, ciliolati, intenores 
exterioribus paullo rainores. Corolla tubus fere 2 lin. longus, 
superne ampliorj tubus intus a fauce ad insertioneni sta- 
minum pilis reflexis dense villosus, infra stamina glaberj 
laciniae oblongse, tubo subsequilongse ; faucis ligulse erects, 
| lin. longse. Filamenta intus fasciculo pilorum penicillata ; 
antherse omnino nudse, summo apice acute et polline desti- 
tute, auriculis baseos clavellatis. Ovaria uectario vix lon- 
giora, ovulis numerosissimis amphitropis. 
The externally hooked bases of the anthers, the calyx and 
nectary, bring this plant very near to Motandra as characterized 
by A. De Candolle ; but the scales in the throat of the corolla 
and the absence of those tufts of hairs which suggested the 
name of Motandra prevent the uniting it with that genus. 
1. Baissea Leonensis, Benth. ; glabra, cymis paucifloris folio 

multo brevioribus. — Sierra Leone, Vogel, Don. 
Frutex alte scandens. Folia petiolata, ovali-oblonga v. elliptica, 
acuminata, 2-3-pollicaria, more B. multiflora eleganter venu- 
losa, venis ultimis crebris transverse reticularis, sed basi omnia 
acuta et consistentia tenuiore quam in specie citata. Pedunculi 
nunc cymam unicam paucifloram ferunt, nunc adduntur 
etiam 2 opposite in medio pedunculo ; inflorescentia tota 
glabra v. vix minutissime puberula. Bractea minutae. Flores 
B. multiflora forma similes sed multo minores. Calyx vix 
semilineam longus, eglandulosus. Corolla albse v. rosetf 
tubus \\ lin. longus, fere campanulatus ; lacinise ligulatse, 
sestivatione sinistrorsum contorts. Nectarium bre vissimum . 
Stylus supra dilatationem subulato-productus. 
The Baissea multiflora, A. DC, from Senegambia, has cy- 
lindrical coriaceous follicles, above a foot long, scarcely more 
than a quarter of an inch thick, and clothed with a rusty down : 
the seeds are numerous, about 9 lines long, truncate at the 
upper end, with a long and exceedingly dense coma. 



FLORA NIGRITIaNA. 453 

There is also, in Vogel's collection, a specimen in fruit of 
some plant of the tribe of Echitece, which agrees in foliage and 
m the glands of the petiole with Strophanthus sarmentosus, 
but the inflorescence appears to be different. 



LXXIIL AsclepiaoejE. 

There are no specimens in the collection belonging to the 
first tribe, Periplocece ; but two species have been described from 
Angola, the Zucchellia Angolensis, Dene., and JEchmolepis 
nyrtifolia, Dene. 

J« Secamone myrtifolia, Benth. ; volubilis, glabra, foliis ovatis 
acutmsculis v. subacuminatis basi rotundatis cuneatisve 
utrmque glabris novellis vix punctatis, cymis ferrugineo-pu- 
berulis in paniculas axillares folio longiores dispositis, corolla 
glabra, coronse staminese foliolis gynostegii dimidium sequan- 
tibus compressis falcinulatis apice incurvo-hamatis, stigmate 
brevi obtuso. — Cape Coast, Vogel. 
Affinis S. multiflorce, sed inflorescentia diversa. Folia breviter 
petiolata, \\~% \ poll, longa, 1£ poll, lata, subcoriacea, costa 
media subtus prominente, venis obscuris, sub lente minu- 
tissime punctulata. Cymte pedunculatse, secus pedunculum 
communem oppositae, una terminali, v. in axillis supremis 
solitaria? et breviter pedunculatse. Flores magnitudine 
eorum S. Thunbergii, extus rubri, intus flavi. 
The Ichnocarpus Afzelii, Roem. et Schult., from Sierra 
Leone and Guinea, is probably an Asclepiadeous plant, and 
possibly a Secamone, judging from the words quoted from 
Afzelius that the internal parts of the minute flowers " formant 
colmn nam petalis dimidio breviorem, teretem, superne cras- 
siorem, apice rotundatam et inferne cinctam, ut apparct, filis 
brevioribus subulatis gracillimis erectis." 

There are two W. African species of Xysnialobium ; X. Heu- 
felotianum, Dene., from Senegambia, and X. sessile, Dent-., 
from Angola. 
1- Cynoctonum acuminatum, Benth.; volubile, glabrum, folns 



454 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



auriculis 



datis subtus glaucis supra ad petiolum glanduliferis, pedun- 
culis folio multo brevioribus multifloris, floribus subumbel- 
latis, corona staminea ore 10-loba, lobis antheris oppositis 
crasso-clavatis integris, alternis diniidio minoribus, stigmate 
breviter apiculato subintegro. — Sierra Leone, Don. 
Folia li-2|-pollicaria, a petiolo palmatim 5-nervia, acumine 
longiusculo acuto. Pedunculi semipollicares ; inflorescentia 
axis paullulum elongata in racemum brevissimum umbellse- 
formem. Pedicelli 1£ lin. longi. Flores vix linea longiores. 
Massce pollinis parvse, apice attenuato affixse, pendulse quidem 
sed valde divaricatse et fere borizontales. 
Tbe Calotropis procera, Br., common over a great part of 
Africa and E. India, is also found in Senegal. Pentatropis spi- 
ralis, Dene., extends from Senegal to Nubia. 
1. Sarcostemma, sp. — Sierra Leone, Don ; Cape Coast, Vogel 
A leafless climber, which from the single flower preserved I 
am unable to distinguish from the E. Indian S. brevistigma, of 
which it appears to have the corona and stigmata, but with 
rather a larger corolla. 

Two species of Oxystelma are from W. Africa, and have been 
named O. Senegalense and O. Bornuense by Decaisne, after 
their native countries. 

1. Dsemia Angolensis, Dene, in DC. Prod. 8. p. 544.— Common 
from Senegal to Angola, Vogel, Ansell, Don, and others. 
There are two varieties of this plant : one, the Ascl. con- 
volvulacea, Schum. et Thonn., having the corolla of a deep pur- 
ple at the base with greenish-white divisions, is the more northern 
form found in Senegambia and Guinea, as far as Accra; the 
other, with large leaves and a pure white corolla, extends from 
Cape Coast, southwards. This is the Ascl scandens figured by 
Palisot de Beauvois, and the A. muricata (not echinata, as mis- 
quoted in the Prodromus) of Schumacher and Thonning. The 
Senegambian collection contains also a third form, probably a 
distinct species, with a longer tube to the corolla. 

The four W. Tropical African species of Gomphocarpus, arc 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 455 

all from Angola, viz. : G . pulchellus , Dene., G. lineolatus, Dene., 

G. cristatus, Dene., and G. chironioides, Dene. 

1. Tylophora sylvatica, Dene, in DC. Prod. 8. p. 610.— Cape 

Palmas and Fernando Po, Vogel ; Senegambia. 

Dr. Planchon considers the Fernando Po specimens as be- 
longing to a distinct species, with larger and deeper coloured 
scales to the staminal corona ; but on a careful comparison with 
the Senegalese specimen in the Hookerian Herbarium, the only 
differences I can perceive appear to me to arise from the Fer- 
nando Po specimens being in full flower, whilst on Heudelot's 
there are only young buds. 

A. Marsdenia Leonensis, Benth. ; volubilis, subglabra, foliis 
cordatis oblongis v. ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis, cymis petiolo 
brevioribus laxiusculis, corollae laciniis tubo intus dense piloso 
brevioribus, coronae stamineae foliolis bilobis, lobo interiore 
antherae alte adnato lineari gynostegium subaequante, ex- 
teriore brevi ovato obtuso. — Sierra Leone, Vogel. 

folia subtripollicaria, longiuscule petiolata, supra petiolum mi- 
nute glandulifera, subtus ad costas ramuli inflorescentiaque mi- 
nute puberula, planta caeterum glabra. Cymce bifida?, breviter 
pedunculatae. Calyx semilinea brevior. Corollae tubus sub- 
globoso-campanulatus, lineam longus, prsesertim ad faucem 
intus dense barbatus. 
in the structure of the flower, this species appears to come 

near to M. Calesiana, Dene, which is unknown to me. 

2. Marsdenia glabriflora, Benth. ; volubilis ? glabra, foliis cor- 
dato-oblongis v. ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis, cymis multi- 
floris in paniculam terminalem dispositis, corollae undique 
glabrae laciniis ovatis tubo longioribus, coronas stamineae 
foliolis integris lanceolatis ad medium gynostegii adnatis 
emnque subaequantibus. — Sierra Leone, Vogel. 

Folia fere M. Leonensis, at minora. Cymce pedunculatae, den- 
siflorae, minus tamen confertae quam in M. temiissima. Co- 
rolla lineam longae, fere globosae (tandem rotato-expansae ?) 
profunde 5-fidae, intus omnino nudae. 

*• Gymncma subvolubile, Dene, in DC. Prod. 8. p. 681.— Cape 



456 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



Coast, and on the Quorra, Vogel ; Accra, Ansell; common in 



Senegal and Guinea. 



2. Gymnema nitidum, Benth. ; subvolubile ? glaberrimum, foliis 
breviter petiolatis ovatis oblongisve acuminatis nitidis, cymis 
subsessilibus paucifloris, corolla? parva3 squamis brevissimis m 
tubum decurrentibus, stigmate umbonato antherarum mem- 
branas longe superante. — Cape Palmas, Ansell ; Sierra Leone, 

Vogel ? 
Folia 3-4-pollicaria, basi rotundata v. acuta, eglandulosa, sub- 
coriacea, penninervia, superiora non omnia exacte opposita. 
CymtB minima?, vix brevissime pedunculatse, pedicellis 2-o, 
linea paullo longioribus. Corolla f lin. longa, laciniis tubo 
subsequilongis, squamis usque ad medium tubi lineis pilosis 
decurrentibus. Genitalia omnino generis. 
I was only able to examine a single flower on my own 
specimen from Ansell ; another specimen of Ansell's in the 
Hookerian Herbarium had lost them all, as well as Vogel s 
specimen, (gathered and given to him by Mr. Roscher), which 
makes me uncertain as to the identity of the latter. 
1. Gongronema latifolia, Benth.; puberula, foliis longe petio- 
latis late cordato-ovatis supra petiolum glanduliferis, cymis 
pedunculatis laxis 2-3-fidis, noribus secus ranios demum 
elongatos fasciculatis pedicellatis, corolla introrsum pilosula, 
gynostegio tuberculis 5 carnosis ad basin munito.— St. Thomas 
Don, 
Caulis volubilis, pilis brevibus patentibus baud crebris pubescens. 
Folia 3-4-pollicaria, breviter acuminata, membranacea, utrin- 
que pilis paucis conspersa, petiolo saepe 2-3-pollicari. fofl° m 
rescentia pubescenti-hirta, pedunculo communi l-li-p° nl " 
cari, ramis demum pedunculo longioribus. Corolla hnea 
paullo longior, subrotata, extus pubescens, intus versus basin 
laciniarum pilis haud numerosis munita. Tuberci/H gy - 
nostegii (seu foliola coronse) parvi, patentes. Massce polhnis 
oblonga?, erectse, longe stipitatae. 
1. Leptadenia lancifolia. Dene, in DC. Prod. 8. p> 628. 
Tylophora incana, Sprun. Flora, 1*840. 2. Beibl. p- 26. 



t 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 457 

Accra, Don; extends from Senegal to Nubia and Abys- 
sinia. 

Of two other Senegalese species, L. pyrotechnica, Dene., and 
L. gracilis. Dene., the former is also found in Egypt and 
Arabia, the latter is confined to Senegambia. 

The Hoya Africana, Dene., is common to Senegal, Nubia 
and Abyssinia. 

1. Ceropegia campanulata, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 4. p. Ill; 
caule humili pubescente, foliis linearibus puberulis glabra- 
tisve, corolla? tubo (violaceo ?) basi leviter ventricoso ad fau- 
cem ampliato, limbi lobis lineari-lanceolatis piloso-ciliatis. 
Accra, Don. 

A small bulbous-rooted plant, probably allied to C. linearis, 

*• Mey., which is unknown to me. The tube of the corolla 

18 a °out an inch long, the lobes rather shorter. I have been 

unable to dissect the single flower which the specimen bears, so 

as to give a more accurate character. 

Another species, C. aristolochioides, Dene., is found in Se- 
negal. 



Curroria, Planch., nov. gen. e tribu Stapeliearum. 

Calyx 5-partitus, sepalis ovato-lanceolatis. Corolla tubus 
brevis, subglobosus, laciniis lanceolato-ligulatis, aestivatione 

* * 

sinistrorsum contortis, fauce ligulis 5 linearibus squa- 
mata. GynGstegium inclusum. Corona staminea nulla ? 
-AnthercB apiculo lineari terminate. Massm pollinis 
tenuiter stipitatse, erectse, (apice pellucidse ?) Stigma 
breve. 

1- Curroria decidua, Planch, in Herb. Hook. — West Africa, 
south of the Line, Curror. 

Rami stricti, lignosi, nodis distantibus. Hamuli floriferi ad 
axillas foliorum delapsorum brevissimi, folia ferunt nonnulla 
novella quasi fasciculata, linearia v. lineari-cuneata, obtusa, 
basi in petiolum brevem angustata, subpollicaria, membra- 
nacea, uninervia, glabra; petiolorum basibus dilatatis imbri- 
catis post folia delapsa persistentibus. Pedunculus solitarius 



458 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

uniflorus, e centro fasciculi (ex apice ramuli) foliis subbrevior, 
sub calyce incrassatus, glaber. Flores glabri. Calycis la- 
cinise lineam longse, menibranacese, striata?. Corolla tubus 
calycem sequans, laciniae duplo longiores (patentes ?) ; ligulae 
faucis laciniis breviores. 

The flowers on the specimen are so few and so much crushed 
in drying, that I am not certain of having very accurately 
ascertained their structure. They appear to be allied in many 
respects to those of Pentasacme and Barrowia, although the 
very twisted aestivation of the corolla shows more affinity to 

some of the subdivisions of Gymnemea. 

1. Hoodia Currori, Dene, in DC. Prod. S.p. 665.— Scytanthus 
Currori, Hook. Ic. t. 505-506.— W. Africa, 14° south of the 

Line, Cur r or. 

The list of W. Tropical African Asclepiadea hitherto known 
is closed by two species of Boucerosia, B. acutangula, Dene., 
and B. Decaisneana, Lem., both from Senegal, and by two 
doubtful plants, the Pergularia sanguinolenta, Lindl., n" oin 
Sierra Leone, and an incomplete specimen of Don's from Sierra 
Leone, 



LXXIV. LoGANIACEiE. 

1. Strychnos, sp. — On the Quorra, Vogel. 

There are three specimens, belonging perhaps to three, or a 
any rate to two different species, but none of them in a state 
actually to determine. The one, gathered at Attah, is described 
by Vogel as a tall climber, with an apple-shaped, glaucous 
fruit ; it is in leaf only, with the remains of fruit-stalks, 
should have taken it to be the S. scandens, Schum. et Thonn., a 
Guinea plant, but that the racemes or panicles appear to have 
been very short and few-flowered. Some of the peduncles are 
converted into hooks. A second specimen, in leaf only, and 
without any precise station, is very much like the first, but has 
very blunt leaves. The third specimen, gathered at Patteh, is 
in leaf only j these leaves are shorter and rounder than in the 
two others, and here and there are a pair of opposite spines, 



FLOKA NIGRITIANA. 459 

proceeding from the axillae of the leaves, at right angles to the 
stem. The foliage, and a sketch of the fruit given by Vogel, 
indicate either a Strychnos, or more probably a Brehmia. 
1. listeria Guineensis, Willd.— A. DC. Prod. 9. p. 22. (Tab. 

XLV). — Rondeletia loniceroides, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 3. 

p. 516. — Sierra Leone, Don; Senegal and Guinea. 
tlate XLV. Fig. 1. bud ready to open; f. 2. flower expanded ; 

/• 3. ovary, vertical section ; /. 4. ovary, outside view ; all 

magnified. 

1. Gsertnera paniculata, Benth. ; foliis ellipticis acuminatis basi 
cuneatis breviter petiolatis, vaginis stipularibus truncatis 
minute plurisetis, panicula laxa trichotoma, calyce patente 
brevissime repando-5-dentato. — Grand Bassa, Vogel. 

rrutex glaber, ramulis lsevibus. Folia 5-6-pollicaria, venis 
arcuatis subtus prominentibus costaque media in foliis novel- 
hs strigillosis, venularum rete tenue. Vaginae stipulares 3-4 
Iin. longse, laxiusculae, setis insequalibus ssepius minutis raro 
Imeam longis. Panicula pyramidata, 4-6-pollicaris. Calyx 
vix semilineam longus. Corolla in vivo ex Yog. flavo-viridis, 
in sicco extus tomento minutissimo canescens; tubus l£ hn- 
longus, superne latior, intus glaber nisi ad faucem densissime 
hirsutum ; limbi lacini^e oblongae, tubo subbreviores, aestiva- 
tione valvata. Staminum filamenta brevia, antherse oblongse, 
tubum corollse vix superantes. Ovarium depresso-globosum, 
hirsutum, loculis sub anthesi minimis, ovulis solitariis erectis. 

Stylus corollam subsequans, apice breviter bifidus, lobis re- 
curvis. 

L Anthocleista Vogelii, Planch, in Hook. Ic. t. 793, 794. (Tab. 
XLIII, XLIV), glaberrima, foliis amplis obovato-oblongis 
obtusiusculis v. subacutiusculis v. subacutis basi longe cunea- 
tis margine leviter revoluto subrepandis utrinque impresso- 
punctatis, petiolis brevibus basi auriculatis, aculeis supra- 
axillaribus geminatis, corolla calyce triplo longiore, limbo 
15-partito tubo subjequali, bacca (immatura) ovoideo-obtusa. 
(Planch.)— On the Quorra, at Aboh and Attah, Vogel. 
The above character, drawn up by Dr. Planchon, is followed 

b > r a detailed description, in which, however, he docs not state 



460 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

t 

more distinctly the points which induced him to separate this 
from Afzelius' original species, gathered at Sierra Leone also by 
Don, who has published it under the name of A. nobilis. The 
foliage is the same in both. The very singular spines do not 
appear on Don's specimen, but it is cut off immediately above 
the place where they should be ; for these spines do not appear 
to me to be correctly designated as supra-axillary, but are rather 
laterally infra- foliaceous, for if they have any connection with 
the leaves, it must be with the pair above them, being placed, 
as represented in the Plate, immediately under the petiolar 
expansions on each side. The chief absolute distinction relied 
on between the two species, is the number of divisions of the 
corolla and of stamens, said in Don's plant to be twelve, in 
Vogel's fifteen ; but I find that number variable in both cases ; 
one of Don's flowers has only eleven, another has thirteen, and 
the remaining five or six have twelve each. Vogel's vary still 
more ; fifteen is indeed the prevailing number, but I have in 
several found either sixteen or fourteen, and in one case only 
thirteen. A third supposed species, published by Don under 
the name of A. macrophylla, is again, most probably, the same 
plant described from a cultivated specimen. If further investi- 
gation confirms these suppositions, there would be but one 
species known, which should retain Don's name of A. nobilis. 



LXXV. Gentian e.e. 

1. Canscora diffusa, Br.—Griseb. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 64 "" 
Sierra Leone, Don ; Senegal ; a common East Indian pla nt > 
found also in Abyssinia. 

The Senegambian collection contains also an unpublished 
Gentianeous plant, allied to Microcala and Slevogtia, but no 
agreeing precisely with any one of Grisebach's genera. I* 1S a 
slender annual, with solitary, axillary, opposite flowers, an 
8-nbbed, 4-toothed calyx, and a regular corolla. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 461 



LXXVI. Bignoniace^e. 



1. Spathodea campanulata, Beauv.— DC. Prod. 9. p. 208. 
S. tulipifera, G. Don.— DC. I. c. p. 207.— Bignonia tulipi- 
fera, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 273.— Confluence of the 
Niger at Stirling, Ansell ; Guinea and Benin. 
Although the descriptions differ in several points, there is 
every reason to conclude that Beauvois' and Thonning's plants 
belong to one species. Beauvois' characters are generally 
drawn up from mere fragments, his drawings made on the spot 
ot this and other plants having been destroyed by fire at 
St. Domingo, and he is very likely to have committed the mis- 
take of describing the leaves as alternate instead of opposite. 
e C( >rollas in AnselFs specimens are fully as large as that 
gured by Beauvois; those which are well dried, are even 
arger ; Thonning says they are as large as the largest tulips. 
e leaflets in AnselFs plants are rather broader than in 
eauvois 3 ; they are covered on the under side with a minute 
omentum, which is scarcely perceptible in the older leaves, they 
are also marked on the same side with innumerable small black 
d ots, only visible under a lens. Thonning^s detailed description 
18 very accurate. 

• kpathodea lutea, Benth.; arborescens, foliis oppositis ramis- 
que glabris v. vix puberulis, foliolis 9-11 oblongis acuminatis 
integerrimis v. obsolete denticulatis, racemis terminalibus 
toinentosis subpaniculatis, corolla infundibuliformi incurva 
glabra calyce duplo longiore, capsula longissima tenuissime 
f errugineo-tomenteUa.— On the Quorra, at Patteh, and Fer- 
nando P , Vogel. 
Ar bor mediocris. Folia pedalia; foliola 3-4-pollicaria, non- 
nulla versus apicem dentibus paucis minutis instructa, mem- 
Oranacea, supra glabra, subtus ad venas ssepius puberula et 
giandulis minutis conspersa, basi obtusa et sessilia v. in petio- 
»um brevissimum angustata, terminale interdum ad apicem 
Petioli articulatum et ab ultimis lateralibus distans, ssepius 
vero addatur unum alterumve e lateralibus pariter ad apicem 
petioli sessilibus, et sic folia variare videntur pari- v. imparl- 



■ 

462 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



pinnata. Racemi 3-4-pollicares, ad apices ramorum solitani 
v. plures paniculati. Pedicelli breves, fasciculati v. in race- 
mulos brevissimos dispositi. Calyx pollicaris, arcuatus, 
hinc fissus, inde acuminatus, integer, extus tomentellus. 
Corolla bipollicaris, proportione multo angustior quam in 
S. campanulata, at forma illi propinquior qnam S. tern, 
pallide lutea, intus sulphurea, stamina iis S. campanulata 
similia, sed fauce breviora, cum rudimento quinti. Ovarium 
disco crasso circumdatum, biloculare, compressum, placenta 
columnari. Stylus apice bilamellatus. Capsula bipedalis, 
plano-compressa, 5 lin. lata ; loculicide dehiscens in valvulas 
2 septam nudantibus angustam, medio dilatatam in dissepi- 
mentum spnrium plano-suberosum valvulis parallelum, cap- 
sulam in loculos spurios 4 dividens, utrinque percursuni 
nervo longitudinali (septa vera) seminifero. Semina more 
. plerumque Bignoniacearum plana, transverse oblonga, sub- 
quadrata, 2| lin. longa, alis neglectis 5 lin. lata ; testa ad 
margines lineamque centralem calloso-incrassata, in disco 
tenuior, ad utramque latus expansa in alam membranaceam 
5-6 lin. longam; membrana interna testa multo minor, 
tenuis et viridis, embryone conformis, nisi ad basin ubi cuneata 
est radiculam includens, apice spbacelata. Embryo planus, 
2\ lin. latus ; cotyledones didymse (forma fere fructus Biscu- 
telke), apice leviter, basi profunde emarginatse, radicula ex 
emarginaturae recta, J lin. longa, ad hilum spectans. 
I am not aware whether the membrane which closely enve- 
lopes the embryo is universal in Bignoniaceai, as it does no 
appear to have been usually noticed. I find it, however, in 
Bignonia venusta, B. tubiflora, and two or three others, of which 
I happen to have ripe seeds. It always includes the whole ot 
the radicle, so as to make that part appear much shorter than it 
really is. 

3. Spathodea tomentosa, Benth. ; foliis oppositis, foliolis 9-11 
ovatis oblongisve acuminatis integerrimis supra glabris subtus 
ferrugineo-tomentosis, racemis terminalibus tomentosis, corolla 
glabra.— From VogePs collection, without the precise locality, 
probably Fernando Po. 



FLORA NIGRITTANA. 463 

In the form and size of the leaves, inflorescence and calyx, 
this is very near S. lutea, but the leaves are thickly clothed 
underneath with a soft, rusty down. Of the corolla there are 
only fragments remaining, insufficient to show its form or size. 
4. Spathodea adenantha, Don, DC. Prod. 9. p. 207.— Bignonia 

glandulosa, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 275.— Sierra Leone, 

Don; Guinea. 

Don's specimen is very bad, but the scars show that the 
leaves are ternately verticillate, and in other respects it agrees, 
as far as it goes, with Thonning's description. 

The Spathodea Icevis, Pal. de Beauv., from Oware, appears to 
oe a distinct species from any of the above. The Stereospermum 
Kunthianum, Cham., is confined to Senegal. 
*• Kigelia Africana, Benth. — Bignonia Africana, Lam. — DC. 

p rod. 9. p. 166.— Cape Coast, Vogel ; Senegal. 

-lue specimen has but a single flower, which I was unable to 
dissect, but it agrees so well in every particular with Lamarck's 
description, except that the leaflets are rather more numerous, 
that I have no hesitation in considering it identical. It is also 
y ery near to the K. ^Ethiopica of Decaisne, from Nubia, but 
the flowers are not quite so large. The leaves of the original 
Kt pinnata, from Madagascar, are stated to be alternate ; in our 
plant they are certainly opposite, neither the figure nor 
Kotschy's specimens of K. Mthiopica afford any information as 
to their insertion on that species. .The W. African plant is 
described by Vogel as a tree of considerable height, with spread- 
ing branches, and a whitish, rugged bark. The flowers hang- 
ln g several together from the end of a long peduncle; the 
c alyx, 8-9 lines long, not so full as in K. jEthiopica; the 
c °roll a about 2£ inches long, of a deep red inside, paler outside, 
barked with stripes of a golden yellow. The fruits, hanging 
something like large cucumbers, about 2 feet long and 5 inches 
broad, somewhat compressed laterally, are filled inside with a hard 
kind of fleshy pulp, traversed by almost woody fibres, obscurely 

two-celled, and containing numerous seeds nestling in the 
Pulp. 

1. Sesamum Indicum, Linn.— DC. Prod. 9. p. 250.— Antha- 



464 FLORA N1GRITIANA. 

denia sesamoides, Van Houtte ; Walp. Rep. 6. p. 518. 
Common about habitations, from Senegal to Benin and Fer- 
nando Po, having spread, probably from cultivation, here as 
in other parts of Africa and Asia. 

Van Houtte has ascertained that the small globular bodies on 
each side of the pedicels, usually described as glands, are, in 
fact, abortive flowers, and has corrected, in a few other particu- 
lars, the character usually given of this plant, which is certainly 
identical, both specifically and generically, with the common 

Sesame. 

The other W. Tropical African species of the tribe (or, as 
some will have it, of the Order) of Sesamea are : Sesamopteris 
radiata, DC, from Guinea ; S. alata, DC, from Senegal and 
Guinea; Ceratotheca sesamoides, Endl., from Senegal, Nubia 
and Abyssinia, and Rogeria adenophylla, Gay, from Senegal and 
Nubia. 

LXXVII. CoNVOLVULACEiE. 

1. Batatas incurva, Benth. — Convolvulus incurvus, Schura. el 
Thonn. Beskr. p. 99.— Iponuea humilis, G. Don, Gard. Did. 
4. p. 267. — Sierra Leone, Don ; on the Nun River, Vogel 

• * 

Glaberrima. Caulis repens, radicans. Folia nunc omnia In- 
tegra, 2-4 poll, longa, 3-6 lin. lata ; nunc basi aucta lobis 
2 lineari-oblongis angulo recto divaricatis v. sursum mcur- 
vis. Corolla, ex Vog., alba, basin versus lutescens, ima basi 
rubro-fucata. Ovarium certe 4-loculare. 
This may be a variety of the common American sea-coast 
species, B. acetoscefolia, Chois., but as well from Thonning s 
description as from the few imperfect specimens before me, it 
appears to me to be distinct. It can hardly be the same as 
Jpomcea Clappertoni, Br., to which Choisy has referred Thon- 
ning's plant. 

2. Batatas paniculata, Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 339.— Culti- 
vated at Cape Palmas, Vogel ; a common Tropical plant- 
Ejusdem var. foliis integris v. rarius lobatis ;— Ipomsea erio- 
sperma, Beauv. FL Ow. tt Ben. 2. p. 73. /. 105 —Grand 
Baasa, Cape Coast, and on the Nun River, Vogel. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 465 

3. Batatas pentaphylla, Chois. in DC, Prod. 9. p. 339.— 

St. Thomas, Don ; a common Tropical species in both hemi- 
spheres. 

The common Batata, Batatas edulis, Chois., is said to be 
cultivated in Tropical Africa, as well as in India and America ; 
out the cultivated specimens, brought by Vogel, certainly 
belong to the B. paniculata. 
1. Pharbitis Nil, Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 343.— On the 

Quorra, Vogel; a common Tropical plant. 
1 . Calonyction speciosum, Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 345, pro 

parte. — Ipomcea bona-nox, Linn, var ? — Chonemorpha con- 

volvuloides, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 4. p. 76.— Aboh, Vogel ; 

St. Thomas, Don. 

A he confusion of characters and synonyms accumulated 
under the name of Calonyction speciosum is so great, that it is 
difficult to find any specimen agreeing both with the generic 
and specific characters given. The original Ipomwa bona-nox, 
Ijinn., has the outer sepals (exclusively of their long points) 
much shorter than the inner ones, which are either blunt or 
have veiy short points ; the corolla is rather hypocrateriform 
than infundibuliform, with a slender green tube, 4 or 5 inches 
l°ng, and an almost flat, broad-spreading, white limb; the 
stamens project considerably beyond the mouth of the tube, 
a nd the capsule is as large as a good-sized nut. In these 
respects, the Asiatic and American plants appear to agree; 
unless it be that the corolla is rather larger in the American 
°ne. Our African specimens have the calyx and corolla of the 
^nie form and colour, but smaller, and the stamens are 
scarcely, if a t all, longer than the tube of the corolla. The 
ipomcea muricata, Roxb., of which the calyx could with less 
impropriety be said to be " sepalis aristatis ajqualibus," and the 
corolla " infundibuliformis," has already been shown to be 
totally distinct from the bona-nox, not only by this form of th« 
calyx and corolla, but also by the colour of the latter, the tube 
of which is of a deep purple, by the stamens ..Iways included, 
and by the small fruit. It is a true Jpowra, and so is lli<- 
Jpomfia acanthocarpa, Hochst. [Calonyction? Chois.) from 

H II 



466 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



Nubia. The genus Calonyction, if retained at all, should pro- 
bably be confined to C. speciosum and grandiflorum, unless 
perhaps some of Choisy' s Exogonia be added to them. 

1. Ipomrea reptans, Poir., Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 349. — On 
the Quorra, among the ruins of Addanda, Vogel. 

This is a very luxuriant form, with leaves on very long 
petioles, and often 5 inches long, and 3 broad at the base. 

2. Ipomsea pes-capra, Sw. — Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 349. 
Cape Palmas and Fernando Po, Vogel ; common on this as 
on other Tropical sea coasts. 

The I. asarifolia, Roem. et Schult., a species closely allied to 
the Asiatic /. rugosa and to the American /. urbica, is indicated 
as a Senegal plant. I have not seen any specimens of it, but in 
the Hookerian Herbarium is one, apparently of rugosa, ga- 
thered by Macrae, at St. Yago (Cape de Verd Isles),* but remark- 
able for its peduncles, which are rather longer than usual, and 
thickly covered near the base with a rusty pubescence. The 
/. Clappertoni, Br., from Central Africa, belonging to the same 
group, is unknown to me. 

3. Ipomcea fiUcaulis, BL— Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 353. 
Along the whole Guinea Coast to the Niger and St. Tkonias, 



Vogel, Don ; common in Tropical countries. 

4. Ipomcea ovalifolia, Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 357.— Accra, 
Vogel, Don ; Guinea, Angola and East India. 

To the same group Choisy refers two Angola species, /. den- 
droidea, Chois., and /. verbascoidea, Chois. 

5. Ipomosa involucrata, Beauv. — Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p- 365. 
— Sierra Leone, Don, Miss Turner; Cape Palmas, Vogel; 
Senegal to Oware, also Madagascar and Java, according to 
Choisy. — Var. hirsutior, Fernando Po, Vogel. 

This species can scarcely be distinguished from the common 
East Indian I. pileata. 

6. Ipomoea amama, Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 365.— Savannahs 

* This species has to be added to the Spicilegia Gorgonea (supra, 
p. 152), where also the reference, under /. pes-capra>, to the figure of 
/. maritima, should be to the Bot. Reg. t. 319, not Bot. Mag. ; a mistake 
apparently copied from the Prodromus. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 467 

of the Quorra, at Addanda, Vogel, who states the flowers to be 
purplish-white ; Senegal and Guinea. 

7. Ipomcea capitata, Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 365.— Cape 
Palmas, Vogel; Accra, Ansell; throughout Tropical Africa, 
and closely allied to the E. Indian /. capitellata and the 
American /. tamnifolia. 

8. Ipomcea sessiliflora, Roth.— Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 366. 

St. Thomas, Don ; a common East African and East Indian 
species. 

9. Ipomcea sp., near the last, and with similar small flowers, but 

very hispid; the specimens nearly rotten. — St. Thomas, 
Don. 

lo the Capitate group Choisy refers also the /. dichroa, 
Chois. from Senegal. 

10. Ipomcea sagittata, Best— Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 372.— 

Accra, Dow; a N. American, S. European, and N.African 
plant. 

11. Ipomoea teretistigma, ft setifera, Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. 
p. 373? — Sierra Leone, Don; Senegambia, Heudelot. 

This plant, which I am not quite certain of having correctly 
identified with Choisy's /. teretistigma, from Guinea, is remark- 
able for the very strong prominent nerves of the calyx. The 
capsules and seeds are both smooth in Don's specimen, which 
has no flowers. Heudelot's has a single flower, which I was 
unable to examine. 

12. Ipomcea umbellata, Mey. — Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. S77. — 
I. primuteflora, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 4. p. 270.— Sierra 
Leone, Don; Fernando Po, Vogel; a common American 
plant, distinguished from the Asiatic /. cymosa almost exclu- 
sively by its corolla, yellow, not white. 

13. Ipomcea Baclei, Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 381.— I. riparia, 
G. Don, Gard. Diet. 4. p. 265.— Flowers purple, whitish 
inside. — Fernando Po, on the sea coast, Vogel ; St. Thomas, 
Don; Senegal. 

These specimens agree perfectly with Choisy's character and 
figure. The /. Lindleyi, Chois. from Madagascar, must be very 
near it. 

bh2 



468 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 



The 7. ochracea, Don, from the Gold Coast, I. Owariensis, 
Beauv., from Oware, J. Afra, Chois., from Guinea, and L Ro- 
geri, Chois., and L zebrina, Perr., both from Senegal, are 
unknown to me. 

14. Ipomoea palmata, Forsk., Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 386. 
Senegal to the Niger and Fernando Po, Vogel, Bon and 
others ; also in East Africa. 

The I. vesiculosa, Beauv., appears to be the same species, with 

some accidental deformity of the epidermis. 

15. Ipomoea ennealoba, Beauv. — Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p* 388. 

— Sierra Leone, Vogel ; Oware. 

The I. Coptica, Roth, an East African and East Indian plant, 

extends also into Senegal. 

16. Ipomoea sinuata, Ort. — Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 362. 
Fernando Po, Vogel ; a common American plant, from the 
Southern United States to Brazil. 

These African specimens belong to some of the larger forms 
included by Choisy within the limits of the species. The 
peduncles, as in some of the Brazilian specimens, are often mucn 
longer than the petioles, with from three to seven or eight white 
flowers, the corolla half as long again as the calyx. The pecu- 
liar anthers of this and some allied species, would surely justify 
their separation into a distinct section. 

The two remaining Ipomoete, cited as West African, /. Sene- 
gambia, Chois., from Senegal, and /. Afzelii, Chois., from 
Sierra Leone, must both be very near Breweria secunda, de- 
scribed below. 

There is no genuine species of Convolvulus described from 
W. Tropical Africa ; and the only one known to me is a Sene- 
gambian plant, in Heudelot's collection, which is either a long- 
leaved luxuriant variety of, or a new species allied to, the Egyp- 
tian and Nubian C. microphyllus, Sieb. 
1. Aniseia uniflora, Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 431.— Ipomoea 

lanceolata, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 4. p. 282.— Sierra Leone, 

Don ; Madagascar and East India. 
1. Hewittia bicolor, Wight et Am. — Shutereia bicolor, Chois. 

in DC. Prod. 9. p. 435— Aniseia Afzelii, G. Don, Card. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 469 

Diet. 4. p. 295.— Sierra Leone, Don; Cape Palmas, Vogel ; 
common in South-east Africa and East India. 
1. Neuropeltis acuminata, Benth. — Porana acuminata, Pal. 
Beauv. FL Ow. et Ben. 1. p. 65, /. 39.— Chois. in DC. Prod. 
9. p. 436. — Sierra Leone, Don ; Oware. 
The styles being perfectly distinct to the base, had already 
led Beauvois to suspect that this might not be a true congener 
to Burmann's Porana; and Don's specimen, though without 
flowers, and indifferent as to foliage, yet being in full fruit, with 
enough of leaves to identify it, shows it to be an additional 
species of WallicVs East Indian genus Neuropeltis. It is, 
indeed, near N. ovata, but with a climbing habit and panicu- 
late inflorescence. The enlarged fruit-bearing bracteas are 
broadly ovate, and often above an inch long ; the capsule small 
and one- or two-seeded. 

L Prevostea Africana, Benth.; foliis oblongis longe acumi- 
nata basi cuneatis rigide membranaceis supra glabris, pcdi- 
cellis unifloris in axillis confertis, corolla sepalum externum 
duplo excedente. — Codonanthus Africanus, G. Don, Gard. 
Diet 4. p. 166.— C. alternifolius, Planch, in Hook. Ic. 
t* 796. (Tab. XLVL)— Sierra Leone, Don. 
Frutex ut videtur subvolubilis. Folia semipedalia, breviter 
pctiolata, supra glabra, subtus oculo armato pube minuta con- 
spersa. Florum fasciculi axillares, 3-5-flori, pedicellis 3-6 tin. 
longis, bracteolis minutis angustis ferrugineo-pubescentibus. 
Sepala exteriora late cordato-ovata, 4-4£ lin. longa, minute 
puberula, interiora multo minora, acuta. Corolla (ex Don 
albse) forma valde similis illi P. sericea, a Kunthio depictae ; 
tubus tamen paullo amplior et sub limbo evidentius constric- 
tus. Styli ingequales, ssepius paullo ultra medium connati. 
Ovarium glabrum, semiseptis ad axin haud attingentibus 

incomplete biloculare. 

I do not see how this plant can be distinguished from Pre- 
vostea, so well described by Kunth under the name of Dufourca. 
I have not, indeed, been enabled to examine any American 
species; but Kunth's figure is very satisfactory. The form oC 



70 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

the corolla is all but identical, so is the structure of the calyx. 
The styles in the American plant are more deeply separated than 
in the African one, but Choisy considers that a variable cha- 
racter. The ovary of Prevostea is described as bilocular, but 
the figure represents the dissepiment as incomplete, precisely as 
it is in Don's plant. I have restored Don's specific name, for 
although it be not attached to the specimen, the memoranda on 
the label leave no doubt but that this is the plant he had m 
view ; and the mistake as to the u opposite leaves/' must have 
arisen from his having noted that it is either Gentianeous or 
Asclepiadeous. 

Plate XL VI. Fig. 1. unopened corolla; /. 2. flower; /. 3. co- 
rolla opened laterally, showing the stamens ; /. 4. ovary and 
styles; /. 5. section of the ovary; all magnified. 
There is another unpublished species of the same genus, in 
Heudelot's Senegambian collection, with the inflorescence rather 
more developed than in Don's plant. 

1. Breweria secunda, Benth. ; volubilis, foliis ovato-lanceolatis 

oblongisve acuminatis retusisve subcoriaceis supra glabns v. 

parce pilosis subtus ferrugineo-villosis, cymis densis multi- 

floris axillaribus pedunculatis v. ad apices ramorum subsessili- 

bus confertis, sepalis acutis rufo-sericeis corolla pilosa dinuuio 

brevioribus, capsula globosa apice puberula, seminibus gla- 

bris. — Ipomoea secunda, G. Don, Gard. Diet. 4. p. 282. 

Sierra Leone, Don. 

Caulis glaber v. ferrugineo-pubescens. Folia breviter petiojata, 

basi obtusa, nunc 2-3-pollicaria elliptico-oblonga et obtusis- 

sima, nunc 1 \ -pollicaria ovato-lanceolata et apice longiuscule 

acutata, summo tamen apice semper obtusa cum mucrone. 

Cym<e alise axillares distantes, alise ad apices ramulorum m 

cymam v. fasciculum subsecundum densissime conferttf- 

Sepala 3-4 lin. longa, ovato-lanceolata, parum in8equa lia - 

Corolla campanulata (ex Don alba). Stylus ad tertiain 

partem fissus, stigmatibus majusculis capitatis. Ovarium 

apice pilosum. Capsula calyce brevior. 

1. Evolvidus alwioides, Lhm.—Chois. in DC. Prod. 9. p. 447. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 471 

Accra, Ansell ; on the Quorra, Vogel ; a common Tropical 
species, of which the E. linifolius appears to be only a 
narrow-leaved form. 

West Tropical Africa seems the only known region from 
whence no species of Omenta has as yet been brought. 



LXXVIII. BoraginejE. 

There are two West African species of Cordia, named after 
their respective stations, C. Senegalensis, Juss., and C. Guineen- 
sis, Schum. et Thonn. 
1. Ehretia cymosa, Schum. et Thonn.— DC. Prod. 9. p. 508.— 

Cape Palmas, Accra and Aguapim, Vogel; Sierra Leone, 
Don. 

A common shrub, attaining the height of a man, with white 
flowers, and agreeing well with Thonning's description, except 
that the leaves are usually much larger, being often 4 inches 
long and 3 wide. 

Senegal has one species of Tournefortia, the T. subulata, 
Hochst., extending to Nubia and Abyssinia. 
I. Heliotropium strigosum, Willd., DC. Prod. 9. p. 546. 

Cape Coast, Don ; Accra, Vogel. 

A he other West African species are H. undulatum, Vahl, 
common to Senegal, the deserts of North Africa, and Nubia \ 
H. Kunzei, Lehm., from Senegal, Nubia and Abyssinia ; H. Co- 
romanddianum, Lehm., extending from Senegal over the greater 
Part of Africa and East India, to the Philippine Islands and 
Tropical Australia ; H. Baclei, DC., from Senegal ; and H. Afri- 
canum, Schum. et Thonn., from Guinea. 
1. Heliophytum Jndicum, DC., Prod, 9. p. 557.— Common in 

West Tropical Africa, and in nearly all Tropical countries in 

both hemispheres. 

The common African Trichodesma Africanum, Br., for which 
Webb proposes (above, p. 1 53) to restore Medik's original name 
°f Po/lichia, extends into Senegal, and is the only species of the 
numerous tribe of Boragece proper hitherto found in W. Africa 
within the Tropics. 



472 FLORA NIGRITIANA 




LXXIX. SOLANACEJE. 

1. Physalis somnifera, Linn. — Cape Palmas, Vogel ; a com- 
mon N. and E. African, S. European, and E. Indian plant. 

2. Physalis angulata, Linn. — N. ab E., Linruea, 6. p. 474? — 
Common in cultivated places, from Sierra Leone to the 
Niger. 

I am not quite certain whether this should be referred to 
P. angulata or to P. cequata, both of them widely spread in 
Tropical regions. The specimens are perfectly smooth, as is 
usual with P. angulata; but the fruit-calyx, so far as I can judge 
in their badly-dried state, is not so decidedly angled. On most 
of the labels, Vogel states the flowers to be yellow ; on one, 
however, attached to a specimen not otherwise distinguish- 
able from the remainder, he has noted : " Flores lutei, basi 
brunnei." 

3. Physalis minima, Linn. — N. ab E., Linncea, 6. p. 479. — On 
the Quorra, at Attah, Vogel ; an East Indian species. 

1. Capsicum annuum, Linn. — Common in cultivated places 
at Sierra Leone, Vogel; an East Indian and American 
plant. 

1. Lycopersicum esculentum, Mill. — Dun. Syn. Sol. p. 4. 
Common in cultivated grounds at Fernando Po, Vogel.— 
This, the Tomato, or Love-apple, of American origin, appear 
to be frequently found growing naturally in the Old World, 
escaped from cultivation. 

1. Solanum nodiflorum, Jacq. — Dun. Monogr. Sol. p. Wl.« 
Sierra Leone, Don, Vogel. 

This common East Indian species can hardly be distin- 
guished, except by its straggling habit and perennial stem, from 
the ubiquitous 8. nigrum, Linn., of which the S. Guineense, 
Lam., appears to be a large-fruited variety. 

2. Solanum sp.— Accra, and ruins of Addanda, on the Quorra, 
Vogel. 

Vn unarmed, suffruteacent, stellately-tomentose and motto- 

flowered Bpeci which I cannot identify with any publish^ 1 



FLORA N1GRITIANA. 473 

one, nor venture to describe as new in the present state of con- 
fusion which prevails among the five or six hundred species of 
the genus. 

3. Solanum distichum, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 122 ? 
Accra, Ansell; a single small specimen, allied to the last- 
mentioned species of VogePs, but shrubby, and bears a single 
small prickle. 

4. Solanum Melongena, Linn.— N. ab E. Linn. Trans. 17. 
p. 48. — Common in cultivated grounds. 

lhe native country of this, the Bringall or Aubergine, is 
doubtful, it being in universal cultivation and frequently natu- 
ralized all over the Tropics, as well as in Southern and some 
parts of Central Europe. The S. edule and 8. Atropa of 

ocnum. et Thonn., are probably very near it, if not mere 
varieties. 

5. Solanum anomalum, Schum. et Thonn. Beskr. p. 126. 
Grand Bassa, Cape Palmas, and Fernando Po, Vogel ; Sierra 
Leone, Don. 

Vogel says that the flowers are nodding, and usually penta- 
merous, although sometimes tetramerous, as described by Thon- 
nmg. The berries scarlet and erect. 

Two other species of Solanum, from Guinea, are published by 
Schum. et Thonn., under the names of S. dasyphyllum, and 
8> geminifolwm. 



LXXX. SCROPHULARINE/E. 



l« Schwenckia Americana, Linn.— Benth. in DC. Prod. 10. 

p. 194.— Sierra Leone, Cape Coast, and on the Quorra, 

I'ogel, Don; Senegambia, and common in East Tropical 

America. 

One species of Linaria, L. spartioides, Brouss., is found at 
Gape Verd, within the extreme northern limits of Senegambia. 
t. Alectra Vogelii, Benth., in DC. Prod. 10. p. 339.— On the 

Quorra, at Patteh, Vogel. Flowers ... w. 

The Akctra Senegolensis, Benth., is con I to Senegal. 



474 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

Doratanthera linearis, Benth., and Stemodia serrata, Benth., 

extend from Senegal to Nubia and Egypt ; and the common 

East Indian Limnophila gratioloides, Br., is also found in 

Senegal. 

1. Herpestis calycina, Benth.; in DC. Prod. 10. p. 399. var.f 

Accra, Don. 

Don's specimen is very bad, but appears to belong to the 
narrow-leaved Sierra Leone variety, with rather longer pedicels 
than in other specimens I have seen. The broad-leaved variety 
is from Senegal, as well as three other species, H. Hamilto- 
niana, Benth., H '. floribunda, Br., and H. Monniera, H. B. K. 
All three are also East Indian, the H. floribunda extending to 
Tropical Australia, and H. Monniera being common to all the 
warmer regions of the globe. Senegal supplies also one species 
of Dopatrium, D. Senegalense, Benth. 

1. Vandellia diffusa, Linn.— Benth. in DC. Prod. 10. p. 416. 
— Sierra Leone, Vogel, both the sessile-flowered and pedun- 
culate varieties ; a common East Tropical American plant. 

2. Vandellia Senegalensis, Benth. in DC. Prod. 10. p. 416. 
Sierra Leone, Don ; on the Nun River, Vogel ; Senegal. 

The little East Indian Glossostigma spat hu latum, Am., is 
also found in Senegal. 
1. Capraria biflora, Linn. — Benth. in DC. Prod. 10. p. 429. 

Cape Coast, Vogel, Don ; frequent in America. 
1. Scoparia dulcis, Linn. — Benth. in DC. Prod. 10. p. 431. 

Sierra Leone to the Niger, Vogel, Don, §c. ; as common here 

as in all the warmer parts of Africa, Asia and America. 

There are three Senegambian species of Buchnera ; B. dura, 
Benth., common to S. Africa and Madagascar; B. hispida, 
Hamilt., extending into Abyssinia, Madagascar and East India ; 
and B. leptostachya, Benth., found also in Madagascar. The 
Guinea plant described as B. linear if olia , Schum. et Thonn., 
belongs probably to some other genus. 

1. Striga orobanchoides, Benth. in DC. Prod. 10. p. 501.— On 
the Quorra, Vogel ; Senegal, East Africa and East India. 

2. Striga aspera, $. filiformis, Benth. in DC. Prod. 10. p. 501- 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 475 

On the Quorra, VogeL The type of the species is from 
Senegal and Guinea. 

3. Striga Senegalensis, Benth. in DC. Prod. 10. p. 502.— On 
the Quorra, at Stirling, Vogel, Ansell; Senegal and East 
Africa. Possibly a mere small-flowered variety of S. her- 
monthica. 

Two other Striga belong to W. Tropical Africa, the S. For- 
oesii, Benth., from Senegal and Madagascar, and S. macrantha, 
tienth., from Senegal and Sierra Leone. The Rhamphicarpa 
fistulosa, Benth., an Abyssinian and Nubian plant, is found also 
m Senegal; and Sopubia filiformis, G. Don, from Guinea, com- 
pletes the list of W. Tropical African Scrophularinea?. 



LXXXI. AcanthacEjE. 

Thunbergia geraniifolia, Benth.; scandens, pilis longis 
hirta, foliis latis cordatis palmato-5-lobis acuminatis, pedun- 
culis axillaribus unifloris, calyce truncato integro. — Sierra 
Leone, Don. 

"in longi rigiduli appressi v. subpatentes, ad ramulos infra 
uodos et in petiolos reflexi, supra nodos et in pedunculos 
arreeti, in foliorum pagina superiore bracteisque numerosi 
sparsi, in pagina inferiore rariores pra3cipue ad venas dis- 
positi. Folia multo minora, tenuiora et magis lobata quam 
*& T. grandiflora, et tomentum breve scabrum illius speciei 
omnino deest. Bractece lj-pollicares, acuminata, membra- 
nacese nee coriacese. Corollam non vidi. 

8. Thunbergia chrysops, Hook.— N., ab E. in DC. Prod. 11. 
p. 55. —Sierra Leone, Whitfield. 

3 - Thunbergia cynanchtfolia, Benth. \ volubilis, pilosula, gracilis, 
foliis petiolatis cordato-sagittatis membranaceis, calyce 6-7- 
ndo, corolke limbo tubo suo breviore. — On the Quorra, 

VogeL 

Caules tenues, parce pilosuli v. glabrati. Folia 1-3-pollicaria, 
forma fere Cynancfd acuti y apice mucronulata, margine cilio- 
lata, basi profunde cordata, auriculis rotundatis v. sajpius sub 
angulatis, utrinquc viridia et spar piloflttla v. demum gla- 



476 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

brata. Flores axillares, pedunculati, solitarii v. ad apices 
ramulorum pauci, pro genere parvi. Bractea membranacea?, 
acuta?, 5 lin. longse. Calyx brevissimus, late et obtuse usque 
ad medium divisus. Corolla alba, pollice brevior. Anthem 
basi pilosae, inter se subsequales, loculo altero calcarato, altero 
(an in omnibus ?) mutico. Stylus apice infundibulifornus. 
Capsula globosa, vix minutissime tomentella, rostro capsula 
ipsa longiore. 

There is but a single corolla with the specimen, and in this 
one I saw five spurred cells of anthers, but I was unable 
to ascertain whether the fifth arose from a fifth stamen acci- 
dentally developped, or from the second cell of one of the 
other anthers, the whole being much crushed in drying. 
4. Thunbergia ? Vogeliana, Benth. ; scandens ?, glabra, folus 
ovatis oblongisve integerrimis basi angustatis rotundatisve 
utrinque papuloso-scabris, pedicellis axillaribus unifloris, ca- 
lyce sub-12-fido. — Fernando Po, Vogel 
Rami lignosi, angulati, flexuosi et scandentes videntur etsi vix 
volubiles, glabri praeter pubem ad nodos juniores fasciculatam 
demum evanidam. Folia 3-4-pollicaria, breviter petiolata, 
acuminata v. obtusa, venosa, rigidule chartacea, utrinque 
tactu scabra. Pedicelli pollicares. Bractece pollicares, 
ovata;, obtusse, primum rubra?, demum rubro-albse v. alba?. 
Calyx brevis, lobis circa 12 ina?qualibus subulatis. Corolla 
(quam ipse non vidi) sec. Vogel infundibuliformis est, tubo 
extus albo intus flavo, limbo fusco-cceruleo. Stamina non 
vidi et ideo genus incertum. Habitus potius Meyenue, sed 
stylus superest apice more Thunbergia ad partem stignia- 
tosam infundibuliformis. 
1. Meyenia erect a, Benth.; glabra, foliis petiolatis ovatis ob- 
longisve acuminatis basi angustatis, calyce brevissimo sub-12- 
iido, corolla? tubo bracteis quadruplo longiore. — Cape Coast, 
Vogel. 

Frutex 6-8-pedalis, ramulis tenuibus tetragonis. Folia 1-2- 
pollicaria, integcrriuia v. obsolete angulata, membranacea. 
Pednncu!, axillan m, umilori, pollicares. Bract em membra- 
narc BemipoUicarea. Calyx cum lobis raro lineam lon-us. 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 477 

Corolla tubus (tubus cum faucibus, N. ab E.) fere bipolli- 
cans, supra ovarium contractus, dein ventrieosus, ad faueem 
ampliatus ; limbus subsequalis. Anthera muticae, omnes sub- 
similes, loculis ciliatis insequalibus, altero altius inserto bre- 
viore et magis divergente. Stylus apice divisus in lobos 
stigmatiferos 2 cuneato-dilatatos emarginatos. Flores ex 
Vogel erecti, corollis basi luteo-albidis, apice purpureis. 
1. Elytraria marginata, Beauv. ; N. ab E„ in DC. Prod. 11. p. 
63.— Grand Bassa and Fernando Po, Vogel; St. Thomas, 
Don; Senegal to Oware, and scarcely to be distinguished 
from the common East Indian E. crenata, or the American 
E. virgata. 

The Nelsonia canescens, N. ab E., a native of Senegal and of 

* great portion of Africa, appears to grow also in Tropical 

America and Australia. Senegal has likewise supplied the five 

following Acanthacece, hitherto confined to that country : Phy- 

sichilus Senegalensis and P. barbatus, N. ab E., Polyeckrna 

micranthum and P. odorum, N. ab E., and Nomaphila Itevis, 
N. ab E. 

*■ Brillaintaisia Lamium, Benth. — Leucoraphis Lamium, N. 

ab E., in DC. Prod. II. p. 97.— Fernando Po, Vogel, Ansell ; 

Sierra Leone, Don. 
*• Brillaintaisia Vogeliana, Benth. — Leucoraphis Vogeliana, N. 

ab E., i n DC. Prod. 11. p. 97,— Fernando Po, Vogel; St. 

Thomas, Don. 

There seems little doubt that these two plants belong to 
Beauvois' genus Brillaintaisia, as characterized in the Fl. Ow. 
et Ben., and accidentally overlooked by Nees. It is also very 
probable that the species figured by Beauvois (B. Owariensis, 
Beauv. Fl. Ow. et Ben. 2. p. 68. t. 100. /. 2.) is the Belanthera 
Belvisiana, N. ab E., notwithstanding the discrepancy of the 
presence of the sterile stamens in Beauvois' Brillaintaisia, and 
their absence in Nees* Belanthera. Beauvois' specimens are 
m general made up of mere fragments; and several cases are 
known where the details of the flowers in his figures are compiled 
from different plants. The fragments seen by Nees, left him 
also in some uncertainty as to their all belonging to one plant. 



478 FLORA NIGRITIANA. 

At any rate, the two genera of Nees, Leucoraphis and Belan- 
thera, are so very closely allied, that it seems better to reunite 
them under Beauvois' name. 

The two Senegalese species of Calophanes, C. Perrottetii, 
N. ab E., and C. Heudelotia?ius, N. ab E., are confined to that 
country. 
1. Dipteracanthus elongatus, N. ab E., in DC. Prod. 11. p. 140. 

— Fernando Po, Vogel ; Oware. 

VogePs specimen is in very young bud only, but appears to 
belong to this species. 

1. Asystasia Coromandeliana, N. ab E., in DC. Prod. 11. p- 
165, var. hirsuta, parvifolia, parviflora, calycis laciniis subu- 
latis, corolla roseo-carnea. — Cape Coast, Vogel; a common 
East Indian species, extending over Eastern and Central 
Africa to Senegal. 

2. Asystasia quaterna, N. ab E., in DC. Prod. W.p 166, var. 
calycis laciniis subulatis, corolla alba.— Cape Palmas and 
Sierra Leone, Vogel; Sierra Leone, Don; var. corolla rosea. 

Sierra Leone, Don; the species common to Senegal and 
Guinea. 

3. Asystasia calycina, Benth; diffusa, parce pubescens, folns 
ovatis, racemis axillaribus elongatis secundis strictis, calycis 
laciniis lineari-lanceolatis membranaceis. — Grand Bassa, 
Vogel. 
The above three species closely resemble each other, and 

may possibly be all varieties of the common A. Coromandeliana ; 
if the size and form of the leaves, the hairiness, the size 
of the flowers, &c, be really as variable as the usually i ndlf " 
ferent specimens appear to indicate. The A. calycina is the 
most distinct, by the divisions of the calyx, which are about 
I of a line broad. Its flowers are said to be greenish- 
white. 

4. Asystasia scandens, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4449.— Henfreya 
scandens, Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1847, t. 31.— Sierra Leone, Don, 
Whitfield. 

It is merely from inadvertence, in the hurry of drawing up 
Addenda without seeing the specimens, that Nees referred this 



FLORA NIGRITIANA. 479 

plant to A. quaterna, after having in the text of the Prodromus 
well alluded to the evidently close affinity of Thonning's plant 
to the A. Coromandeliana. In the A. scandens, not only is 
the general size of the plant and of the leaves very different 
from those described by Thonning, but the inflorescence and 
flowers at once preclude the possibility of uniting them. Schu- 
macher moreover expressly states that the R. quaterna only 
mffers from R intrusa, Vahl., (another species scarcely dis- 
tinguishable from A. Coromandeliana), by the number of 
racts. With regard to the genus, our plant cannot be sepa- 
rated from Asystasia ; to which Lindley himself would probably 
have referred it, had the volume of the Prodromus been then 
published. 

• Asystasia Vogeliana, Benth. ; glabra, foliis ovatis ellipticisve 
acuminatis basi angustatis breviter petiolatis, racemis termi- 
nalibus subramosis glabriusculis, floribus unilateralibus soli- 
tariis pedicellatis.— Fernando To, Vogel 
amis nerbaceus, erectus, subsimplex v. parce ramosus, pluri- 
peuahs, ima basi frutescens. Folia semipedalia, supra niti- 
dula, longe acuminata. Inflorescentia fere A. Coromande- 
liana, pedicellis tamen sublongioribus. Calyces paullo mi- 
nores, laciniis angustis. Corolla tenuis, omnino apertam non 
Vl di, sed alabastrum adest jam l£ poll, longum. Antherce 
°blongae, loculis paralielis basi vix callosis, uno paullo altius 
inserto. 

p aulo- Wilhelmia polysperma, Benth.; caule glabriusculo, 
lohis ovatis acuminatis eroso-dentatis basi cuneatis villosis, 
capsulis 8-10-spermis.— On the Sugarloaf Mountain, Sierra 
Leone, Bon. 
Rami lignosi. Folia 2-4-pollicaria, longe petiolata, rugosa, 
y enis primariis a costa media angula valde acuta divergenc- 
es, secundariis transversis crebris. Cyma subsessiles, bi- 
fid » v. dichotomse, in thyrsum terminalem dispositse. Calycis 
lacinise 5, sequales, lineares, sicca-, glanduloso-puberulse, per 
anthesin 5 lin., in fructu 7 lin. long*. Corolla tubus tenuis 
9 -l0 lin. longus; limbus tubo brevior late expansus 5- 



480 FLORA NIGRITIA.NA. 

partitus, laciniis obovatis omnibus ad imum lat